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FLETCHER HAMILTON State Mineralogist 

San Francisco] BULLETIN No. 91 [November, 1922 

Minerals of California 

' • ^lENTS OF 


Professor of Mineralogy, 
University of California 



FRANK J. SMITH, Superintendent 



November 1, 1922. 

To His Excelloicy, the Hon. Wm. D. Stephens, 

Governor of the State of California, 

Sacramrnto, California. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith Bulletin 91 of the State ^lining 
Bureau iipou the minerals of California. 

This bulletin records our knowledge of California minerals to date, 
and is a revision of a similar bnlletin. Xo. 67, issued in 1914. The 
edition of Bulletin No. 67 was soon exhausted, a)id there has been a 
continual demand for this work. 

The author, Arthur S. Eakle. Ph. D., Professor of Mineralogy, of 
the University of California, has performed a particular service in co- 
operating with the State ]\rining Bureau iu making possible this addi- 
tion to our records. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Fletcher Hamilton, 
State Mineralogist.. 





non-metai-s 7 

Semi-metals 11 

Metals 13 


Semi-metals 27 

Metals ^ 32 

oxisitlphides .- 59 


SALTS 60-7 ■! 

Arsenides fiO 

Selenidbs . 63 

tellurides 64 

Sulphantimonites 69 



Chlorides 75 

Bromides 80 

Iodides 80 

Fluorides 81 


Hydrogen 82 

Silicon 83 

Semi-metals 93 


Anhydrous 97 

Hydrous 117 


Anhydrous 126 

Hydrous 140 


Feldspars 149 

Pyroxene Group 156 

Amphibole Group 1 63 

Not Grouped 169 


Micas 19G 

Brittle Micas 202 

Chlorites 203 

Zeolites 200 

Not Grouped 210 

Titano-silicates 228 


Phosphates 1 231 

Chromates 240 

Vanadates 240 

Arsenates 242 

Antimonates 244 

Nitrates 244 

Borates 246 

Niobates-tantalates 253 

Tungstatbs 255 

Molybdates ■ 257 

Uranates 25^ 


Anhydrous 260 

Hydrous 268 

Hydrocarbons 283 


Minerals Arranged According to the Elements 280 

Minerals — Distribution by Counties 299 

Bibliography on California Minerals 306 

Index to Minerals 30S 


The first list of California luiiierals was published by "W. P. Blake in 
1866, and it comprised about seventy-five mineral species. At that 
early time California was a new and largely unexplored field, and only 
a few scattered localities were known for mineral specimens; conse- 
quently, the list was short and not at all representative. 

The second list appeared in 1884 as a part of the Fourth Annual 
Report of the State Alining Bureau, by Henry G. Hanks, who was then 
State ^Mineralogist. This list included double the number of previously 
known minerals, and gave detailed descriptions of some of the locali- 
ties, and much instructive matter relating to minerals of economic value. 

The third list was issued in 1914 as Bulletin 67 of the California 
State Mining Bureau. In the thirty years which elapsed since the 
appearance of the second list, our knoAvledge of the geology and min- 
eralogy of the State became vastly increased. The ore deposits of 
many of the counties, the gem and borate deposits of the southern 
counties, and the petrography of many districts, had been investigated 
and described, so that the third list contained more than double the 
number of definite mineral species given by Hanks, besides many sub- 
species and varieties. 

This fourth list is an enlarged edition of the third list. Many addi- 
tional species are included and the localities in which some of the more 
common economic minerals occur, have been greatly multiplied. The 
desire has been to make the list as complete as possible of the known 
minerals, and where they occur, but the list of localities where the 
same mineral might be found is necessarily incomplete. Many minerals 
are so commonly distributed throughout the State, in small bodies or 
pockets of metallic minerals and as rock-fonning minerals, that it would 
be impossible to cite all of their occurrences. In such a vast area as 
California, localities may be known to local collectors where excellent 
specimens may occur, unknown to the author, and they could materially 
assist in the preparation of a future and more comprehensive list, 
if the}' would kindly notify the author of such occurrences. Some 
mineral species may be known to occur in the State Avhich have not been 
mentioned in this work, but it is believed that they wiU be very few 
in number. 

So many minerals and localities are included in the list, that geolog- 
ical and petrographical descriptions in detail, have had to be omitted, 
and reference must be made to the bibliography at the end of the work 


under the autlior's name and nnrahor. This l)il)lio^raphy includes, witli 
few exceptions, only those articles which bear directly on the minerals 
of the State, omitting the great amount of literature of a general 
nature on the geolog>' and mining industry of the State. 

The various kinds of minerals have been grouped under a chemical 
classification in order to be more instructive and show better the rela- 
tions of the various species and varieties. The crystal forms have been 
cited and the chemical analysis given, to show Avhat has been done in 
these two lines of work on California minerals. 

In addition, tlu^ indices of refraction and the characteristic blowpipe 
and chemical tests for the minerals are given in order to make the list 
more useful in the detection of the minerals. 

The author is indebted to Edgar Woodcock, formerly of the State 
Alining Bureau. Walter W. Bradley of the State Mining Bureau, 
M. Vonsen of Petaluma, John Melhase of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, W. F. Fjoshag of the U. S. National Museum, and Gordon Surr 
of Porterville, for much useful data concerning mineral localities. The 
excellent bulletin by Dr. Larsen on the "Microscopic Determination of 
the Non-opaque Minerals" has been used for the optical data. 

New minerals and important localities for known minerals are con- 
stantly being discovered as California becomes more settled and pros- 
pected, and this list must be considered more as a check-list to form a 
basis for continual additions. 









Gold amalgam. 


























Native carbon, C. 

Isometric. Octahedrons and hexoctahedrons common. Crystal faces 
often curved. Perfect octahedral cleavage. Brittle. Yellow and colorless 
crystals common. Red, orange, green, blue, brown and black are rarer 
shades. H = 10 ; G = 3.5. 

Refractive index: »i=: 2.419. 

Infusible and not acted on by acids. 

Tlic t'xtreme hardness and brilliant adamantine luster serve to distinguish 
diamond from quartz and other glassy minerals. 

Jiort is a hard rounded form without distinct cleavage, unsuitable for gems. 

Carbonado is a hard black variety without cleavage. 

Diamonds Avere found in California soon after placer mining began. 
As early as 1849, Lyman^^^ reported seeing a pale yellow crystal 
about the size of a small pea, which came from one of the placers. A 
few years later they were observed in the gold gravels at Cherokee, 
Butte County, and this locality became the most noted one in the State 
for the number found. 

Placer deposits elsewhere have also yielded them from time to time, 
so their occurrence has not been limited to any one field. No record 
has been kept of the total number found, Imt it is proba])ly between 
four and five hundred. Since all of them have been chance finds, there 
can be no doubt that many more have been overlooked or destroyed. 
A few of the stones found are over two carats in weight and of good 
quality, but the majority are small and mostly "off color," usually 
with a pale > el low tinge. Most of these diamonds now in the possession 
of different individuals were found during the days when placer mining 
and hydraulicking were at their height, and since that time diamond 
finds have been rare. 


The mode of origin and sources of the diamond are as yet unknown. 
They have only been found in placer gravels and in "black sands" and 
concentrates of placer mines. Presumably their origin has been in the 
basic igneous rocks from which the serpentines of the gold regions 
have been derived, and continued search may yet reveal them in situ. 
The discovery near Oroville of an apparent pipe of serpentinized rock 
bearing a resemblance to the diamond pipes of South Africa has led to 
some active operations on the part of the United States Diamond Min- 
ing Company, and a shaft has been sunk, which has not proved success- 
ful. Tlie rock is a hard eclogite differing in its character from the 
kimberlite of South Africa. Hanks^^^ gives an interesting account 
of the diamonds found during the early days of gold mining, and 
Turner'*^^ and Storms^'" contribute short articles on California dia- 

Amador County: A few small stones have been picked up near the 
towns of Volcano, Oleta and Fiddletown. 

Butte County: In 1853 it was observed that diamonds occurred in 
the gravels at Cherokee Flat, about nine miles north of Oroville. More 
than three hundred good diamonds have been obtained from the placers 
in this district and it leads all other districts in the State. It seems 
quite probable that the source of these diamonds is not far from this 
vicinity. Silliman^^^^^) gave the contents of the black sands at Chero- 
kee as platinum, iridium, iridosmine, gold, pyrite, chromite, magnetite, 
limonite, diamonds, quartz, rutile, almandite garnet, topaz, zircon and 
epidote. Some have also been found in the placers at Thompson Flat, 
two miles north of Oroville. 

El Dorado County: A diamond weighing 1^ carats Avas found at 
Forest Hill. About sixty have been found near Placerville, namely, on 
Webber Creek, in White Rock canyon and at Smith's Flat. 

Fresno County: Small diamonds are reported to have been found a 
few miles north of Coalinga. 

Imperial County : Some small diamonds are said to have been found 
near the San Diego border. 

Nevada County : A 1^ carat stone was found at French Corral. 

Siskiyou Count.y : Diamonds occur in the placer gravels at Hamburg 

Trinity County: Microscopic examinations of the black sands of 
Trinity River and some of its tributaries have shown the presence of 
small diamonds as a constituent of these sands. 


2. GRAPHITE — Plumbago— Black Lead. 

Native carbon, C. 

Hexagonal, rhomboliedral. Commonly in scaly or foliated masses. Color 
dark steel-gray to dull black. Terfect basal cleavage. Soft with greasy 
feel. H = l — 2; G = 2.2. 

lusolubk' in uciils anil unuffei-tfil l>y licatiii.i;-. \\'liiii mixi'd willi polussium 
nitrate and sulphur and huated on iilatinum foil, the mixture will dcfla- 
grato. Molybdcnilc. wliii-h closely ii'somhles it. is fusible and soluble. 

Graphite is a comuioii constituent of crystalline limestones and is 
often disseminated tlironu;!! the limestone in minute flakes and in larger 
foliated masses. It is also prominent as la^'ers in some schists and 
gneisses and when present in considerable amount the graphitic gneiss 
or schist is sometimes mined for the graphite. In mining districts it is 
often seen coating the walls of veins and mixed with the talcose gouge. 
No extensive deposits of good quality graphite are known to occur in 
the State, but a few small deposits have been worked for the manufac- 
ture of paints and lubricants. Much of the graphite of California is 
so intimately mixed with silica that its separation as pure material is 
an expensive operation. It is typically a constituent of metamorphic 
rocks and as such may be found in every county. 

Calaveras County : It occurs in the copper-bearing schists, and speci- 
mens have come from Copperopolis and Campo Seco. 

Del Norte County : The limestone near Gasquet contains foliated 
plates of the mineral. 

Fresno County: Prominent mineral in the rocks near Dunlap and at 
Borer Hill. Graphite schists occur on the Kean and Ruth ranches, four 
miles east of Squaw Valley; also on Sycamore Creek near Trimmer. 

Ilumlioldt County: Occurs near Eureka. Small deposits at Otto 
Rest on South Fork of Trinity River. 

Imperial County: A good grade of graphite is found seven miles 
northwest of Coyote Wells on the San Diego and Arizona Railroad. 

Inyo County: Graphite occurs eighteen miles east of Independence. 

Los Angeles County: Found in the schists at West Carbondale and in 
the limestone near Elizabeth Lake. A deposit of graphite gneiss occurs 
in the Verdugo Canyon, ten miles northeast of Los Angeles. It occurs 
as a stratum running from the head of San Francisquito Canyon across 
to Charles Canyon. 

Mendocino County: A deposit occurs about fifteen miles east of 
Point Arena which has been worked for paint and lubricant. 

Monterey County: Graphite is disseminated in the limestones and 
metamorphics of the Santa Lucia range, south of Monterey. 

Riverside County: Flakes of graphite are prominent with the bru- 
cite in the limestone at Crestmore. Good quality is found near Temecula. 


Sail Bornardino County : Large deposits are said to exist in San Ber- 
nardino mountains, fifteen miles from East Highlands. It is also found 
as a constituent of the limestone near Colton and near Oro Grande. 

San Diego County: Graphite in mica sehist ooeurs near ]\Iasons. 

Santa Cruz County : Occurs in flakes and foliated masses at the lime- 
stone quarries near Santa Cruz. 

Siskiyou County: Reported from head of Kelsej^ Creek in Marble 
Mountain District, and from headwaters of East branch of Seiad Creek. 

Sonoma County: A deposit near Guerneville, one four miles west 
of Healdsburg and one four miles south of Petaluma, are known in 
this county. Specimens have come from Cazadero, Pine Flat and 
Santa Rosa. 

Tulare County: Graphite occurs in metamorphic rock in Drum Val- 
ley, north of Auckland, and on quartz at Three Rivers. 

Tuolumne County : Large foliated masses and dull earthy masses of 
the mineral occur in the Jimestones north of Sonora, near Columbia. 
The mineral was formerly mined here, but none is now produced. 


Native sulphur, S. 

Orthorhombic. Common in small crystal coatings and incrustations. 
Sulphur — yellow color. Resinous luster. H = 1.5 — 2.5 ; G = 2. 
Refractive indices: oc =1-950; ^ = 2.043; y = 2.24. 
Burns with a blue flame. 

Yellow sulphur is common in the vicinity of geysers, hot springs and 
volcanoes as sublimations from the emitted hj^drogen sulphide gas in 
contact with the air, and as precipitations from solf atari c waters. It is 
commonly found in gypsum beds as a reduced product, and in associa- 
tion with borax. No workable deposits are known in the State. For. 
the manufacture of sulphuric acid, pyrite deposits and pyrite concen- 
trates from the gold and copper mines are utilized. 

Colusa County: On the banks of Sulphur Creek solfataric action 
has produced fine crystallized masses and granular coatings of the 
mineral, .sometimes in association with cinnabar and good specimens 
have come from the Manzanita mine, and also from the Elgin mine. 

Imperial County: The mud volcanoes near Volcano have rims of 
sulphur crystals a.ssociated with gypsum and salt. These volcanoes 
have been described by Hanks'^*. Small deposit on the east slope of 
Coyote Mountain. 

Inyo County: Sulphur Bank on Owens Lake, near Olaucha con- 
tains a deposit of the mineral. Specimens of sulpluir with fluorite and 
gypsum have been found in the Defiance mine. A small deposit is 
reported in the mountains east of Big Pine and also one mile southwest 


of Coso Hot Springs. Native sulphur at the Suii»shine mine, Last 
Ijhance Mountains. 

Kern County: On both sides of the San Joaquin Valley impure beds 
of gypsum and limestone occur, having considerable sulphur inter- 
mixed. It is mixed with alum in the Sunset district. 

Lake County: At the Sulphur Bank quicksilver mine, silnaled on 
Clear Lake, a very interesting deposit of sulphur occurs wliich was 
described by Le Conic and ]\ising^'> and by Beckcr^'>. Tlic black 
basaltic rock wiiicii ()utcroj)s (ni the lake has been bleached white and 
altered to .-i poi'oiis mass of silica by tlic action of the sulpliui'ic acid 
fumes coming from several hydrogen sulphide vents. The pores and 
cavities of this altered mass of rock have had deposited in them brilliant 
crystals of sulphur and acicular crystals of cinnabar. The forms of the 
sulphur crystals are : (111), (113), (Oil), (101), and (001). Sulphur 
was obtained in considerable quantity from this deposit before it was 
discovered to overlie the much richer deposit of cinnabar. Sulphur also 
occurred associated with borax at Little Borax Lake, just south of 
Clear Lake. 

Mariposa County: Crystals of sulphur have been found with cinna- 
bar on Horseshoe Bend Mountain, near Coulterville. 

San Bernardino County : Occurs at Searles Borax Lake as one of 
the many associated minerals of borax. 

Sonoma County : Native sulphur is found at the Geysers. 

Tehama County: A large crystalline deposit is said to exist on the 
south slope of Lassen Butte in the northeastern part of the county. 

Trinity County: Found on the Supan property, six to eight miles 
from Mt. Lassen. 

Ventura County: Deposits occur in Suii)hur JMouni.ain, three miles 
east of Fillmore, and at the borate deposit of the Frazier Mountains. 


Native antimony. Sb. 
Hexagonal-rhomboliedral. Generally massive. Perfect basal cleavage. 
Very brittle. Color and streak tin-white. H = 3 — 3.5. G = 6.65 — 6.72. 
Metallic luster. 

Heated on cliarcoiii. dense white fumes and a white coating on the coal 
near tho assny inc oiitjiincd. ('omplctcly vaporizt's without odor. 

Masses of metallic antimony are sometimes found associated with the 
sulphide of antimony, stibnite, but the mineral is comparatively rare. 

El Dorado County: Specimens of native antimony have come from 
Pleasant Vallev. 


Kern County: Large nodules of metallic antimony, coated with 
white oxide of antimony have been found on Erskine Creek, east of 
Vaughn. It has been found in the Butfalo mine and antimony mines 
of the San Emidio Mountains in the southwestern part of the county. 


Native arsenic, As. 

Hexagonal-rhombohedral. Generally granular massive in reniform 
shapes. Perfect basal cleavage. Brittle. Color and streak tin-white 
but surface usually tarnishes dark gray or black. Luster metallic. 
H = 3.5; = 5.63 — 5.73. 

Heated on charcoal, very volatile white fumes are obtained similar to 
antimony, but more difficult to catch on the coal ; fumes have strong 
garlic odor. 

Metallic arsenic is a rare mineral and its existence in the State is 
doubtful. Arsenic is common in the concentrates of many of the gold 
mines, but it comes from such minerals as arsenopyrite or arsenical 

Monterey County: The native metal was said to have been found in 
the old Alisal mine on El Rancho Alisal, about eight miles southeast 
of Salinas, in the foothills of the Gabilan range, W. P. Blake ^^\ This 
mine contained a small body of argentiferous galena and sphalerite. 


Native bismuth, Bi. 

Hexagonal-rhombohedral. Usually in arborescent-reticulated shapes. 
Color silver-white with reddish tinge, tarnishing dark brown. Luster me- 
tallic. H=:2 — 2.5; = 9.70 — 9.83. 

Heated on charcoal, it gives a lemon yellow coating. Mixed with a flux 
of potassium iodide and sulphur and fused on charcoal, the coating is bright 
red, which distinguishes it from lead, which is yellow. 

Crystals and veinlets of metallic bismuth sometimes accompany ores 
of bismuth, cobalt, silver and gold. It is also occasionally found in 
pegmatitic veins. When bismuth occurs in the concentrates of gold 
and copper ores it probably is present as a sulphide. 

Inyo County: Found with bisnnithinite at Big Pine Creek and at 
Antelope Springs, Deep Spring Valley. 

Mono County : Specimens have occurred at Oasis. 

Nevada County : The concentrates of the Providence mine, Nevada 
City, contained the element, according to Lindgren^^^ 

San Diego County : Upwards of a hundred pounds of metallic bis- 
muth have been obtained from the pegmatitic vein of quartz, lepidolite, 
feldspar, tourmaline and amblygonite at the Stewart mine of the Ameri- 
can Ijithia company, at Pala. The mineral occurred in platy and long 


prismatic crystals, one of \vhich was a pscndoniorph after feldspar. 
The occurrence was described by Kunz^^^ The native bismuth is also 
found in small metallic cleavages in lepidolite at the Victor mine 
Rincon. Rogers^^\ 

Tuolumne County : IMinute crystals of bismuth have been observed 
in the gold ore at the Soulsby mine. 

Native tellurium, Te. 

Hexagonal-rhombohedral. Generally massive. Perfect prismatic cleav- 
age. Brittle, and sectile. Color and streak tin-white. lAister metallic. 
H = 2. — 2.5; G = G.1--G.3. 

Heated on charcoal, it gives dense white coating similar to antimony. 
I'owdor heated in a test tube with a few drops of concentrated sulphuric 
acid givc.« a violet solution. 

Metallic tellurium is sometimes found in association with the tel- 
lurides of gold, silver, lead and bismuth, but it is of rare occurrence. 
It is occasionally found in the gold concentrates when not visible in the 
ore, and has been reported from some of the mining districts of the 

Calaveras County : Carson Hill, a low hill on the north bank of the 
Stanislaus River, a few miles south of Angels, was one of the most 
noted places along the Mother Lode for telluride minerals, and it was 
here that the two new tellurides, calaverite and melonite were found. 
The old Stanislaus mine and the Melones mine contained foliated 
masses of native tellurium with the gold tellurides. 

Shasta County : Native tellurium was found in the Eureka mine, near 

Tuolumne County : Some metallic tellurium has been found associ- 
ated with tellurides of gold and silver in the mines near Tuttletown and 


8. GOLD. 

Native gold, Au. 

Isometric. Good crystals are rare. Common in grains, scales, plates and 
arborescent forms. No cleavage. Highly malleable and ductile. Color 
gold-yellow. H= 2.5 — 3.0; G = 15.6 — 19.3. 

Unaffected by any single acid, but soluble in the combined hydrochloric- 
nitric acids, called aqua regia. Its insolubility in nitric acid distinguishes 
it from chalcopyrite and pyrite. 

Gold has a very wide distribution in California and it has always 
been the chief mineral product of the State. It has been found in 
every county and is now produced in two-thirds of them. Practically 


all oi' the gold exists as the native metal, either as free gold in the 
quart/ or else mechanically mixed with the sulphides of iron, copper, 
lead or /inc. Tclhiriih's of gold occur, but they are quite subordinate 
in quantity. 

Crystals, arborescent groups, spongiform masses, wires, plates, scales, 
grains, luiggets and every shape known for gold, have been found. 
Cubes, rhombic-dodecahedrons and octahedrons are the prevailing forms 
of the crystals. The forms given by E. S. Dana (i> and Alger^^) for some 
placer gold crystals were: (111), (311), (18.10.1) and (421), with 
twinning on the octahedral plane. Crystalline masses and nuggets of 
large si/e have occurred in the placer gravels and in the pockets of 
([uartz veins. One found in 1854 at Carson Hill, Calaveras County, 
weighed 2,340 tro}^ ounces, and another found in 1860 at the Monu- 
mental mine, Sierra Buttes, weighed 1,596 ounces. Many valuable nug- 
gets and masses have been found and Hanks-** gives a descriptive list 
of some of them. 

Gold in (juart/ is the usual association and the mineral is often in the 
quartz in such a finely divided state as to be invisible, even in high 
grade rock. Flaky gold has been found implanted on clear quartz 
crystals at Placerville and elsewhere. 

Gold in pyrite, or "auriferous pja-ite, " is abundant and this gold- 
bearing pyrite is the source of much of the gold produced in the State. 

Gold in arsenopyrite is also common in the Mother Lode region and 
in the Alleghany district. Sierra County. 

Gold with ealcite as a gangue mineral is not uncommon, and in some 
mines considerable ealcite is found with wires and scales of included 
gold. Lenticular masses of ealcite with much gold are found in Miners- 
ville, Trinity County. Diller^^^ It has been found with ealcite at 
the Palma mine, In}'o County, at the Yellowstone mine, Mariposa 
Count}^, in the Soulsby mine, Tuolumne County, and in the Calico 
district, San Bernardino County. 

Gold in barite is uncommon, yet barite is found to be a gangue min- 
eral in the copper-gold districts as well as in the silver-lead districts. 
It occurs in barite at Pine Grove, Nevada County, in the Morning Star 
mine, Big Bend, Butte County, at the INIalakolf mine. North Bloomfield, 
Nevada County, and in the barite of some of the Shasta County copper 

Gold in cinnabar is an exceptional occurrence, yet the association has 
been noted in a few localities. At the old Manzanita mine in the 
Sulphur Creek district, Colusa County, minute specks of gold occurred 
in the cinnabar and implanted on cinnabar crystals; also in the old 
Redington or Boston mine, Knoxville, Napa County, some gold has 


I)ecii fouLitl with llie ciimahMi-. ami likewise near Coulterville, in the 
Horseshoe Bend mountain, INFariposa County. 

In addition to the above, f?old has been observed with graphite, 
galena, altaite, petzite, hessite, tetradymite, ealaverite, native tellurium, 
ehalcopyrite, chalcocite, native bismuth, stibnite, sphalerite, tetrahe- 
drite, fiuorite, chalcedony, jasper, cuprite, magnetite, hematite, limonite, 
pyrolusite, dolomite, ankerite, rhodochrosite, siderite, albite, rhodonite, 
mariposite, chlorite, roscoelite, talc, serpentine, asbestos, chrysocolla, 
and asphaltum. Gold is not confined to one class of rocks, altliough the 
gold-bearing (piartz veins are i)riucipally in metamorphic sclnsts and 
slates. The original source of the gold has been the igneous rocks and 
it has been found in granites, syenites, monzonites, granodiorites, dio- 
rites, rhyolites, quartz-porphj-ries, andesites, porphyrites and diabases. 
It has been deposited, with quartz or as impregnations, in such meta- 
morphic rocks as gneisses, amphibolites, chlorite-schists, talc-schists, 
mica-schists, slates and quartzites, and in sedimentary conglomerates, 
sandstones and shales. 

The great supply of gold was brought into California with the intru- 
sion through the JMesozoic sediments of the mass of igneous granitic 
rock Avhich forms the core of the lofty Sierras. The intrusion of the 
great plutonic mass lifted on high the overlying sediments, tilted, 
folded, faulted, and metamorphosed the Cretaceous sediments on the 
flanks of the uplift into slates, schists, quartzites and crystalline lime- 
stones ; and in the joints and fissures of the granitic and metamorphic 
rocks, gold-bearing quartz was deposited, forming veins and seams of 
the precious metal. 

Then followed a long period of erosion in the Cretaceous and Ter- 
tiary time in which the high mountain masses were planed down nearer 
to their present levels, and the gold became concentrated and deposited 
with the gravels along the stream l)eds, and in the valleys and canyons, 
forming the numerous placer deposits. 

Volcanic eruptions took place in the late Tertiary and much of the 
surface in the northern counties became covered with thick layers of 
rhyolitic and andesitic lavas and tuffs. The old placers became buried 
under this mass of volcanic rock and mud, and new river channels, 
valleys and canyons, and new placer deposits were formed by the 
extensive erosion during the late Pliocene and early Quarternary time. 

Some gold is found in the Coast Range and some is mined in the 
southern counties, but the great bulk of the precious metal comes from 
the northern half of the State and from those counties bordering on, 
and intersected by, the Sierra Mountains. 

Gold occurs in so many localities in the State that it would be impos- 
sible to cite all of them. The literature on the gold deposits is also 


The leading gold-produciug counties of the State are: Amador, 
Butte, Calaveras, El Dorado, Kern, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, Sacra- 
mento, Sliasta. Siskiyou, Sierra, Trinity, Toulumne and Yuba. ' 

Amador County: Gold is the chief mineral of the county. The 
Mother Lode crosses the county and some of the famous mines are: 
the Argonaut and Kennedy mines at Jackson ; the Bunker Hill, Fre- 
mont, Keystone and Amador mines at Amador City; the Central 
Eureka mine at Sutter Creek; and the Plymouth mine at Plymouth. 

Butte County : Much of the gold of this county has come from the 
dredgers along the Feather River at Oroville and other towns. Chero- 
kee Flat, Forbe.stown and Magalia are old noted places. 

Calaveras County : The ^Mother Lode crosses this county and gold is 
the principal mineral. Some of the noted mines are : the Utica, Angels 
and Lightner mines at Angels Camp ; Gwin mine near Mokelumne Hill; 
Sheep Ranch mine at Sheep Ranch, and the Melones and Morgan minei 
on Carbon Hill. 

El Dorado County: Placerville, Georgetown, El Dorado, Grizzly 
Flat, Shingle Springs and Greenwood are all noted districts. 

Kern County : The Yellow Aster mine at Randsburg has been the 
largest producer of the southern mines. The Amalie, Cove, Tehachapi, 
Mojave, Rand and Stringer districts are well-known. 

Mariposa County: The Princeton and other mines on the Mariposa 
Estate, the mines near Coulterville, Hornitos and Bagbv were all noted 
producers. Most of the mines of the county are now idle. 

Nevada County : The Grass Valley and Nevada City mines have been 
large producers of the precious metal. The Empire, North Star, Alli- 
son Ranch, Providence and Union mines are among the most noted in 
the State. 

Placer County: Auburn, Colfax, Emigrant Gap, Gold Run, Blue 
Canyon. Dutch Flat, Michigan Bluff. Forest Hill and Weimar are his- 
torical mining districts, mostly for placer mining. 

Sacramento County : Most of the gold of this county is obtained by 
dredgmg along the ancient courses of the American River. Fair Oaks, 
Folsom and Natomas are some of the places. 

Shasta County: This is more of a copper county, but considerable 
gold IS produced. The largest quartz mines are in French Gulch and 
Harrison Gulch. Much of the gold is obtained from smelting copper 

Sierra County : The gold mines are mostly on the Sierra Buttes, on 
Kanaka Creek, and near Downieville, Alleghany and LaPorte. 

Siskiyou County: Both quartz and placer mining are carried on in 
the county. Sauyer's Bar, Scott Bar, Humbug Creek, Callahan, Happy 
Camp, Quartz Valley, Klamath River, Scott River are noted districts 


The Black Bear group of quartz mines has been the largest producer. 
Fine large nuggets have come from the placers. 

Trinity County : The principal mines are centered around the famous 
towns of ^Minersville, Trinity Center, Deadwood, Douglas City, and 

Tuolumne County : The Mother Lode crosses the county and many 
Tioted mines are along it. Sonora. Soulsbyville, Tuolumne, Jamestown, 
Tuttletown, Big Oak Flat, Chinese Camp. Stent and Groveland are all 
noted places. 

Yuba County : Most of the gold of this county is obtained from 
dredgers along the Yuba River Some quartz and pocket mining is nlso 

The counties of Del Norte, Fresno, Humboldt, Inyo, Lassen, Los An- 
geles. Madera, Modoc, Mono, Plumas, Riverside, San Bernardino and 
San Diego produce gold. It occurs in every county in California. 

Gold Amalgam. — A native alloy of gold and mercury very rarely found. 

Mariposa County : It occurred in some of the mines near Mariposa 
and was analysed by Sonnenschein*^^^ 

Analyses: Au Hg 

39.02 60.98 per cent 

41.63 58.37 

Nevada County : It was reported from the Odin shaft, Grass Valley, 
by Lindgren ^^K 

Electrum. — A pale yellow alloy of gold and silver of rather frequent 
occurrence where considerable silver is found \\dth gold. 

Imperial County: Considerable ciuantity of electrum is said to have 
been found in the Oro Plata mine, in the extreme eastern part of the 

Madera County : Wire electrum occurred wdth gold in Fine Gold 

Placer County : It occurred with the gold in the Ophir District, 
according to Lindgren^ ^), and was analysed by Ilillebrand. 

Analysis : Ag Au 

27.91 72.09 per cent 

Bismuth Gold. — An alloy containing about 60 per cent gold and 40 
per cent bismuth. 
El Dorado County : Observed in the Coon Hollow mine near Placer- 




Native silver, Ag. 

Isometric. Crystals rare. Generally in wires, arborescent shapes and 
massive. Color silver-white but soon tarnishes to dark brown. Malleable 
and ductile. Metallic luster. H=2.5 — 3; G = 10.o. 

Soluble in nitric acid. A few drops of hydrochloric acid added to the 
nitrate solution precipitates white curdy silver chloride, which soon turns 
brown and is soluble in ammonia. 

Native silver has not been found in any large masses in the State, yet 
the element is quite universally present in the gold and copper districts, 
and occasionally arborescent crystallizations, wires and thin sheets are 
found in the mines of these metals. It is more common, however, in 
the silver-lead districts, where it occurs often near the w'alls of veins or 
in the vicinity of intrusive dikes, as a reduction product. 

Alpine County : The Silver Mountain district has yielded good speci- 
mens of native silver. 

Calaveras County : Occurred in arborescent forms with the copper 
ore at Quail Hill. 

Inyo County : This is one of the silver counties of the State and has 
several deposits of argentiferous galena, tetrahedrite and silver-anti- 
mony minerals, formed along the contact between limestone and the 
granitic rock of the Inyo, Coso and Argus ranges. Fine specimens 
have come from the old Cerro Gordo district and also from the Kear- 
sarge district near Independence. 

Kern County : In the Amalie district and near Garlock it occurs with 
the silver minerals. 

Los Angeles County: Native silver was associated with argentite, 
and with cobalt and nickel minerals, at the Kelsey mine near San 
Gabriel Canyon. 

Mono County : In the silver district at Blind Spring Hill, near 
Benton, the native metal was frequent, associated with tetrahedrite and 
partzite. The Diana mine and the Comache mine of this district have 
produced good specimens. At Bodie it has been found with the copper- 
gold ores. In the Sweetwater range, north of Bridgeport, native silver 
occurs associated with gold, cerargyrite and argentite. 

Placer County : Occurs as one of the associated minerals with gold at 
the Ophir mine, Lindgren^'*^ 

Plumas County.: Some native silver has been found in the old Poca- 
liontas mine associated with native copper and cuprite. 

San Bernardino Country : This county has long been known for its 
deposits of silver haloids. The Calico district, described by Ling- 
gren(i> and Storms^^^, the Grapevine district, the Silver Eeef district 
and the Silver Mountain district have all produced some native silver 
with the cerargyrite and embolite of the mines. Native silver with 
gold occurs in the Avawatz Mountains. 


Shasta CoiiDty: Native silver is laiv in tlie eopper deposits of this 
county, but an occasional arborescent specimen has been found at the 
Bully Hill, Aftertiionj^lit and other mines. Fine crystallized speci- 
mens occurred in the old Excelsior mine. Copper City, Fairl)anks^'-'. 
Native silver in aborescent crystallization associated with stephanite, 
galena and sphalerite, in a calcite-quartz gangue occurs at the Igo Con- 
solidated mines. 


Native copper, Cu. 

Isometric. Cood crystals rare. Generally in wires, thin sheets and 
.irborescent crystallizations. No cleavage. Malleable and ductile. Luster 
metallic. Color copper-red. Hr=2.5 — 3; G = 8.83. 

Solulilc ill iiiriic acid — on adding ammonia the solution turns deep blue. 

Some metallic copper has been found in most of the eopper mines of 
the State, but no deposits of the native metal are known. It is fre- 
quently mixed with cuprite and malachite in the oxidized zone of copper 
deposits, or found as coatings along the walls of copper veins, or in the 
vicinity of intrusive dikes, which have brought about a reduction of the 
ores. Most of the localities cited for chalcopyrite have yielded some 
native eopper. 

Alameda County: At the Alma pyrite mine on Leona Heights, east 
of Oakland, fine arborescent crystallizations of the native metal are 
occasionally found. The minerals of this mine have been described by 

Amador County : Arborescent nuisses occurred in the old Newton 

Calaveras County : Some of the mines along the copper-sulphide belt, 
especialh' at Copperopolis and at Campo Seco, have produced some of 
the mineral. At ]\Iokelumne Hill it occurred associated with silver. 

Colusa County : Found in serpentine with cuprite and melaconite at 
the Cray Eagle luino, and also at the Lion mine. 

Del Norte County: Some large pieces have come from the Diamond 
Creek district and from the Pearl and Occidental mines. 

El ])ora(lo County: Tiic old Cosumnes mine, near Fairplay, has 
yielded small masses oL' native copper Avitli bornite, chalcocite and 
cuprite. The Alabaster Cave mine near New^castle, the Cambrian mine 
near Placerville, the Ford mines near Georgetown and the Oest mine 
near Auburn, have had native copper with the cuprite. 

Fresno County : Thin sheets have been found in quartz east of Fresno 

Glenn County : Large float pieces have been found a few miles north 
of Chrome Mountain and also on Elk Cteek. 


Humboldt County : Many specimens oeeni' on Red Cap and Boise 
creeks and also in the Horse Mountains. 

Inyo County : The copper deposits in the Ubehebe Mountains contain 
the oxides of copper and some native copper. 

Lake County : Observed as finely disseminated particles in the serpen- 
tine of this county. 

Lassen County : Native copper in epidote rock at the Lummis mine. 

Los Angeles County: At the Free Cuba^mine, near Acton. 

Mariposa County : Massive with mjflachite in the Copper Queen mine. 

Mendocino County: Sheets and grains of metallic copper occur at 
Eed Mountain, fifteen miles southeast of Ukiah. It is also seen in the 
serpentines in Lost Valley. 

Merced County : Occurs with quartz and chalcopyrite in the Victor 
Bonanza mines. 

Modoc County : Observed near Fort Bidwell with malachite and 

Mono County : Found sparingly in the Lundy and Benton districts. 

Monterey County: Occurs disseminated in serpentine on Table IMoun- 
tain near Parkfield ; also in serpentine with chalcopyrite near summit of 
Santa Lucia Range, seven miles from Santa Lucia. 

Placer County: At the Algol mine near Spenceville in sheets and 
hackly masses; at the Valley View mine, six miles from Lincoln; and 
near Todd on magnetite. Lindgren^'*) reported it as one of the minerals 
of the Ophir district; at Meadow Lake with cuprite and chalcocite. 

Plumas County: Found with rhodonite at Mumford's Hill. Large 
lumps occurred with cuprite, malachite and native silver in the old 
Pocohontas mine, Indian Valley. 

Riverside County: In the McCoy Mountain district. 

San Luis Obispo County: At the Tiptop mine, ten miles north of 
San Luis Obispo, and on Chorro Creek in small pieces. 

Shasta County: This is the principal copper county and many of 
the mines have produced specimens of arborescent copper and occa- 
sionally compact masses. The Bully Hill mines, Copper City mines, 
Shasta King mine. Mountain Copper mine, Mammoth mine, Balaklala 
mine and Kosk Creek mines may be mentioned. 

Siskiyou County : Pieces have been found at Preston Peak with pyrite 
and chalcopyrite. 

Tehama County : On Elder Creek and at White Bluff. 

Tulare County : ]\Iasses have been found on the Middle Fork of the 
Tule River, about thirty miles east of Porterville. 


11. MERCURY— Quicksilver. 
Native mercury, Hg. 

Liquid. Forms small fluid globules in the matrix which is usually cinna- 
bar. Color tin-white. Brilliant metallic luster. G = 13.59. 

Vaporizes at comijaritivcly low heat and disapijoars ; the vapors are in- 
visible. Soluble in nitric acid. 

Liquid globules oi" mercury are common in most of the cinnabar 
mines, formed either by reduction of the sulphide or by sublimation of 
mercuric vapors. It prevails in deep workings and in those parts of 
ill-ventilated mines where intense heat is developed by the decomposi- 
tion of iron sulphides. It is also frequently found near the walls of 
cinnabar veins. Most of the localities cited for cinnabar will serve 
for the metallic element. 

Kings County : Occurred in the Kings mine with serpentine. 

Lake County : In the Wall Street mine at was abundant in the gravels 
and was also associated with cinnabar in quartz veins. Occurred also 
in the Big Injun and Big Chief mines, west of Middletown. 

Napa County : Frequent in the minas at Oat Hill and Knoxville. 

Orange County: Small amounts of native mercury associated with 
veins of barite have been reported from a locality two miles east of 
Tustin in a hill of sandstone. 

San Benito County : In the cinnabar deposits at New Idria. Occurs 
witli cinnabar in serpentine at the Alpine Quicksilver mine. 

San Francisco County : Liquid globules have been found in silicious 
rock near Twin Peaks. 

Santa Clara County: Very prevalent in some of the shafts at New 

Sonoma County : Prominent in the New Sonoma mine, Pine Flat 
district, sixteen miles northeast of Ilealdsburg. In the Rattlesnake 
mine much native quicksilver occurred, as was also the case with the 
Pioneer Socrates mine. Present in the Bright Hope (Esperanza) mine 
near "The Geysers"; in the Clear Quill mine about one. mile from the 
Great Eastern mine, associated with cinnabar. 

Trinit}^ County : Found at the Altoona mine with cinnabar. 

12. LEAD. 
Native lead, Pb. 

Isometric. Crystals rare. Usually in small plates and pellets. Mal- 
leable. Color lead-gray. H = 1.5; = 11.37. 

Heated on charcoal, it gives a yellow coating, which remains unchanged 
in color with the potassium iodide and sulphur flux. 

Metallic lead is an exceedingly rare mineral and its reported occur- 
rence as a true mineral is sometimes doubtful. Small bits of lead which 


are now and then found in the placer gravels may be portions of lead 
bullets, but the occurrence of the metal in deep placer mines is indicative 
of its origin as a natural reduction product. 

Butte County: Some pieces of metallic lead found in a placer at 
]\Iagalia were believed by Hanks^^'^ to be flattened bullets. Small 
angular fragments of native lead have been found at a prospect 14 
miles east of Chico, on the "West Fork of the Feather River, Rogers^^^. 

Kern County: Several pieces of metallic lead have been found in the 
dry washings at Goler. 

Placer County : Small pellets of native lead have been found in a 
placer mine in North Ravine, in the Edgewood district, adjoining the 
Ophir district. 

13. TIN. 
Native tin, Sii. 

Rounded grains. Color tin-white. Metallic luster. H = 2: G=7.1S. 
Ilpatcd on oharcoal, it gives a slisht yellowish coating, which Ijecomes 
bluish-green when moistened with cobalt nitrate and intensely heated. 

Metallic tin is a rare mineral and there is some doubt regarding the 
origin of some of the small pieces found in the State. 

Humboldt County: Bits of metallic tin have been observed in the 
sluices at Orleans. 

Siskiyou County : Small pieces of tin have been found in the gravels 
at Sawyers Bar. 

Tuolumne County: Several pieces of native tin were found in the 
sluices of the AVhite Lead gravel claim, near Columbia. 

14. ZINC. 

Native zinc, Zn. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Crystals very rare. Color grayish white. 
Metallic luster. H = 2 ; G = 6.9 — 7.2. 

Heated on charcoal, it gives a yellow coating while hot, whitish cold. 
Coating becomes yellowish-green when moistened with cobalt nitrate and 
intensely heated. 

A rare mineral, but of probable occurrence in the State. 

Shasta County: Specimens of metallic zinc were found some years 
ago about five miles from Round Mountain and their occurrence was 
reported by Fair))anks^2^ The specimens are somewhat columnar in 
appea.ranc(' and had some rock attached to them when found. 


Native platinum, Pt. 

Isometric. Generally occurs in grains and small nuggets. Malleable 
and ductile. Color light steel-gray. Metallic luster. H = 4 — 4.5; 
G = 14 — 19. 

Platinum and tlio platinum group of minerals are soluble only in 
a(|ua rogla. To dftoct small amounts of these minerals in sands, first 
<-onc(>ntrate by panning until a suHioicnt number of the gray metallic 
grains are obtained. Dissolve in aqua rcgia and in the clear solution 
add a few drops of potassium chloride, which will precipitate orange- 
yellow potassium platinic chloride. 

Gray metallic grains and small nuggets of platinum were early 
observed in some of the gold-bearing black sands of the streams and 
beaches, and also in the concentrates from the gold washings. Little 
attempt was made to save this precious metal, and it is only recently 
that any record has been kept of the production. It is rather a constant 
associate of the gold in most of the districts, and its origin lies doubt- 
less in the serpentine rocks, in close association with the chromite. 
While it has a widespread occurrence in the State, it has not been 
definitely detected as a constituent of any of the rocks. Some platinum 
is recovered in electrolytic refining of blister copper from the Iron 
^Fountain mine, Shasta County. Platinum has been identified in lead 
carbonate ore, associated with gold, silver, copper values, in the Piute 
mine, near Cima, San Bernardino County. 

Analyses of California platinum have been made by Deville and 

Debray(i) and by Genth^D. 

Deville and Debray_85.50 
Genth 90.24 

j\Iost of the platinum is alloyed with iridium, osmium, palladium and 
other metals of the platinum group, and much of it would be classed 
as platiniridium. ]\Iany of the black sands have been investigated by 
Day and Richards^^^ 

Butte County : It is a constituent of the black sands of Feather River 
and some of its tributaries, and the largest production is from the 
dredging operations at Oroville. It is present in the concentrates of 
Butte Creek, Brush Creek, Magalia, Cherokee, and Buchanan Hill. 

Calaveras County : Observed in the concentrates at Douglas Flat and 
Mokelumne Hill. 

Del Norte County: In the black sands at Cresent City, and with 
gold, iridium and osmium in the sands of the Smith River Basin. 

Humboldt County: Early mentioned as one of the constituents of 
the gold-bearing beach sands at Gold Bluff. Found in the concentrates 
at Orleans, Trinidad. Wil.son Creek and China Flat. 

Inyo County : Said to have been found in the concentrates of the 
^It. Hope mine, nenv Citrus. 






















— — — 


Kern County: Traces of the metal have been observed in the sands 
at Kane Springs. 

Mariposa County: Reported to have been found in Devil's Gulch 
near the junction of Devil Creek and south fork of the Merced River, 
about five miles from Jerseydale. The ore is said to carry mainly plati- 
num, gold and small amounts of eol)alt, nickel and tin. 

Mendocino County : In the beach sands near Little River. Platinum 
minerals occur in the superficial deposits in the valley near Hopland. 
Gold and osmiridiuin accompany the platinum. 

Nevada County : In the concentrates of the Rough and Ready district 
and in considerable amounts at Relief Hill. 

Placer County: In the black sands on the North Fork of American 
River, at Butcher, East Auburn. Blue Canyon and Michigan Blutf. 
The sands of the Deadwood district contain gold and platinum. 

Plumas County : In the concentrates at Genessee, La Porte and Rock 
Island Hill. 

San Luis Obispo County : Observed in some of the beach sands. 

Santa Barbara County : In the beach sands at Lompoc and north of 
Point Sal. 

Santa Cruz County : In some of the beach sands of the county. 

Shasta County: Found in the sands at Redding and on Cottonwood 
Creek. The black sands of Beegum Creek contain platinum, iridium 
and a little gold. 

Siskiyou County: Observed in the sands at Callahan, Castella, Hen- 
ley, Happy Camp, Sawyers Bar, Oak Bar, Fort Jones, Hornbrook, 
Cecilville, Klamath River, and Rock Ranch. 

Tehama County : In the sands near Beegum. 

Trinity County: Early observed as a constituent of the black sands 
of the Trinity River and its tributaries, and nuggets weighing several 
ounces have come from the county. Its presence has been shown in the 
sands at Douglas City, Burnt Ranch, Junction City, Big Bar, Hawkins 
Bar, and in the Hayfork district. 

Ventura County: It has been observed in minute quantities in some 
of the beach sands. 

Yuba County: Found in the concentrates at Indian Hill, Campton- 
ville, and in the Brownsville district. 


Native iridium, Ir. 

Isometric. Generally in grains. Color silver-white. Metallic luster. 
H=6 — 7; G=22.6 — 22.8. 

Practically iii-suluble e\ou in aqua regia. 

Steel-gray grains of iridium have been detected with the platinum 
in some of the sands, but most of this metal is in alloy with platinum. 


Native alloy of platinum and iridium, Ptlr. 

Isometric. Generally in grains and nuggets. Color light steel-gray. 
Metallic luster. H = 6 — 7; G = 22.65 — 22.84. 

Much of the so-caUed platinum of the State is really this alloy, and 
several nuggets of a few ounces weight have been found along the 
Trinity River. 


Native palladium, Pd. 

Isometric. Minute octahedrons. Generally in grains. Color light steel- 
gray. Malleable. H = 4.5 — 5; G = 11.3 — 11.8. 

An associate of the platinum but in small amount. It is usually 
alloyed with platinum or iridium. 


Native alloy of iridium and osmium, IrOs. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Generally in grains. Cleavage perfect basal. 
Color light steel-gray. Metallic luster. H = 6 — 7; G= 19.3 — 21.12, 

This alloy is a frequent associate of the platinum .and an analysis of 
it by Deville and Debray<^> shows the presence of the rarer metals, 
rubidium and ruthenium. 

Ir Rd Ru Os 

53.50 2.60 0.50 43.40 

Siscrkitc is a variety witli not over 30 per cent iridium. According 
to Genth*^^^ the composition of some of the gray metallic grains is: 

Siserkite 49.4 per cent 

Platinum 48.4 

Platiniridium 2.2 

Palladium and rhodium some 


Rarer metals of the platinum group and generally found in alloy with 
the platinum or iridium. 

21. IRON. 
Native iron, Fe. 

Isometric. Generally massive. Malleable. Color steel-gray to iron- 
black. Metallic luster. H=:4 — 5;G=:7.3 — 7.S. Strongly magnetic. 

Its strong magnetism and the fact that it is malleable distinguishes it 
from all other iron minerals, since these are brittle. 

Iron occurs native either as telluric iron or as meteoric iron. Tel- 
luric iron is sometimes found in basaltic rocks, but its occurrence in this 


form is not known in the State. ]\Ieteorie iron has been found in at 
least four localities and analysed. Nickel is always present and some- 
limes cobalt, phosphorous, graphite or diamond. 

El Dorado County : A meteorite weighing 85 pounds was found at 

Shingle Springs in 1871 and was analysed by Shepard^^^ 

Analysis : 

Fe Ni Insol 

88.02 8.88 3.50 = 100.40 per cent 

Kern County: A meteorite found in the San Emidio Mountains in 

1888 weighed about 80 pounds. It Avas unfortunately crushed before 

its identity was recognized and only fragments were saved. Merrill^i) 

described the material and it was analysed b}' "Whitfield^^^ It was 

erroneousl}^ called the San Bernardino meteorite. 

Analysis : 

Fe Ni Co. 

88.25 11.27 0.48 = 100 per cent 

San Bernardino County: An irregular-shaped mass of meteoric iron 
was found in the Ivanpah district in 1880 which weighed about 117 
pounds. Analysed by Shepard^^^ and by G. Gehring. 
Analyses : 









SiO: Graphite 

-._ =99.67 









0.04 0.07 =99.82 

This meteorite is now in the Museum of the California State Mining 

Trinity County : A small oval-shaped mass weighing 19 pounds was 
found at Canyon City about 1875. Tlie surface was oxidized to limouite. 
Analysis of the purer portion was made by Shepard^'*^ 

Analysis : 

Fe Ni Co P 

88.81 7.28 0.17 0.12 =96.38 per cent 


Native alloy of nickel and iron, NijFe. 
Isometric. Grains and nuggets. Tin-white to steel-gray color. Mag- 
netic. H = 5;G = S.l. 

Del Norte County: Small grains- of this alloy averaging 0.15 to 
1.5 mm. in diameter were found in the residues from the gold washings 
of Smith River, associated with magnetite and chromite. Analysed by 

Va rn rii P s 

G = 7.S5 































23. REALGAR— Red Arsenic. 

Sulphide of arsenic, AsS. 

Monoclinic. Crystals common ; also granular massive and incrusta- 
tions. Color bright red to orange-yellow. Streak orange-yellow. Resin- 
ous luster. 11 = 1.5 — 2; G = 3.55. 

Uofraetivo indices: a:=--^0; ^=2.50; y = 2.Gl. 

IlcatPd on chaivoaj. it gives volatile white fumes of arsenic oxide having 
garlic odor. Its red cdIoi- iuid arsi'iiic fumes distin-uisli it from other 

Realgar is occasionally found with arsenical ores of silver, lead and 
copper, but it lias been rarely seen in the State. 

Al])ine County: Spocimins of deep red realgar coaliiiL; p.\ rite oc- 
curred in the IMonitor mine, associated with minute white octahedrons 
of arsenolite. 

Lake County : S(mie realjLrar with orpimcnt is said to occur on Ihc Eel 
Ivivcr. about fifteen miles noi"thwi\st of Bartlett Springs. 

San Bernardino County : Reported as occurring about forty miles 
from Needles, the locality being uuknowui. 

Sonoma County : Five miles west of Geyserville. 

Trinity County : A specimen was found in calcite in the northwestern 
part of the county. 

Sulphide of arsenic, AsjSj. 

Monoclinic. Usually in foliated masses. Perfect clinopinacoidal 
cleavage. Sectile. H=: 1.5-2: G — 0.4-.S.5. Color lemon-yellow. Pale 
ytdlow streak. I'early luster. 

Uofractive indices: oc =2-4 ; « = 2.72; ,, = 2.72. 

Like realgar in the reactions. 

Readily distinguished from realgar by color. The two are usually 
associated and realgar alters into orj^iment. 


Lake County : Some orpiment with realgar is said to have been found 
on Eel River, about fifteen miles northwest of Bartlett Springs. 

Trinity County: Some yellow orpiment occurs iu the decomposition 
of the iron sulphides at Island Mountain. 

25. STIBNITE— Antimonite 
Sulphide of antimony, SboSj. 
Orthorhombic. Long prismatic crystals, often bent and curved and with 
faces striated and furrowed. Cleavage perfect brachypinacoidal. Color 
lead-gray. Streak dark gray. Metallic luster. H = 2; G=4.52 — 4.62. 

Refractive indices: ex =3.194; ^ = 4.046; y=:4.303. 

Melts in a candle flame. Heated on charcoal, it gives dense white coat- 
ing and the odor of sulphur. 

Stibnite is the common ore of antimony, and good deposits of the 
mineral exist in the State. It occurs generally as veins in granitic and 
metamorphic gneisses and schists. In gold and copper districts it is a 
common associate of the prevalent .sulphides galena, sphalerite, chalco- 
pyrite, pyrite and tetrahedrite, consequently may usually be found in 
those districts in small amounts. It is characteristically associated with 

Calaveras County : Observed with gold at Mokelumne Hill and in the 
Mother Lode region. 

Inyo County: In the Cerro Gordo district considerable stibnite was 
found with the silver-lead ores, and some limonite specimens recently 
obtained from there are evident pseudomorphs after long prismatic 
stibnite crystals. Large bodies of the mineral are said to occur on the 
western slope of the Panamint IMountains, near Wild Rose Springs, 
associated with the oxide of antimony. Large outcrop on east slope of 
Argus ^Mountains, between Revenue and Shepherd canyons ; near Owens 

Kern County: The deposits in the San Emidio ]\Iountains at the 
head of the San Emidio Canyon have long been knoAvn and were the 
first worked in the State. Veins of the mineral also are plentiful in 
the mountains in the northeastern part of the county. On Erskine 
Creek considerable native antimony has been found in association with 
the -stibnite. Stibnite also occurs in the Caliente district. Good crystal- 
line specimens occur at Piute ; in the Tom IMoore mine, Clear Creek dis- 
trict ; near Tehaehapi ; near Kernville ; at Hot Springs ; near Havilah ; 
in the Cedar Creek Mining district. Occurs also at the Sierra Sue mine 
near GlennviUe. 

Lake County: Some stibnite has been found with the cinnabar at 
Sulphur Bank, on Clear Lake. 

Los Angeles County: Specimens have been found in the mountains 
south of Lancaster. 


Mariposa County: Stibnite forms one of the sulphide minerals in the 
gold districts of the county. 

Merced County : Fine specimens of prismatic stibnite have come from 
the McLeoud mining district. 

Mono County : Very common in the Blind Springs district, associated 
with the silver-lead ores, and goood specimens have come from the 
Comanche, Comet and Diana mines. 

Monterey County: The mineral occurs about nine miles from San 

Napa County : Fibrous bands of stibnite occurred with the cinnabar 
at the Manhattan and the Boston or old Kedington mines, at Knoxville. 

Nevada County : Occurs with galena in quartz at the lied Ledge 
mine; also in the Mohawk Antimony mine near Nevada City. 

Placer County : With gold-bearing quartz in the St. Laurence Mine, 
Ophir ]\Iining district. 

Riverside County : Bunches of stibnite were found at the Crowell 
mine, five miles southeast of South Riverside. Fine-grained stibnite 
was found near Corona. 

San Benito County :• There are numerous veins of stibnite in the 
county, especially in the northeastern part, in close association with the 
cinnabar deposits. Fine crystallized specimens have come from the 
Rip Van Winkel, Alta, Gleason and Shriver claims in the Antimony 
Mountains, northeast of Hollister, and some of the crystals have the 
forms: (010), (130), (110), (310), (210), (430), (113), (4.5.12), 
(102), Eakle^'*. Long divergent prisms of stibnite have come from 
the Blue Wing vein of Stay ton mine. 

San Bernardino County: In a boulder at the Centennial mine. A 
small vein of stibnite associated with wolframite was found in the 
Clark Mountains ; occurred with the scheelite at Atolia. 

San Diego County: Occui-s on Laguna Mountains; also four miles 
west of Jacumba. 

San Luis Obispo County : Occurs near head of San Simeon Creek ; 
radiating prisms in quartz occur near Cambria; beautiful crystalline 
stibnite with pyrite in ([uartz occurs on the south fork of San Simeon 
Creek, near summit of Santa Lucia range. 

Santa Clara County: Large divergent columnar masses have come 
from near Gilroy. Stibnite is also an associate of the cinnabar at the 
New Almaden cinnabar mines. 

Sierra County : Occurs as one of the sulphides with the gold ores at 

Sonoma County: Occurs in small amounts on San Antone Creek 
near Marin County line. 


'I'l-iuily County: Found ncvir AVcnvcfvillf with (|n;ii1/. and pyritc. 
Ila.s bet'ii round near Ilayi'ork. 

Tulare County: Found in the j\Iineral King district as an associate of 
argentiferous galena. In (juartz with pyrite on Dennison Mountains; 
in a quartz vein cutting slate at tlic Lady Alice mine, one-quarter mile 
south of Mineral King. 


Sulphide of l)isimUh, JJi^Sa. 

Oillioilioiubic. Usually Jibrous niiissivc. Color lead-sray. Melallie 
luster. H = 2; = 0.4 — 0.5. 

Heated on charconl. ii sives yellow eoatini;- and suliihur odor. ('oatln.!>- 
assumes a liriuhl red lionler when fused witli iiotasshuu iodidi' and suli)hur. 

The presence of bisuuith lias fre(|uently been detected in the con- 
centrates from several of the gold and copper districts, but the form 
in which it occurs has not in general been determined. Bismuthinite as 
a distinct mineral has only been noticed in a few localities. 

Fresno County: Some small pieces were found in Lot 1 mine and in 
the second Sierra mine, King.s River district. Found about twenty 
miles north of Trimmer on Kings River. Specimens have been found 
in the northeastern ])ai't of the county. 

Inyo County : Said to occur in some of the mines in the Kearsarge 
Mountains, near Independence. 

Madera County : A constituent of the ores at Minarett Mountains, 
Turner^ ''\ 

Mono County: Found at Oasis with l)isiuutite. 

Riverside County : Found at the Lost Horse mine. 

San Bernardiiio County: Was found witli bismutitc in the I'nitcd 
Tungsten Copper uu'ue, ^lorongo district. 


Sulphide of molybdenum, MoSn. 

Hexagonal. Usually in scales and foliated masses. Cleavage perfect 
basal. Color light bluish lead-gray. Streak lead-gray, sometimes with 
greenish cast. H = l. — 3.5; G = 4.7. 

Soluble in nitric acid and fusible, ;;i\ing sulphur odor. This readily dis- 
tinguishes it from graiiliile. \\iii<li it clos-.'ly resend)les. 

Molybdenite is the source of the molybdenum used in steel manu- 
facture, for which there is some demand. The mineral is widely 
distributed in the State, occurring in small flakes and leaves in (piartz 
and crystalline rocks. There are few places where it is segregated 
sufficiently to pay for its extractioji. It strongly resembles graphite 
but can generally be disfinguished from that mineral by its lighter 
bluish lead-gray color and its occurrence in quartz rather than in white 


limestone. In all counties luivinji: j^i-anitoid rocks some molybdenite can 
be found. 

El Dorado County : Broad foliated plates occur at tlie old Cosumnes 
copper mine, near Fairplay, in a pegmatite vein with bornite, ehalco- 
pyrite, epidote, garnet, axinite, hornblende and orthoclase. Also in 
plates at Grizzly Flats. 

Fresno County : In quartz at the Kings River Canyon copper mine. 
Good broad plates have been found in quartz roik of Green Mountain, 
on the south fork of San Joaquin River. Mineral occurs on Kings 
River, thirty miles east of Trimmer with ealeite and epidote. Occurs in 
flakes in the White Fine district. 

Inyo County: In quartz on White Mountains. A thick ledge con- 
taining much molybdenite was reported on the west side of Death 
Valley. Good iiakes in the rocks of the Sierras near Independence. 
^Molybdenite occurs at the Pine Creek Tungsten mine, in large masses. 
Occurs in a quartz vein at contact of granite and limestone at the 
Lucky Boy Prospect, seven miles east of Kearsarge; on Lone Pine 
Creek at upper part. 

Kern County : Occurs w'ith chalcopyrite and pyrite in massive white 
quartz in the Democrat Spring Mining district, forty-tive miles east of 

Madera Countv: Plates were found in the Speckerman mine at 
Fresno Flat. A small deposit at Sugar Pine. 

Mariposa County: Specks of the mineral occur in a lens of garnet, 
epidote and quartz, on the southeast slope of Mount Hoffman, Turner^5> 
and at Knights Creek near Big Trees, Turner *■*'. Occurs in quartz 
in the Kinsley mining district and with molybdite, seven miles from 
El Portal. 

Mono County: Found with molybdite at Cameron near Bridgeport; 
in quartz at the Minnie mine, Sweetwater Range; at Silverado Creek 
with molybdite, Whiting<^'. Found Avith molybdite one mile north of 
Star City. Occurs in granite about six miles west of Sweetwater, 
Nevada. Also found in a quartz ledge ten miles south of Fales Hot 

Monterey County: Occurs m (|nartz on the Westcott ranch, eight 
miles east of Soledad. 

Napa County : In quartz on Mt. St. Helena. 

Nevada County: Abundant at Nevada City mixed Avith limonite, 
Genth(2) . g^Q^j plates in the Mayflower mine, Nevada City ; in the 
Excelsior mine. Meadow Lake district ; in the rocks of Signal Peak ; in 
a garnet-epidote rock near Lake Tahoe; broad plates in white quartz 
near Truckee. 


Placer County : In a granodiorite with copper minerals at the Elder 
mine, about four miles west of Clipper Gap. Occurred in some of the 
mines of the Ophir district, Lindgren'^'. Occurs with pvrite in quartz 
near Cisco. Flakes of large size occur in a pegmatite near Rubicon 

Plumas County: Broad plates occur in the Meadow Valley mining 

Riverside County : Small flakes of molybdenite occur in thin peg- 
matite veins intersecting granite at a quarry about 4^ miles northeast 
of Corona. Occurs in a quartz vein in n quartz-liiotite gneiss about 
thirty-five miles east of Hemet. 

San Diego County: Found in granite at Campo, with malachite and 
chalcopyrite at Potrero and in the Grapevine mining district. The 
Ramona deposit at the Bour mine was concentrated and a small amount 
produced ; wdth molybdite twenty miles north of Encinitas. 

Shasta County: In granite on Hazel Creek and also on Tom Neal 
Mountain, near Delta. In aplite or alaskite on Boulder Creek near 
Gibson Avith molybdite coatings, where it has been concentrated by 
flotation and several tons produced. 

Siskiyou County : Occurs in the YelloAv Butte CopiM'i- mine, east 
of "Weed. Occurs also near Dunsmuir. 

Trinity County: With molybdite near Lcwiston, Sec. 31, T. 33 N., 
R. 8 W., M. D. ]\L Occurs in quarts with some pyrite near Helena. 

Tulare County: In plates at Three Rivers and in the Mineral King 
district, with molybdite. Fine large foliated plates of molybdenite 
occur in a granodiorite at the head of Kaweah River. 

Tuolumne County: In a quartz vein in granite on the south side of 
Knights Creek, northeast of Columbia; in a quartz vein Avith garnet, 
epidote, and sphalerite, about three miles west of Tower Peak, Turner^^^ 

Ventura County : Reported from Frazer ^Mountain and .McDonald 

Yuba County: Plates of molxbdcnitc with yellow inolybdite occur in 
granitic rock near Camptonville. 


28. ARGENTITE— Silver Glance. 

Sulphide of silver, Ag-S. 

Isometric. Octahedral crystals, often distorted. Commonly in arbor- 
escent and reticulated shapes. Color dark lead-gray to black. Streak 
black. Metallic luster. Highly sectile. H = 2 — 2.5; G = 7.3. 

Heated ou charcoal, it givos a slight odor of sulphur and is readily 
reduced to a bead of metallic silver. 

Argentite is the primary silver mineral in many of the silver districts 
and is usually associated with other silver minerals such as cerargyrite, 


stephanite, polybasite and pyrargyrito. and with argentiferous galena. 
Silver is found with the gold and copper of the State, but there are few 
distinct silver districts. 

Alpine County: One of the sulphides of the Silver Mountain dis- 
trict, and small octahedral crystals have come from the Advance mine. 

Inyo County : This is one of the few silver counties of the State and 
argentite has been (piite common in some of the mines, especially at 
Cerro Gordo. Massive and crystal specimens have been prominent in 
the Oi'iental mine, Deep Spring Valley. Occurs as an important silver 
mineral in the Minietta Belle mine. 

Kern County: Argentite crystals associated with native silver have 
been found in the Silver King mine, near Garlock. It occurs with 
tetrahedrite and pyrargyrite at the Amalie mine. 

Los Angeles County : Was one of the silver minerals of the Kelsey 
mine, near San Gabriel Canyon, associated with native silver, erythrite, 
smaltite, and annabergite. Also found at Silverado with argentiferous 

Mariposa County : The Bryant silver mine contained argentite and 
ruby silver. 

Mono County : 'Found sparingly in the Bodie and Benton districts 
with gold, tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. In the 
Sweetwater Range, north of Bridgeport, the mines contained argentite 
with gold, cerargyrite, tetrahedrite, native silver. 

Nevada County : Mentioned by Lindgren^^'^ as occurring in the Alli- 
son Ranch mine, near Nevada City. 

San Bernardino County : The silver districts of this county have 
produced some argentite, but in general the sulphide has not been 
prominent. The mines of the New York Mountains near Manvel show 
.some, and also the old Imperial and Tiptop mines. Lava Beds district 
has produced crystals. It occurred to some extent with the hornsilver 
in the Calico and Barstow mining districts. Found with galena, chalco- 
pyrite and pyrite in the Goldstone district. 

29. GALENITE— Galena. 

Sulphide of lead, I'bS. 

Isometric. Cubes and cubooctahedrons common. Also massive, coarse 
and fine granular and sometimes lamellar and foliated. Cleavage perfect 
cubic. Color lead-gray. Streak dark gray. Metallic luster. H. — 2.5; 

Heated on charcoal, a lemon-yellow coating forms and a slight 
odor of sulphur can be detected. Is easily reduced to a bead of metallic lead. 

Galenite is a very common mineral and is usually prominent in all of 
the gold, silver and copper districts. It is found in large and small 
cubes and in granular and foliated masses. Much of it is argentiferous 



and forms the silver ore of the State. The characteristic associates 
are sphak^rite, pyrite, totraliedrito, chalcopyrite, barite, fliiorite and 
calcite. Its two common alteration products, cerussite and anglesite, 
very often accompany it. 

Alpine County: It occurs argentiferous in the Silver ]\Iountain dis- 

Amador County: Very often found in the mines near Plymouth and 
along the Mother Lode. 

Butte County : Occurs with clialcopyrite and quartz in the Butte 
Creek mining district. 

Calaveras County: On Carson Hill, at Angels and in many of the 
mines of the ]\Iother Lode. It occurs with sphalerite at the Buckhorn 
mine, Oromiento mine, Wa^shington mine, Yaller Kid mine. Collier 
mine near ^Murphy, at West Point in the Star of the West mine and 
Gold Nugget mine ; at the Come t mine on ^Mokelumne River. 

El Dorado County : A sulphide constituent of many of the mines of 
the county. Common in cubes at Grizzly Flats. Some of the mines of 
the county from which it has been reported in the ores, mostly accom- 
panied by pyrite and sphalerite, are: Grand Victory mine, Diamond 
Springs, Flagstaff, Mount Pleasant, Humbug mines' of Grizzly Flat; 
Bonesett and Vandalia mines near Shingle Springs; Pilot Hill mines. 

Fresno County : At Luakala mine. Contact mine, Fresno Chief mina 
Jumper Claim near Spanish Peak. 

Imperial County : Small veins and pockets five miles east of Picacho ; 
large masses in Paymaster mine in the northern part of Barren Moun 
tain near Colorado River. 

Inyo County : Argentiferous galena has been the important silver ore 
of the county. At the old Modoc, San Felipe, Defiance, and other mines 
of the Cerro Gordo district it formed the chief silver ore. Common 
also in the Panamint Range and fine crystals have come from the Blue 
Wing mine. Fine-grained masses occur at the Hidalgo mine. At Blue 
Dick mine ; Kingston ^Mountain ; with cerussite in limestone at Chloride 
Cliif mine; in limestone with splialerite at Camp Burgess; with smith- 
sonite and cerussite in limestone at tlie Ophir mine. Slate Range; in 
the Deep Spring-; mining district ; at the ]\Iorning Star mine, Saratoga 
Springs; at the Custer mine in banded masses with chalcopyrite; the 
^Montezuma mine with cerussite, ten miles southeast of Big Pine ; Mar- 
ble Canyon mine. Opal mine. Lucky Hike Prospect, Nancy Hanks mine, 
and Daisy mine, in the Wancobe mining district ; l^nion mine ; Santa 
Rosa mine ; in most of the mines of the Resting Springs district ; with 
anglesite and cerussite in the l^behebe mine ; in the Darwin mining 
district ; mined at the Monster mine on the east slope of Inyo jMountains. 


Kern County: Occurs in th(? mines near Garlock and in the Ainalie 
district at the Hri^ht Star mine, I'iute district associaird witli arsciio- 
])yrite; witii sclieelite in the Amalie Jawbone Canyon. 

Los Anyeles County: The Kelscy mine near tlie San Cahriel Canyon 
contained some galena. A small deposit occurred on Santa Catalina 
Island which carried a little silver and some sphalerite and chalcopy- 

Madera Count}' : Large cubes have come from the Star mine, Mount 
Raymond district; at the ({ambetta mine, (iiub (tuIcIi; in the Kings 
Creek and ^Minaret districts; in the Silver J'eak and De Soto mines, 
North Fork district; White Chief mine, ^linei-al T^^ing district. 

Mariposa County : Mines near Bagby and Coulterville show galena 
and it is a fre(|uent sulphide constituent of the gold-bearing veins. 
Occurs with light yellow sphalerite disseminated through aui-iferous 
quartz in the Trea^^ure mine, Quartzburg district; also in the ^loore 
Hill and Bondurant mines. , 

Mono County : This is one of the silver-lead counties and argen- 
tiferous galena forms important bodies of ore. It is very common in the 
l^odie, Ik^nton and Jjundy districts and at the claims on the Sweetwater 

]\[()nterey County : Small veins of argentiferous galena occurred in 
ihe old Alisal mine on VA Rnncho Alisal, aliout cighl miles southeast 
of Salinas. 

Nevada County : Found in the Meadow Lake and other mining 
districts of the county. Mentioned by Lindgren^^) as one of the 
minerals of the mines at Grass Valley and Nevada City. 

Orange County: Argentiferous galena occurs near Elsinore and in 
the Silverado district; a1 the Blue Light mine, Santiago Canyon. 

Placer County: In the ()i)hii' mining district at several of the mines; 
also in the mining districts: Last (.'hance, Weinar, Michigan Bluff, 
Butcher Ranch, Dutch Flat, Canada Hill, Deadwood, Rock Creek. 

Plumas County: Occurs in the Meadow Valley and Light's Canyon 
disti'irts. At the Plumas Eureka mine; in the Butte Bar mine; witii 
gold at (iranite Basin; on Feather Kiver a few miles above Quincy. 

Riverside County: Found in the Free Coinage mine, the Steele mine 
and Gold Galena mine. ^Massive pieces and cubes of galena are asso- 
ciated with the garnet, quartz, sphalerite, pyrite and chalcopyrite at 

Sacramento County: At Michigan I^ar with sphalerite and pyrite, 

San Bernardino County : Argentiferous galena with lead carbonate 
was common in several of the silver districts of the county. Common in 
the Silver Mountain, Silver Reef, and to some extent in the Calico 


and Barstow districts. Occurs with linarite. aiiglesite, cerussite and 
smithsonite in a doloniitie limestone at tlie Ibex mine. Black IMountairLs, 
six miles north of Saratoga Springs. 

San Diego County : Small Ixxiy in mica north of Valley Center. 

Shasta County : It is present although not in abundance at most of 
the copper mines. Common in veins in slate in Weaverville Quadrangle. 

Sierra County : In the Pride, Ironsides, Phoenix, Sierra Buttes, Wil- 
lowby, Alhambra. Bullion, Four Hills, Gold Canyon, Black Jack Alaska, 
Kanaka, Nixon and other mines. 

Siskiyou County : Occurs in deposits near Callahan, carrying some 
silver. Also at Seiad valley, Siskiyou mine; Hunter mine; near Yreka; 
altered to anglesite and cerussite at Happy Camp. 

Tehama County: On Cow Creek, Hanks^^^. 

Trinity County : Reported from Dobbyn Creek near Grizzly Creek. 

Tulare County : Prominent in the Mineral King district. 

Tuolumne County :• At the Soulsby mine, and to some extent with 
pyrite and sphalerite in the mines on Quartz Mountain and Whiskey 
Hill. Also at Black Oak mine, Mt. Dana mine, Santa Maria mine, 
Porto Fino mine, Piatt mine, Mary Ellen mine, Keltz mine. Rising 
Sun mine, (lolden Treasure mine, Juliana Bar mine, Star mine, Semi- 
noU^ mine. Providence mine, Carlotta mine. Gem mine. Sonnet mine, 
Experimental mine. 

Ventura Count}' : Occurs with pyrite in the Long Dave mine, near 

30. CHALCOCITE — Copper Glance — Redruthite. 
Sulphide of copper, Cu^S. 

Orthorhombic. Crystals with deeply striated faces. Generally com- 
pact massive. Color dark lead-gray to black. Streak black. Metallic 
luster. H = 2.5 — 3; G = 5.70. 

Chalcocite is easily reduced to metallic copper on charcoal. Dissolved in 
nitric acid and adding ammonia produces a beautiful blue solution. Some 
reddish ferric hydrate is apt to be precipitated as an impurity. 

Massive specimens of the dark gray chalcocite are common in many 
of the copper claims of the State, but large bodies of this valuable 
copper mineral are rare. The mineral is formed in the lower levels 
through the secondary enrichment of the copper-iron sulphides by 
solutions charged with copper obtained from the upper zones of oxida- 
tion. Boruite and chalcopyrite are often intermixed with the chalco- 
cite, and malachite commonly coats the surfaces of specimens. 

Alpine County : Probablj^ the tirst copper claim in the State was 
the Uncle Billy Roger's claim in Hope Valley, in the northwestern 
comer of the county. The claim was described as a chimney-shaped 
deposit in a garnet rock which carried some chalcopyrite, p.^inte and 


Calaveras County : Small amounts of massive ehalcocite have been 
found in the copper deposits at Campo Seco and Copperopolis. 
Occurred also on Quail Hill, Silliman*'^'. Small amount in quartz at the 
Excelsior mine, Angels; also in the Telegraph mine, Hog Hill. 

Colusa County : ^Massive at the American mine. 

Del Norte County : ]\Ia.ssive ehalcocite occurred in the Copper Creek, 
Diamond Creek and Crescent 'City mines. 

El Dorado County: In the old Cosumnes copper mine near Fair- 
play it was associated with boruite and ehalcopyrite. With bornite and 
chalcopyrite in serpentine at the Boston mine, Latrobe. 

Humboldt County : Occurs in the Horse ^Mountain district. Large 
masses and disseminated particles in serpentine, in assocation with 
native copper, malachite and cuprite, occur at the Iron Mt. mine. 

Inyo County : There are numerous copper claims in this county and 
good specimens of the massive ehalcocite have come from the TJbehebe 
Mountains. Also occurs in the JMinnictta mine. Lookout Mining district. 

Kern County: Associated witli ('}iH]('0])yrite on Mesquitc Mountain, 
near Garlock. 

Lake County : Some found on tlie Langtry Ranch, seven miles south 
of Middletown. 

Lassen County : A fine specimen lias come from the Lummis mine. 

Los Angeles County : Occurred in the mines at La Soledad Pass. 

Madera County: Found in the old Buchanan mine. 

Mariposa County: Occurred in small amounts in some of the claims 
near Coulterville. In the Comet mine, Pocahontas mine and at Hornitos. 

Napa County : Associated with covellite and malachite in the Jumper 

Nevada County: With cuprite and malachite at the Ore Grande 
mine, Cisco. 

Placer County : Said to have occurred in the Baker mine near 
Lincoln. With native copper and cuprite at Meadow Lake. 

Plumas County : Rich copper ore consisting of ehalcocite and bornite 
is found in the Gennessee Valley and Light's Canyon districts. Chal- 
cocite occurs at the Engels mine as a replacement of bornite. 

Riverside County : Observed at the Mt. King mine. A little chaco- 
cite is present with other sulphides in the limestone at Crestmore. 

San Benito County : Small grains of ehalcocite occur in the natro- 
lite with the benitoite of this county, Louderback*^^) 

San Bernardino County : Some of the copper claims in the mountains 
in the eastern part of the county contain rich masses of copper glance. 
Good specimens have come from the Silver Prize, Copper AVorld, 
Francis, Arabella, Florence and Hettie mines. Occurs with bornite at 
the Francis Copper mine, Kelso district, Providence Mountains. Found 


in a quartz pori)hyry. seven miles south of Ludlow; with bornite, four 
miles east of Judson ; with tenorite, thirtj'-eight miles east of ]\Iojave. 

San Diego County : Found at Potrero in massive specimens. 

Shasta County : Some chalcocite has been found in most of the 
copper mines of the county, but the mineral is not prominent in any of 
them. Specimens have come from the Mountain Copper, Balaklala, 
Afterthought, Bully Hill and Copper City mines. 

Sierra County : Observed in the Four Hills mine. 

Siskiyou County : Found intermixed with molybdenite at the Yellow 
Hutte Copjier mine, De Laney ; in the Copper King mine; in the 
Bonanza mine near Honolulu. 

Trinity County : In the Copper Queen lode, Carrville district. 
Occurs with the pyrrhotite mass at Island ^Mountain. 

Tuolumne Count}^: Occurred in the "Whiskey Hill mines, Silliman^^^. 

Sulpliiue of silver and copper, (Ag, Cu):S. 

Orthorbombic. Generally compact massive. Color and streak dark 
steel-gray. Metallic luster. H = 2.5 — 3; G = 6.15 — 6.3. 

Dissolved in nitric acid, and a few drops of hydrochloric acid added to 
the solution produces a precipitate of white silver chloride. Ammonia added 
to solution dissolves this precipitate and the .solution turns deep blue. 

This mineral has only been found in silver districts where copper is 
also present. It is formed in the same way as chalcocite and may grade 
into it. 

Alpine County : Believed to be a part of the ore in the Monitor and 
Mogul districts, associated with galena, sphalerite, pyrite and enargite. 

Inyo County : The Silver Queen and other mines of the Panamint 
Mountains contained the mineral with tetrahedrite and cerargyrite. 
Found also in the Cerro Gordo and Wild Rose districts. 

Riverside County: Probably present in the Homestake copper mine 
in the Palen Mountains. 

San Bernardino County : It occurred as one of the numerous minerals 
of the Calico district and an analysis of it from the Silver King mine 
was made by Melville and Lindgren(i>. 

Ag Cu Fe S Res =: BaSO^+SiOs 

53.96 28.58 0.26 15.51 1.55 = 99.86 per cent. Sp. = 6.28 

Sierra County : A specimen of copper-silver sulphide stromeyerite 
came from the Original 16-1 mine, Alleghany. 


32. SPHALERITE— Zincblende— Black Jack. 
Sulphide of zinc, ZuS. 

Isoiuetnc, tctrahodnil. Imperfect crystals, granular and massive. Cleav- 
age perfect dodecaiiodral. Color yellow, brown and black. Streak colorless 
to yellowish brown. Kesinous luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 4.0. 

l{»'fractivt' index: /(=1.'.47. 

A slight coating, yollowisli wiiih' 1h>1 and wlicn cold, is ublainetl 
liy intense heating. A few drops of cohall nitrate added to the assay and 
intensely heated sives a yellowish ;:r('rn color, which is characteristic of 
zinc uiinei'als. (jives slronj? hydrogen sulphide odor when dissolved in 
hydrochloric acid. 

Sphalerite is a very common sulphide and is very prevalent in most 
of the mining regions. It occurs from clear light brown to very dark 
brown, almost black masses. Its typical associate is galena, but it is 
also often intimately mixed with pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, 
arsenopyrite and lead-silver minerals. In the smelting of zinc-bearing 
ores few of the smelters have endeavored to save the zinc. 

Alpine County : Occurred as one of the minerals in the Rogers claim, 
Hope Valley. 

Calaveras County : Common in the pyrite ore at Campo Seco and 
Coppernpolis. Common in the mines near ]\Iurphy with galena. In 
the \Va.shiii,trton mine, Indian Creek ; at West Point in the Gold Nugget, 
Star of the AVest and other claims, with galena in auriferous quartz. 
In the Grasshopper, Comet, Jones mines. 

El Dorado County: One of the sulphides in the mines at Grizzly 
Flats, Pilot Hill and other mines of the county. In the ]Mt. Pleasant, 
Eagle King, Sun Dog, Flagstaff. Madelena, Humphrey, Grand Victory 
mines associated witli galena. 

Fresno County: In the -Jumper Claim near Spanish Peak. In the 
Luakala mine with galena and quartz. 

Humboldt County : Found as float on Yager Creek. 

Inyo County: Common as an associate with galena in the Darwin, 
Cerro Gordo and Inyo ^Mountain mines. Occurs in small amounts with 
the garnet and scheelite near Bishop. 

Kern County : Very fine-grained masses in tlie Cinderella mine ; with 
pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite near Lebec Post Office; in the 
Urbana mine. 

Los Angeles County: With galena and chalcopyrite on Santa Cata- 
lina Island. 

IMadera County : With galena in the McMurray and Homestake 
mines, ]\It. Raymond ; in the Gambetta mine. Grub Gulch ; at the Fine 
Gold mine. Railroad Flat ; with galena and chalcopyrite at the Nellie 
and Abbey mines. Hildreth district ; in the El Capitan. Advance, De 
Soto, Alatilda and Commoner mines. North F'ork district. Occurs on 


the North Fork Sail Joaquin River, and masses of sphalerite with streaks 
of ehalcopyrite occur in the Best Chance mine in the Minaret district. 

Mariposa County : Occurs in the mines along the Mother Lode. A 
light brown tribo-luuiiuescent variety mixed with white barite and gray 
tetrahedrite, the ore resembling a dark gray schist, was found at the 
Fitch mine and was described by Eakle^^^ and Eakle and Sharwood^^^. 
The sphalerite emits a peculiar train of light when scratched or rubbed. 
The material was first put on the market as a radium ore, and later 
has been ground and sold to the gullible public, under the name 
"Akoz, " as a curative for a great variety of ailments. Light yellow 
with galena at the Treasure mine, Quartzburg district ; dark sphalerite 
Avith ehalcopyrite on the Chowchilla River; in the Bondurant mine with 
galena and quartz. 

]\Iono County : Occurs in the Homer, Lundy and Benton districts. 
Massive black with pyrite occurs at the Bunker Hill mine. Largo dis- 
trict; with galena in the White Mountains east of Benton. 

Nevada County : Occurs in many of the gold mines of this county. 
Prominent in the Meadow Lake district and in the mines of Grass Valley 
and Nevada City. 

Orange County : Occurs with galena in the Blue Light mine, San- 
tiago Canyon. 

Placer County : One of the associate minerals in the gold deposit at 
Ophir. With galena and pyrrhotite in the True Fissure Mine; in the 
St. Lawrence and Bullion mines. 

Plumas County : The mines of the Meadow Valley, Indian Valley and 
Light 's Canyon contain some sphalerite with the other sulphides. Small 
crystals occur in the fine-grained quartz at Cronsberg; with galena and 
gold-bearing quartz in Granite Basin and in the Plumas Eureka mine. 
Small amounts occur with the eop])er ores at Engels. 

Riverside County : Blaek sphalerite occurs in the vesuvianite-garnet 
masses at Crestmore, some of it coated with yellow greenockite. 

Sacramento C'ountj^: At Michigan Bar with galena. 

San Bernardino County : In this county zincblende is found to some 
extent with the silver-lead sulphides. Specimens have come from the 
Silver Reef, Calico, Grapevine and Lava Beds districts. Perfect tetra- 
hedral crystals were found in the Morongo district ; also common in 
the New York mountains. 

San Diego County : With pyrrhotite and pyrite near Fallbrook. 

Santa Clara County: Small amounts in quartz reported from the 
Dennis Martin ranch, four miles* west of Menlo Park. 

Shasta County : Masses of sphalerite occur in the Afterthought and 
Peck mines and to some extent in the Bully Hill, Copper City, Iron 
Mountain and other districts of the county. 


Sierra County : With galena, chaleopyrite and arsenopyrite in the 
Allegliany district ; in the Sierra Buttes mine. Kanaka mine and in 
the Nixon Group. American Hill district. 

Siskiyou County : Connnon with galena and chaleopyrite at Calla- 
han. Occurs witli pyritc in gold <iuartz in the Griz/.ly Gnlcli mine. 
Indian Creek, and in the Huntci" mine. Cherry Creek. 

Trinity County: Small amounts occur with the ore at Island ^loun- 

Tulare County : Connnon in the Mineral King district. 

Tuolumne County : Massive at the Soulsby mine and sparingly in the 
mines along the Mother Lode. Ait the Starr, Lost Fox, Keltz, Mary 
Ellen. Piatt. Porto Fino. Pine Momitain, iiouisiana, Mt. Dana, Santa 
]Maria. Black Oak. Sonnet. Draper, Den.smore and Carlotta mines asso- 
ciated with galena and occasionally with pyrrhotite. 

Sulphide of manganese, MnS. 

Isometric. Usuall.v iri'auular massive. Perfect cubic cleavage. Color 
iron-black to rlark brown. Streak green. H=3.5 — 4; G=4.00. 

The roasted niim-ral gives a manganese bead with borax. Soluble in 
hydrochloric acid witli the evolution of hydrogen sulphide. 

^langanese occurs usually as oxides or oxygen compounds, but the 
sulphide is found occasionally as a vein mineral in metallic sulphide 
deposits, e-specially with sulpliides of copper. 

San Bernardino County : A specimen has come from this county, but 
the locality is not given. 

San Diego County: Specimens have come from this county, perhaps 
from the Julian district. 

Sulphide of mercury, HgS. 

Isometric, tetrahedral. Usually massive and amorphous. Color grayish 
black. Streak black. Metallic luster. H = 3; G = 7.81. 

Vaporizes with invisible fumes and gives a slight sulphur odor. Dis- 
tinguished fi'om cinnabar by its black color. 

The black sulphide of mercury was discovered in 1872 at the old 
Redington mine, Knoxville, and since its discovery has been found in 
many of the cinnabar deposits of the State. 

Colusa County: Found in the Sulphur Creek district at the Manza- 
nita mine with cinnabar and gold. 


Inyo County: Occurred in the Cerro Gordo mine and was analysed 
by Melville and Lindgren^^). 

HgS FeS + SiOo 

95.62 4.38 

Lake County : Prominent in the Great Western, Baker and Abbott 
luiiu's. Also fouml in the Bradford mine. 

Monterey County : With the einnal)ar in the Parkfield district. 

Napa County: Discovered in the Redington (later Bost(m) mine. It 
oceiirred in black amorphous-like masses and Avas described as a now 
mineral by Moore*^'. Good crystals were later found in the same mine 
which showed the mineral to be isometric instead of amorphous, Pen- 
lield*!'. Forms: (111), (211), (322), (975). Analyses of the mineral 
from this mine were made by Moore^^* and also by Melville and Lind- 

S Hg Fe SiOo 

Moore 13.82 85.79 0.39 0.25 =100.25 per cent 

HgS FeS SiOj 

M. and L. 99.48 0.09 0.71 = 99.88 per cent 

98.48 0.94 0.71 =100.13 

The old Reed mine contained considerable metacinnabarite. In the 
Oat Hill mine specimens were found coated with white calomel. 

Orange County : Found on the San Joaquin Ranch disseminated 

through a ferruginous barite; analysed by Genth^^^. 

Hg s ci 

85.89 13.69 0.32 =99.90 per cent 

San Benito County : Large pieces have been found in the New Hope 
vein of the New Idria mine. Found also at the Picachos mine in black 
masses, Rogers'^\ 

San Luis Obispo County: In the Adalaide and Oceanic districts it 
has been occasionally found. 

Santa Clara County: Considerable amounts have been found in the 
New Almaden and Guadalupe mines. Melville and Lindgren^^' ana- 
lysed the mineral from the New Almaden mine and described the 
crystals as hexagonal, with some complex and doubtful forms: (0001), 
(0554), (ITOI), (1322), (SO.oO.O.l), (, (41.38.3.T). 

Analysis : 

Vol. org. 
S Hs Fo Co Zn Mn CaCOs SiO-. matter 

13.68 78.01 0.61 tr. 0.90 0.15 0.71 4.27 0.63 =99.26 per cent 

Solano County: Occurred in the Hastings mine. 
Sonoma County: Considerable metacinnabarite was found in the 
Culver-Baer mine, east of Cloverdale. 

Yolo County: Found in the California mine, later called Reed mine, 


Sulphide of mercurj', HgS. 

Ilex.igoual, rhombohedral. Small crystals commou. Also granular mas- 
sive. Cleavage perfect prismatic. Color cochineal-red. Streak scarlet- 
red. Adamantine luster. H = 2-— 2.5; G = S.O. 

lit'liactive indict: ^ = 3.202; (^ =>4. 

Vaporizes with invisible fumes and yields a slight sulphur odor, hut no 
coating which distinguishes it from roalirar. Completely disappears by heat- 

Cinnabar was known in the State long prior to the discovery of gold, 
and the old mine at New Ahnaden had been in active operation for some 
time when Lyman^^) described a visit to it in 1848. The most important 
deposits lie in the Coast Ranges extending from Del Norte County to 
San Diego County, those in the Sierras being of minor value. The most 
important counties in the production of quicksilver have been Lake, 
Napa, Santa Clara and San Benito counties and many flasks of mercury 
have come from once famous mines which are now idle or exhausted. 
The deposits in general occur along the contact between serpentine and 
metamorphic sandstones and shales, and the mineral has been deposited 
from solfataric waters carrying the sulphide in solution. These solu- 
tions have impregnated the sandstones and brecciated masses of opal 
and chalcedony which have formed in the serpentine through much 
silicification, leaving seams and pockets of cinnabar. The impregna- 
tions have followed flows and intrusions of igneous rock in the immediate 
neighborhood. Beoker<^*, Forstner'^' and Bradley^^' have issued gen- 
eral reports on tlie quicksilver deposits of California. 

Alameda County : Streaks of cinnabar occur in a chalcedonic mass in 
the Cragmont district, North Berkeley. 

Calaveras County : A small amount of cinnabar witli quart/, has been 
found in the Blue Wing mine, north of ]\Iurpliy. 

Colusa County : Deposits occur on both sides of Sulphur Creek in 
sandstones and shales, associated with sulphur, bitumen and gold. The 
Manzanita, Elgin, Empire and Wide Awake mines were former pro- 
ducers. Till- Manzanita mine was noted for its occurrence of gold with 
the cinnabar. 

Contra Costa County : A deposit was found on the eastern slope of 
the north peak of Mt. Diablo in sei'pentine. 

Del Norte County : Cinnabar is found in the northern part of the 
county in the Diamond Creek district. 

El Dorado County : The Bernard or old Amador quicksilver mine has 
produced some of the mineral. The mine is located on Fanny Creek, 
two miles west of Nashville and about eight miles from Shingle Springs, 
in slates and quartzites. 


Fresno County : Cinnabar claims exist in the Little Panoche district 
on the Gabilan Range and on Cantua Creek. The Mexican mine, about 
nine miles southeast of New Idria in sandstones, was an early producer. 

Glenn County : The mineral has been reported on the Nye Ranch, 
southwest of Fruto, and on the Turner Ranch, west of Elk Creek. 

Humboldt County : A small deposit occurs near Orleans Bar. 

Inyo County : Small amounts of cinnabar occurred at the Cerro 
Gordo mines. Also observed at the Chloride Cliff mine in the Funeral 
Mountains west of Rhyolite. 

Kern County: The Cuddeback cinnabar mine, three miles from 
Woodford, contains cinnabar in a porous porphyritic rhyolite. Some 
cinnabar has been observed about 2^ miles west of Cinco and twenty 
miles from Mojave. 

Kings County: Small deposits of the mineral exist on Table Moun- 
tain in the southern part of the county, and the Kings mine has native 
mercury associated with the cinnabar. The mineral occurs in serpen- 
tine, shale and metamorphosed sandstone. 

Lake County: The important and interesting deposit of cinnabar at 
Sulphur Bank on the shore of Clear Lake has been described at length 
by Becker^ 1) and by Le Conte and Rising(i>. Cinnabar is at present 
in process of formation in the porous disintegrated basalt which out- 
crops on the lake. They are characteristically long hexagonal prisms 
capped by the low rhombohedron (2023). Melville and Lindgren^^^ 
gave the forms (3034) and (0334). The Great Western, Baker, Helen, 
Wall Street and Mirabel mines, all situated a few miles from Middle- 
toMns, were famous producers. Quicksilver was once the leading min- 
eral output of the county, but at present little cinnabar is mined. 

Marin County : Streaks of cinnabar have been observed in the rock 
near Point Reyes', but no deposits are known. 

Mariposa County : Crystals of cinnabar are said to have occurred 
near Coulterville associated with gold, in a quartz ledge on the Merced 

Mendocino County: A small deposit at the Occident mine, seven 
miles southwest of Hopland. 

Merced County: Small deposits occur on the dividing line of San 
Benito County. 

Modoc County : A deposit occurs 3^ miles southeast of Willow Ranch 
station, close to the county road. It has also been reported twenty-five 
miles southeast of Cedarville. 

Mono County: Small amounts of cinnabar have been found about 
five miles northeast of Bodie. Cinnabar occurs with calcite and some 
native mercurv five miles northeast of Bodie. 


Monterey County: Some of the deposits on Table Mountain near 
Parkfit'ld are in this county. Tlic l*atri<|uin or ParktieM mine has been 
the chief producer. 

Napa County : This county has long ])een an important producer of 
mercury, the mine at Oat Hill being among the best known in active 
operation. The cinnabar is found impregnating unaltered sandstone. 
The abandoned old Redington or Boston mine at Knoxville is famous for 
the rare and new minerals found with the cinnabar. Much of the cinna- 
bar of this region impregnates shattered chalcedony masses in the ser- 
pentine, as at the Manhattan mine, and some impregnates the serpen- 
tine. Crj'stals from tlie Boston mine, according to IMelville and 
Lindgren*^\ have the forms (0445) and (lOTO). Deposits of the Pope 
Valley have also been important. Cinnabar was the leading mineral of 
the county, the Oat Hill mine l)eing the chief producer. 

Nevada County: Found in association with gold at Grass Valley, 
W. P. Blake*^', Lindgren**^'. Occurs scattered through quartzose and 
dolomite gangue on contact of serpentine and quartzite on Nickerson 
Ranch, in southern part of county. 

Orange County : A small deposit on San Joaquin Ranch. 

San Benito County : The mines in the New Idria district, in the 
southern part of the county, have been the most productive in the State. 
The cinnabar solutions have impregnated the sandstones and to some ex- 
tent the serpentines near the contact of the two and also as stockwerks in 
slate. The New Idria mine is the most important of the district. Smaller 
deposits of the mineral also occur near the center of the county and in the 
extreme northeastern part of the county. Melville and Lindgren^^) 
describe crystals from the New Idria mine with the forms: (0001), 
(0223), (01T2), (OlTl), (2023), (10T2), (lOTO), (6.4.T0.25), (, 
(, (, (, ( It 
occurred with stibnite at the French and Florence mines. 

San Bernardino County : Deposits exist nine miles northeast of 
Danby in a breccia. The mineral occurs as inclusions in bluish gray 
chalcedony in the southern end of Death Valley, fifteen miles northeast 
of Lead Pipe Spring.s and forty-five miles north of east from Johannes- 
l)urg, and colors the chalcedony with reddish blotches and streaks, 
forming the gem stone known as ' ' myrickite. ' ' It has also been found 
associated with wolframite in the Clark ^Mountains near Ivanpah. 
Some cinnabar was also found on City Creek, six miles from San 

San Francisco County: Small streaks of cinnabar occur on Twin 

San Luis Obispo County : The productive mines occur in the Santa 
Lucia Range, and comprise several districts of which the Oceanic and 
Adelaide are the most important. The ore impregnates the Fran- 


eiscan sandstones and shales and also chalcedonic masses in the ser- 
pentine. There are numerous other small deposits in outlying districts. 

San Mateo County : Some cinnabar oet'urred on the Corte de Madera 
Raneho near Searsville, west of I'alo Alto. Small .striiifrers of cinnabar 
occur in the serpentine just of San ^Niateo. 

Santa Barbara County: Some cinnabar occurs in the Santa Ynez 
Range and near the Acachuma Creek. The Acachuma, Los Prietos and 
Santa Rosa mines have produced some quicksilver. 

Santa Clara County: The New Ahnaden mine is the oldest quick- 
silver mine in the State. It has been a famous producer and is still 
being worked. The cinnabar of the district occurs impregnating in 
streaks the opal-like masses of silica formed by the alteration of the 
serpentine. Melville and Lindgren^^^ described crystals from the mine 
with forms: (0001), (01T2), (0228), (0221), (lOTO), (0.U.T1.5). The 
Guadalupe, Senator, and other mines of this locality, have also been 
important producers of the metal. 

Shasta Coimty : Some cinnabar is found about thirty miles northeast 
of Redding, and at the Clover Creek mine. 

Siskiyou County : Deposits occur near Oak Bar, Avhich have been 
worked slightly. 

Solano County: The old St. John mine, in a basin between Mount 
Lutfman and oMount St. John, about six miles northeast of Vallejo, was 
a good producer in the early days of cinnabar mining. The mineral was 
disseminated in metamorphic dikes. 

Sonoma County : Most of the mines Avhich were once productive occur 
in the Mayacmas district, along the ]\Iayacmas range. This region has 
been the scene of great volcanic activity and the cinnabar has followed 
these eruptions and impregnated the sandstones, serpentines and meta- 
morphosed sedimentaries Avhich lie on the tianks of the range. Cinna- 
bar in fine crj^stals occurs witli native mei-cury and metacinnabarite in 
the Culver-Baer mine. In the Great Eastern mine a black bitumen 
corresponding to grahamite occurred with the ore, Bradley'^'. Native 
mercury is quite prominent in the New Sonoma mine in the ]*ino Flat 
district, about sixteen miles of Healdsburg. 

Stanislaus County: The cinnabar deposits occur on Red Mountain 
on the border of Santa Clara County. 

Trinity County: The old Altoona and other claims in the northern 
part of the county, near Cinnabar and Carrville, were once productive. 

Tuolumne County: Small crystals and grains of cinnabar occur at 
]\Iarsh's Flats and on the slope of the ridge east of Horseshoe Bend. 

Yolo County : The deposits of this county are in the continuation of 
the Knoxville district. Tlie Reed mine, originally called the California 
mine, was the most noted. ^ludi mctaciimabaritc was associated. 


Sulpliiile of tadmiuiu, CdS. 

Hexagonal. Geuerally as Ihiu coatings. Color lemon-yellow. Resinous 
luster. H=3 — 3.5; G = 4.9 — 5.0. 

Refractive indices: £=2.5l2!>: t^ = l2.5(X). 

Mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal, a coating is ob- 
tained which is rcddish-lnown near the assay and yellow beyond. 

A very rare mineral found coating sphalerite occasionally. 
It is usually present in zinc siili)lii(le ores and the metallic cadmium 
output comes fi-(im zinc ores. 

Mono County : Thin coatings of yellow greenockite occur on magne- 
tite and sphalerite near Topaz. 

Riverside Comity : Thin coatings of yellow cadmium sulphide were 
found on sphalerite in the limestone quarry at Crestmore. 

Shasta County : Cadmium as greenockite occurs in the copper-zinc 
ores of this county and the jMammoth Copper Company recovers it in 
their electrolytic zinc plant. 

37. COVELLITE— Blue Copper. 
Sulphide of copper, CuS. 

Hexagonal. Commonly massive. Cleavage basal. Color indigo-blue. 
Streak grayish black. Metallic luster. H = 1.5 — 2; 0=4.59 — 4.63. 

Refractive index: (^ = 1.45. 

Gives a stronger oder of sulphur than is obtained from chalcocite, other- 
wise the reactions are the same. Distinguished by color. 

Covellite is a much rarer form of copper sulphide than chalcocite and 
it has only been found as an occasional specimen. It is usually associ- 
ated with bornite, chalcocite or ehalcopyrite. 

Calaveras County : Specimens have been found at the Satellite mine 
near Campo Seco. 

El Dorado County: With clialcopyritc in the Rose Kimberley and 
Jionesett mines. 

Humboldt Coiiiit.x-: Some covellite has been found on Horse Moun- 

Inyo County : Specimens have come from the Ubehebe Mountains. 

IVIadera County : Found at the old Pocahontas mine. 

Mariposa County: Small amounts have been found in the Copper 
Queen mine, near Mariposa. 

Napa County : Associated with chalcocite and malachite at the Juni- 
per mine. 

Plumas County: Occurs as a marginal replacement of bornite and 
ehalcopyrite at Engels. 


Shasta County: Some covellite occurs in the Balaklala mine, and at 
the Bully Hill mine as an alteration of ehalcopyrite. 

Sierra County : At the Black Jack miue, Kanaka Creek. 

Siskiyou County : Oecur.s associated Avith bornite and ehalcopyrite 
at the Copper Kin"- mine, Blue Ledge mining district. 

38. MILLERITE— Capillary Pyrites. 
Sulphide of nickel, NiS. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Usually in long slender needles and hair- 
like tufts. Cleavage perfect prismatic. Color brass-yellow. Streak 
greenish black. Metallic luster. H=:3 — 3.5; G = 5.65. 

Roasted on charcoal, it yields a slight od<u- of sulphur and leaves a mag- 
netic residue. The roasted residue fused in a bead of borax, will give a 
brown bead, which becomes gray and cloudy, when reduced. Produces a 
blue solution like copper when dissolved in nitric acid and ammonia added. 
The borax bead of copper is blue. 

Nickel minerals are quite rare in the State and their occurrence has 
been limited to the discovery of occasional specimens. Some needles of 
millerite have been found in the cinnabar districts, and rarely with 

Calaveras County : Long divergent prisms were found in white albite 
at the Stanislaus mine on Carson Hill, which Jaekson'^^ thought to be 
elongated cubes of pyrite. 

Humboldt County: Specimens of serpentine from this county ocea- 
sionall}^ contain needles of millerite. 

Xapa County : Small coatings of capillary millerite were found with 
cinnabar at the Andalusia mine near Knoxville; also at the Oat Hill 
mine and in Pope Valle^'. Specimens of serpentine have come from 
Beryessa Valley containing needles of millerite. 

Placer County: Found with arsenopyrite near Cisco, Hanks ^^). 

Plumas County : Millerite as coatings occurred in the Pocahontas 
mine, Mount Meadow district. 


Mouosulphide of iron, FeS. 

Massive. Compact granular. Color light grayish brown. Speedily tar- 
nishes to bronze-brown. Metallic luster. H = 3.5 — i.5 ; G = 4.7. Non-mag- 

Fuses to a black magnetic mass. Easily soluble in dilute sulphuric acid 
and generates strong hydrogen sulphide fumes and odor. 

The monosulphide has been found heretofore only in meteorites. Its 
easy solubility in sulphuric acid distinguishes it from pyrrhotite. 

Del Norte County : Found massive in a sheared zone of serpentine, 
iiaving magnetite included, in a copper claim in the northern part of 


the coimty, northeast of Crescent City. Tlie mineral was analysed and 
described by Eakle. Analyses of the soluble portion gave : 









It contains inclnsion.s of magnetite from which it has probably been 

40. PYRRHOTITE— Magnetic Pyrites. 
Sulphide of iron, FenSn + i- 

Hexagonal. CiTstals rare. Commonly massive, either granular or 
compact. Color bronze-brown. Streak grayish blax;k. Metallic luster. 
Usually slightly magnetic. H = 3.5 — 4.5; G=: 4.58 — 4.64. 

Usually masnetic cold, but becomes stronger when heated. Slight sul- 
phur odor. Its bronze color and magnetism distinguish it. 

The bronze-brown pyrrhotitc is often associated with pyrite and 
sometimes is found in large lenticular masses. It is a common sulphide 
in gold and copper districts, although generally in small amounts. 
Masses of it occur in serpentine and in pegmatite veins. It is some- 
times nickeliferous. 

Calaveras County : Occasionally found with the pyrite at Campo 
Seco, Copperopolis and at West Point. 

Del Norte County: The copper claims in the northern part of the 
county on Diamond Creek, Copper Creek and Shelly Creek contain 
pyrrhotite with ehalcopyrite. Witli chaleopyrite and pyrite in the 
Angoi*a mine, Preston Peak and at French Hill. 

El Dorado County: With sphalerite and chaleopyrite in auriferous 
quartz at the Madalena mine, near Diamond Springs; massive with 
chaleopyrite at the Noonday mine. In large masses with chaleopyrite 
and pyrite at the Alabaster mine. Pilot Hill. 

Fresno County : Large bodies are said to occur on the Fresno Copper 
Company's property. 

Humboldt County : Bodies are said to exist on Elk Creek. 

Inyo County : Occurs with chaleopyrite and pyrite at Marble Canyon. 

Lake County: Found on the Langtry Ranch, seven miles south of 

Madera County: Found in the old Buchanan mine, Turner^'*\ Inti- 
mate mixtures of pyrrhotite. sphalerite, pyrite and chaleopyrite occur 
in the Mt. Raymond district. Also in the Minaret district massive con- 
taining thin .seams of chaleopyrite in chlorite and actinolite at the 
Heiskell mine. A large body ahout twelve miles northeast of Madera, 
said to carry several per cent of cobalt and nickel. 

Marin County : Tabular crystals have been found on Mount Tamal- 



Mariposa County : Thick bodies occur in the Green Mountain mine. 
The mineral is common as one of the sulphides of the gold mines. 

Mono County: Common in quartz at the Tioga mine, Turner^^) 

Nevada County: Found in the mines of Grass Valley and Nevada 
City, Lindgren**^*. Also in the Meadow Lake district, LindgTen^'\ 
Massive at the Yuba Mine, Washington district ; also at Speneeville. 

Placer County: One of the sulphides of the Ophir mine, Lindgren^^). 
With galena and sphalerite in quartz at the True Fissure mine, Devils 
Peak IMountain. 

Plumas County : Occuns in masses between sandstone and serpen- 
tine about 1^ miles south of Taylorsville ; intimately mixed with chalco- 
pyrite at the Reward and Beckwitli mines. 

San Diego County : A large body of nickel-bearing pyrrhotite occurs 
at the Friday copper mine, Julian district, on contact of gabbro and 
fine-grained mica-schist. It has pyrite, ehaleopyrite and polydymite 
associated. Occurs also near Fallbrook. 

Shasta County: Found with the pyrite at some of the copper mines 
and noticed at the Black Diamond copper mine and Sutro mines; also 
carrying nickel on the Jennings property near Hirtz Mountain. 

Sierra County : With ehaleopyrite at the Cabin prospect. 

Siskiyou County: Prominent with ehaleopyrite at Callahan. Said 
to l^e nickeliferous at the Hummer mine. With chalcopj'rite at the 
Bonanza mine, near Honolulu ; at tlie Carlson mine, Dutch Creek ; with 
galena in quartz at the Siskiyou mine, head of White Gulch. 

Trinity County : Near Otto Rest specimens have been found. 

Tuolumne County: In gneiss on north fork of Beaver River, Tur- 
ner^***. Occurs with sphalerite and galena at the Soulsby mine; in 
(quartz with galena and sphalerite at the Montgomery, Cherokee, Car- 
lotta, Den.smore, Draper and Louisiana mines. 


Sulphide of uickel, Ni«S5. 

Isometric. Crystals and massive. Color steel gray. Metallic luster. 
II = 4..5; G = 4..51— 4.81. 

Soluble in nitric acid, giving green solution, which turns blue on the addi- 
tion of ammonia. Becomes magnetic on heating and gives off sulphur odor. 

The presence of nickel has been detected in some of our pyrrhotites 
and it may be in the form of a nickel sulphide such as polydymite or 

San Diego County : It is believed that the nickel mineral included in 
the pyrrhotite at the Friday mine, Julian district.' is polydymite. 


42. BORNITE — Erubescite — Peacock Ore. 
Sulphide of copper and iron, CualJeSa. 
Isometric. Crjstals very rare. Generally compact massive. Color red- 
dish brown, generally tarnished to iridescent colors. Streak grayish black. 
Metallic luster. H = 3; G=4.9 — 5.4. 

Reduced on charcoal with sodium carbonate, it yields globules of metallic 
copper and a mairnotic residue. Dissolved in nitric arid and ammonia 
added, much ferric hydrate is precipitated, while the solution becomes blue. 

Bornite is generally associated with chalcoeite and chalcopyrite, and 
is frequently found in small masses in many of the copper districts. 
It is sometimes formed along contact zones with garnet, epidote, vesuvia- 
nite and other contact minerals. The reddish brown color and charac- 
teristic tarnish to peacock colors readily distinguishes bornite from 
graj'ish black chalcoeite and brass-yellow chalcopyrite. 

Calaveras County : Small masses have been found at Campo Seco 
and Copperopolis. 

Del Norte County: Common in the mines at the head of Copper 
Creek. Found with enargite at French Hill. 

El Dorado County : At Slug Gulch with chalcopyrite and massive 
green epidote. In the old Cosumnes copper mine near Fairplay, mas- 
sive bornite occurred in coarse pegmatite of orthoclase, hornblende, 
epidote. garnet and molybdenite. Found at Georgetown with massive 
garnet. Small amounts found in the Alabaster Cave mine near Xew- 
hall, with chalcopyrite, azurite and malachite. 

Fresno County : Occurs with magnetite and free gold in the Uncle 
Sam mine, Tehipite Dome. 

Inyo County : Found in some of the mines of the Inyo and Ubehebe 

Lassen County : Bornite occurs disseminated in a pegmatite vein 
three miles west of Buntingville. 

Los Angeles County : Found in the Meadow Valley district with fine 
crystals of garnet. 

Mono County: Occurred in the Tioga mine and in the Benton dis- 

Plumas County : Massive bornite is a common form of copper in 
Light's Canyon, Genessee Valley and Indian Valley. The chief copper 
mineral of the county. Brilliant peacock ore occurs in the Engels mine 
and Duncan mine. 

Riverside County. A small amount of this sulphide was found with 
the metamorphic silicates at Crestmore. 

San Bernardino County: Bornite occurs at the Tiptop mine, Lava 
Beds district. Found with chalcoeite in the Francis Copper mine, 
Kelso district, Providence Mountains. 


Santa Clara County: Near Lexington, Hanks^*'^ 

Shasta County : Bornite is occasionally found in the copper mines of 
this county and specimens have come from Bully Hill, Copper City, 
Afterthought and Iron Mountain. 

Trinity County : Occurs with pyrrhotite at Island Mountain. 

Sulphide of copper and iron, CuFeoS^. 

Isometric. Generally massive. Color bronze-yellow. Streak black. 
Metallic luster. H=4; Gi=4. 

Gives similar reactions to chalcopyrite. 

Cubanite is a rare mineral and it needs careful analyses to substan- 
tiate its occurrence. 

El Dorado County : Specimens have come from some locality in this 

San Luis Obispo County : A large mass of this mineral was found on 
Santa Rosa Creek near San Simeon, Hanks ^^^ The specimens have a 
bronze-yellow color and are compact massive. 

44. CHALCOPYRITE— Copper Pyrites. 
Sulphide of copper and iron, CaFeS,. 

Tetragonal. Generally massive. Color deep brass-yellow, often with 
iridescent tarnish. Streak greenish black. Metallic luster. H=3.5 — 4; 
G = 4.1 — 4.3. 

Fusible and soluble. Ammonia added to a nitric acid solution precipitates 
reddish ferric hydrate and turns solution blue. Becomes magnetic after 
roasting and small globules of copper are obtained by reduction with soda. 
Distinguished from pyrite by deeper color and presence of copper ; from 
bornite by its brass color, and from gold by its ready .solubility in nitric acid. 

Chalcopyrite is the commonest. of the copper minerals and forms the 
principal source of copper in the State. The copper deposits are largely 
bodies of pyrite in which chalcopyrite is intermingled, forming in 
general low grade copper ore with some gold and silver. The ore 
bodies usually occur in shear zones and belts of metamorphic rock and 
their origin has been due to solutions carrying the sulphides and impreg- 
nating the crystalline schists, and occasionally the coimtry rock, the 
impregnations following flows and intrusions of igneous rock. Where 
conditions have been favorable the pyrite has become segregated into 
large masses with often more or less lenticular shape. Deposits along 
the contact between limestone and igneous rock are common. The 
common associated minerals with the pyrite and chalcopj-rite are galena 
and sphalerite and occasionally stibnite, bismuthinite and tetrahedrite. 
Besides quartz, calcite and barite are often present as gangue minerals. 
Most of the deposits have a gossan capping of earthy limohite and 


hematite resulting from the oxidation of the iron sulphides. Practi- 
cally all of the large bodies of pyrite in the State carry some ehalco- 
pyrite, but thase in Sha.sta and Calaveras counties are at present the 
most important in the production of copper. Chalcopyrite in small 
l)atehes and seams has a wide distribution and in consequence of its 
alteration green stains and coatings of copper carbonate are very com- 
mon. A general report on the copper resources of the State has been 
given in Bull. 50, California State Mining Bureau, and some of the 
datfi) regarding localities is incorporated below. 

Alameda County: A body of pyrite containing a small amount of 
chalcopyrite is mined at Leona Heights, East Oakland, for sulphuric 
acid. The ore lies between serpentine and altered volcanic rock and 
the alteration minerals have been described by Schaller^^^. 

Alpine County : The oldest copper claim in the State was the Uncle 
Billy Rogers claim in Hope Valley. This claim located in 1855 con- 
sisted of chalcopyrite, pyrite and bornite in a chimney-shaped deposit 
in garnet rock. Some chalcopyrite occurs with the pyrite and enargite 
in the Mogul district. 

Amador County: In the foothills in the western part of the county 
there is a belt of hornblende and chlorite schists w^hich contain frequent 
lenticular masses of pyrite with chalcopyrite and many claims are 
located along the belt. The old Newton mine near Ranlett, claims near 
Jackson and those of Copper Hill are well knoAvn. 

Butte County : Occurs near Bangor. Occurs with quartz, chalcocite, 
chalcopyrite and gold on Berry Creek. 

Calaveras County: The belt of schists in the western part of the 
county contain important deposits and the mines at Copperopolis and 
at Campo Seeo are still important producers of copper. Copper is one 
of the chief mineral products of the county and chalcopyrite is the 
principal mineral. Some of the mines in which the mineral occurs are: 
Sheridan mine, one-half mile below Robinson Ferry ; Pattee mine. 
Valley Springs; King mine in quartz; Hoosier mine in quartz; Cala- 
veras Chief mine; Blazing Star and Lockwood mines, West Point; 
Telegraph mine, Hog Hill, with chalcocite, melaconite, covellite, mala- 
chite, azurite and native copper ; with chalcocite at the Excelsior mine, 
Angels; Napoleon, T^nion and Satellite mines, Copperopolis; Keystone 
mine; Quail Hill. 

Colusa County : Occurs two miles from Phelps Springs, Stony Creek. 

Contra Costa County: Occurs v ith pyrite in quartz on Eagle Peak, 
Mt. Diablo. 

Del Norte County : Deposits of chalcopyrite with pyrite and pyrrho- 
tite occur in the serpentine area of the northern portion of the county 


near Smith River and its tributaries. Low Divide, Diamond Creek 
and Shelly Creek are some localities. 

El Dorado County : There are numerous small deposits of the mineral 
in scattered areas in the county, but none of great importance. The 
mineral is found near Diamond Springs, near Georgetown and at Pilot 
Hill in the northwestern part of the county. Good specimeas of ehalco- 
pyrite with bornite, molybdenite, garnet, epidote and axinite have 
come from the old Cosumnes copper mine on the Aiuador County line. 
Occurs in small amounts in a hornblende near Rescue ; with pyr- 
rhotite and pyrite at the Noonday mine; in gold-bearing quartz with 
galena at the Rose Kiniberly mine ; at the Cambrian mine, thirteen 
miles northwest of Placerville with malachite, azurite and native cop- 
per; in an ampliibole schist at the Copper Lead mine, ^Martinos Creek; 
with sphalerite and pyrrhotite in gold quartz at the ]Madalena mine, 
near Diamond Springs; at the Pyramid and Bonesett mine near Shin- 
gle Springs; with galena, magnetite, calcite, quartz and garnet in the 
Lilyoraa mine and in the Pioneer mine, Pilot Hill; with bornite, azurite 
and malachite at the Alabaster Cave mine. Pilot Hill ; at the Boston 
and Yetter mines, Latrobe ; in the Blue Ledge, Bowlder and Oest mines. 
Occurs with chalcocite in serpentine at the Boston mine, Latrobe. 

Fresno County: Chalcopyrite occurs with pyrrhotite at the Fresno 
copper mines, with pyrite at the Copper King mine, and in the gold 
district of the northeast part of the county. 

Humboldt County : Deposits occur on the east slope of Horse Moun- 
tain with L'halcocite, native copper and cuprite. In small amounts near 
Trinidad, on the sea coast ; sparingly on Rod Cap Creek. 

Imperial County : In the extreme eastern part of the county the 
copper claims near Ogilby, Hedges and in the Picacho district contain 
some chalcopyrite with oxidized ores. 

Inyo County: Chalcopyrite occurs near Darwin on contact between 
granite and limestone and in the I^behebe ^Mountains wilh chalcocite. 
Occurs with galeuia, cerussite and native copper in limestone at Chloride 
Cliff, Grapevine Range; at contact of limestone and diorite at Gold 
Belt in tlie Panamints: with pyrrliotite, bornite and pyrite in 'Marble 
Canyon, twenty-five miles east of Big Pine; in garnet rock in ]\Iazurka 
Canyon: banded masses with galena at the Custer mine; with gold 
quartz at the Golden Treasure mine; in the Argus Range; witli aalena 
and pyrite five miles southeast of Keeler. 

Kern County: Chalcopyrite with pyrite occurs in the gold mines of 
the eastern part of the county near Randsburg and Garlock. Occurs 
with sphalerite and pyrrhotite near Lebec. Occurs with Avolframite 
near Woody. 


Lake County : Assoeiated with pyrrhotite on the Langtry Raneh, 
seven miles south of Middleto^Mi. 

Los Angeles County : Intimately mixed witli pyrrliotite near San 
Fernando ; with pyrite and malachite, two miles north of Camp Rincon, 
San Gabriel Canyon. 

Madera County : The belt of schists carrying the copper and iron 
sulphides extend across the county and there are numerous small 
claims. Found in small masses in the Green Mountains, at the old 
Buchanan mine, at the Ne Plus Ultra and other claims near Daulton. 
Occurs as thin seams in massive pyrrhotite in chlorite and actinolite 
at the Heiskell mine; with sphalerite in quartz in the Nellie mine, 
Ilildreth ; in intimate mixture with sphalerite and pyrrhotite at the 
Matilda and Best Cliance mines, ]\Iinaret district. 

Marin County: Small deposits of pyrite mixed with chalpopyrite 
occur in the schists between ]\Iount Tamalpais and Bolinas Bay. A 
small deposit occurred about one mile east of WoodvilJe and north of 

Mariposa County : Chalcopyrite is present to some extent in the gold 
mines of the county. Several small bodies of the sulphides occur in 
the schists and altered diabases on the western border, but of little 
importance. The Green Mountains and other mines on the south 
border near Donovan, the old Pocahontas mine near Lewis, the Copper 
Hill mines in Indian Gulch, the old Beretta mines and other claims near 
Ihe ]\Ierced River, all contain massive chalcopyrite with auriferous 
pyrite. Occurs with tetrahedrite at the Bunker Hill mine ; with pyrite 
and arsenopyrite at Hornitos: at the Peterson, Comet, White Rock 
and Donaway mines. 

]\Iendocino County : Occurs with some malachite in small (juartz 
veins at the Eden Valley mine and in the Red Mountain district. 

Nevada County: At Spenceville, Mineral Hill, Pine Hill, Iron Moun- 
tain, French Corral and North San Juan chalcopyrite claims have been 
worked. Good masses of pure chalcopyrite also are found in the 
Meadow Lake district. Occurs Avith pyrite in quartz veins in the 
schists extending from Birchville northward to Bullard's Bar, Sierra 

Placer County : Near Auburn, Newcastle, Valley View and at Dairy 
Farm good deposits of pyrite with some chalcopyrite occur. 

Plumas County : Deposits of good chalcopyrite with bornite and ehal- 
cocite are found in Genessee Valley near Flournoy, in Indian Valley 
near Taylorsville and in Moonlight and Light's canyons about twelve 
miles north of Taylorsville. Associated with covellite, chaleocite, mala- 
chite, pyrite and quartz in schists one mile from Gibsonville. Com- 
mon in mines at Butte Bar. Bodies fifteen feet thick occur at the con- 


tact of granodiorite \\ith limestone and slate at the Cosmopolitan mine, 
Genessee district. Associated with epidote, garnet and bornite at the 
Duncan mine. 

Riverside County : The copper deposits lie mostly in the eastern part 
of the county in the Palen, ]\IcCoy and other mountains. Common in 
auriferous quartz veins of the Monte Negro district. Brassy chaleo- 
pyrite occurs with pyrite and galena at the Crestmore limestone quarry. 

San Benito County. Occurs in small amounts on Lewis Creek. 

San Bernardino County: There are numerous gold-copper claims in 
the county, especially in the mountains of the eastern part. Some chalco- 
pyrite occurs with oxidized copper ores in the Clarke ]\Ioimtains, New 
York Mountains, near Ivanpah, INIanvel, Vontrigger, Sunrise, Needles, on 
Mount AVhipple, Monument Mountain, Turtle Mountain and Providence 
Mountains. The mineral is also found in the Lava Beds district, in the 
Oro Grande district and in the iMorrow district north of Barstow. 
Occurs in limestone at the Three States mine, Silver Lake district. 
Large specimens have come from the Kingston Range. Found with 
specular hematite, quartz and pyrite in the Bullion district. Occurs 
with galena, argentite and pyrite in the Goldstone district. In a quartz 
vein with sphalerite, galena and wolframite at the Sagamore mine, 
NeAv York ]\Iountains. 

San Diego County : Masses of chalcopyrite occur in the Encinitas 
group of mines, a few miles east of Encinitas and in the Banna mines 
near Lakeside. Some is found in the Julian district. Found in gold- 
bearing quartz veins on Barker iMountain and on the east slope of 

San Luis Obispo Count}- : Observed at Cambria. 

Santa Barbara County : Occurs with quartz in shale at several points 
along the south slope of the San Rafael Mountains, northeast of Los 

Shasta County: The deposits of this county are the most important 
and most extensively worked in the State. The ore is pyrite carrying 
the copper sulphide, and while in general low-grade copper propositions, 
the immense size of the bodies makes them of great value. The Iron 
Mountain, or Mountain Copper, Shasta King, Balaklala, Golinsky, 
Mammoth and other mines on the west side of the Sacramento River, 
and the Afterthought, Copper City and Bully Hill mines on the east 
side of the river, have been great producers of copper for some years. 
The ore bodies in general lie in shear zones in metarhyolite or meta 
basalt, and sometimes along the contact of the igneous rock and lime- 

Sierra County : Small masses of chalcopyrite with other sulphides 
occur near Poker Flat, Sierra City and in the Mohawk Valley. At the 


Black Jack mine, Kanaka Creek; at Four Hills, Sierra City district; 
in Alaska mine and Gold Canyon mine, Alleghany district. 

Siskiyou County : Tiie Richie mine and claims near Callahan show 
chalcopyrite. At the Dewey and Oak Hollow mines, Happy Camp ; in 
the Buckeye district ; at the Hunter mine, Cherry Creek ; massive fine- 
grained about four miles southeast of Fort Jones ; at the Yellow Butte 
mine, Weed; massive mixed with jjyrrhotite and pyrite at the Carlson 
mine, Dutch Creek; in quartz at the New York Gulch mine, Indian 
Creek ; at the Blue Ledge mine, Elliot district ; at the Apex mine, head 
of Cottonwood Creek ; with pyrrhotite in schist on south fork of Salmon 
River and on Preston Peak; at the Maryland mine. Quartz Valley; 
at the Bonanza mine, near Honolulu ; mixed with pyrrhotite eight miles 
east of Callahan ; at the Doolittle and Gazelle mines. 

Sonoma County : Occurs in small crystals with malachite and azurite 
at the Sonoma Copper mine, one-half mile east of Tyrone; with pyrite 
on Black ^Mountain; in the Cornucopia mine, fourteen miles northeast 
of Cloverdale ; in the Grizzly mine, eighten miles northeast of Healds- 

Tehama County : Found five miles northwest of Paskenta; witli 
pyrite on the north slope of Tom Hood Mountain, forty miles west of 
Red Bluff. 

Trinity County : Some deposits of the mineral occur in the western 
part of the county along New River, at the mouth of Rattlesnake Creek 
and on the Cold Fork of Indian Valley Creek. Primary ore in the 
Copper Queen and Headlight mines, Carrville district; with pyrite in 
schists near Ruth ; in the quartz of the Gambrinius and Craig gold 
mines; at the Bear Tooth mine, New River district; near Zenia. Asso- 
ciated with pyrrhotite at Island Mountain. 

Tulare County : Chalcopyrite with pyrite is found on the middle fork 
of Tule River, a few miles east of Porterville and also near Kearsarge 

Tuolumne County : The schist bolt carrying the sulphides crosses the 
county a few miles west of the- Mother Lode and several small claims 
are located along the belt. Masses occur Avith pyrite in quartz at the 
Union, Conrad and Society mines, Big Oak Flat; with other sulphides 
at the Keltz mine, ten miles north of Soulsby; in auriferous quartz at 
the Black Oak mine, Soulsby; at Chinese Camp; near Rawhide; at the 
Experimental mine, two miles northwest of Columbia; at the Mann 
Copper mine, three miles south of Jamestown ; at the Golden Gate mine 
near Sonora ; at the Greenstone, San Guisippe, Mount Dana, Piatt and 
Golden Treasure mines. 

Yuba County : Occurs in auriferous quartz in the Brownsville dis- 
trict, in the Golden Mary mine ; in the Ayer mine, four miles west of 


45. MARCASITE— White Pyrites. 
Sulphide of iron, FeS-. 

Orthorhombic. Commonly in tabular crystals, stalactites. Also mas- 
sive and indistinguishable from pyrite. Color pale brass-yellow. Streak 
brownish black. Metallic luster. H = 6 — 6.5; G = 4.85 — 4.9. 

Roasted on charcoal, it gives sulphur odor and yields a magnetic residue. 
Distinguished from pyrite only by crystal form. 

Marcasite can not readily be distingnished from pyrite except when 
in crystals, so it is often classed as pyrite. It is nmcli rarer in the State 
than pyrite, and is rather characteristically associated with clays and 

Alpine County : Specimens associated with sphalerite have come from 
some of the mines of the county. 

Napa County: Marcasite was the abundant iron sulphide at the old 
Redington mine, Knoxville, in close association with the cinnabar. 

Nevada County : Mentioned as one of the minerals of the Grass 
Valley mines by Lindgren^®^ 

Sonoma County : Small but good crystals have come from near Cali- 


46. PYRITE— Iron Pyrites. 

Sulphide of iron, FeSo. 

Isometric. Crystals common ; usually cubes, pyritohedrons and octa- 
hedrons. Generally compact and granular massive. Color brass-yellow. 
Sti-eak greenish black. Metallic luster. H=:6 — 6.5; = 5. 

Roasted on charcoal, it burns with a blue flame and gives a strong sul- 
phur odor. The residue becomes magnetic. Soluble in nitric acid and red- 
dish ferric hydrate is precipitated by ammonia. 

Pyrite is the commonest of the sulphide minerals and is found in all 
kinds of rock, but is more especially prominent in metamorphic schists, 
slates and quartzites and in unaltered sandstones. It is commonly 
found in distinct crystals and in granular masses. Cubes several inches 
in diameter are frequent in gold districts, but in general the smaller 
crystals and granular masses are more highly auriferous. It is from 
pyrite bodies that most of the copper production of the State is obtained, 
the source of the copper being the intimately intermingled chalcopyrite. 
All of the localities given for chalcopyrite and many more might be 
cited for the mineral since it is present in every county. Its oxidation 
produces limonite and hematite and the gossan of mineral veins is mostly 
formed by its alteration. Cubes of limonite as pseudomorphs after 
pyrite are exceedingly common. 

Alameda County : Crystals from the Alma mine, Leona Heights, 
have the forms : (110), (100), (340), (120), (140), (111), (252), (121), 
(241), (231), Schaller(i). 


Calaveras Couuty : Cubes and pyritohedrous occur with the- gold on 
Carson Hill, but the long needles from the Stanislaus mine, described 
as distorted pyrite crystals by Jackson'^', are millerite. (lood cubes 
are found at ]\Iurphy in the ^lasonia mine. 

Colusa County: Hexagonal plates of pyrite occur as pseudomorphs 
after pyrrhotite at the Sulphur Creek deposit, Genth^'^'^ 

Mendocino County : A large deposit carrying chalcopyrite occurs in 
Anderson Valley. 

Riverside County: The coninion sulpliide of iron is present in tlie 
Crestmort' limestone as gi'ains, cubes and pyritohedrous; some of the 
er^'stals are large. Limonite pseudomorphs after the pyrite are eommon. 

Santa Clara County : Crystals from the New Almaden cinnabar mine 
had the forms: (100) and (470), Jackson <3). 

Sonoma County : Large octahedrons have been found on Austin Creek 
near Healdsburg. 

Trinity County: Occurs with pyrrhotite at Island ^Mountain. 

Tuolumne Countv : Small cubes are eommon at the Norwegian mine. 


47. KERMESiTE— Red Antimony. 
Oxisulphide of antimony, SbjSoO. 
Mouocliuic. Usually in hair-like tufts. Color cherry-red. Streak 
brownish rod. Metallic to adamantine luster. H = l — 3.5; G=4.5. 
Refractive indices: ex =2.74; /J>2.72. 
(!ivos a reaction similar to stibnite. 

This is a rare mineral formed by the oxidation of minerals containing 
antimony, especially stibnite. It is generally in cavities as long cherry- 
red needles. 

Kern County : Fine red needles of kermesite were found on stibnite 
at the Mojave antimony mine, about fifteen miles north of Mojave. 


Oxisulphide of zinc, ZnjSiO. 

Globular and lamellar forms. Color rose-red to brown. Streak 
brownish red. Vitreous luster. H = 4 — 4.5; = 3.66 — 3.8. 
Refractive index: (,, = 2.03. 
Like sphalerite in its rL-actioiis. 

A very rare mineral which forms globular and platy reddish brown 
coatings from the oxidation of zinc sulphide. 

San Bernardino County : Specimens have come from some place in 
this county. 



















Sulpharsenide of cobalt, CoAsS. 

Isometric. Commonly in cubes and pyritohedrons ; also massive. Cleav- 
age perfect cubic. Color reddish white. Streak grayish black. Metallic 
luster. H=:5.5; G = 6 — 6.3. 

On charcoal it gives sulphur odor and white coating of arsenic oxide 
when roasted. The residue becomes magnetic. Borax bead of the roasted 
material is cobalt blue. Ammonia colors a nitric acid solution pink. 

Cobalt and nickel compounds are very rare in the State, and only an 
occasional specimen is found. 

Mariposa County : Good crystals were found in the Copper Chieftain 

Mono County: Occurred with gold in the Tioga mine, Turner^^). 

Nevada County : Small seams of cobaltite with chalcopyrite occur in 
a schist on Rattlesnake Creek, south of Signal Peak. 

Placer County: Found with arsenopyrite in the Metallic mine, near 
Cisco, and with chalcopyrite about four miles northeast of Alta. 

50. ARSENOPYRITE— Mispickel— Arsenical Pyrites. 
Sulpharsenide of iron, FeAsS. 

Orthorhombic. Common in crystals. Generally compact to granular 
massive. Color silver white to steel gray. Streak grayish black. Metallic 
luster. H=:5.5— 6; G = 5.9— 6.2. 

Copious white volatile fumi?s of arsenic oxide and a strong garlic odor 
are obtained when roasted on charcoal. Residue becomes magnetic. Borax 
bead is yellow to pale green. 


Arsenopyrite is a very corainon vein mineral and is sometimes highly 
auriferous. The concentrates from most of the mining regions of the 
State generally contain more or less of it and in some districts arseno- 
pyrite is the chief gold-bearing ore. ]\Iost of the arsenic of commerce is 
obtained from this mineral generally as a by-product in the smelting 
for gold and silver. 

Danaite is a variety containing from four to ten per cent of cobalt. 

Amador County : In the New Hope mine, in Quartz Mountain mines, 
and in the mines between Jackson and Mokelumne Hill; arsenopyrite 

Calaveras County: Near Angels and in the mines along the IMother 
Lode considerable arsenopyrite has been found high in gold content. 
Occurs with pyrite in quartz veins cutting amphibole schist, at the 
Chaparral Hill mine. 

Del Norte County : At Monkey Creek. 

El Dorado County : Occurred in the Florence mine near Placerville, 
and also near Georgetown. Auriferous at the Frog Pond mine, one- 
half mile north of Garden Valley; at the Barnes Eureka mine near 
Shingle Springs; in the Mt. Pleasant district. 

Fresno County: Quite large amounts with pyrite and chalcopyrite 
in auriferous quartz in the N. W. j Sec. 16, T. 13 S., Pt. 27 E. 

Imperial County : Found in the mines of the Cargo Muchacho district. 

Kern County: The Sumner, Confidence, Relief and other old mines 
near Kernville and Havilah contained auriferous arsenopyrite. Occurred 
with the gold quartz at the Yellow Aster mine, Randsburg. Good 
crystallized specimens found at the Long Tom mine ; with quartz in the 
Amalie district; with galena and pyrite in quartz at the Bright Star 
mine, Piute district. 

Madera County : On Iron Mountain in small amounts. 

Mariposa County : In mines near Coulterville ; danaite with erythrite 
was found in the Josephine mine, Bear Valley, Turner'**. With calcite 
and quartz in the Smith mine. Bear Valley; with magnetite in the Cave 
mining district; with chalcopyrite and pyrite at Hornitos. 

Mono County : Common in the Lundy district carrying gold. 

]\Ionterey County : In auriferous quartz at the Oregon mine, Sec. 2, 
T. 24 S., R. 5 W. 

Nevada County: Found in the Betsy mine, Grass Valley and in the 
Meadow Lake district. Danaite was found in the Meadow Lake district, 
W. P. Blake^^"'. A two-foot ledge was found- at the Porcupine mine, 
Cisco. Fine crystals in schist on Poormon Creek ; crystals on quartz at 
the Delhi mine, Columbia Hill. 

Placer County : One of the minerals in the mines of the Ophir district, 
Lindgren<<^'. Observed in the Canada Hill and Dutch Flat districts. 


Arsenopyrite containing nickel and cobalt has been found three miles 
from (Hsco. 

Plumas County: Large bunclies in Pilot Hill gold mine, six miles 
northwest of Gibsonville. Some lias been found in Genessee Valley. 

Riverside County: Small crystals about two inillinieters long occur 
in the limestone quarry at Crestmore. 

San Bernardino County: Occurs on Baldy ^Mountain. 

San Diego County : Occurs in the Julian district. 

Sierra County : The chief gold-bearing mineral at Alleghany and 
containing a high percentage of gold. In the Golden King mine on 
Kanaka Creek it is said to have occurred with gold telluride. Common 
in the mines of the Forest Hill district, the Oriental Osceola Lode, Uncle 
Sam, Rainbow, Bonanza. Mannnotli Springs, Ijost Treasure, Kate Hardy, 
El Dorado mines; in tlie Eagle and Docile mines. Kanaka Creek; at the 
Mexican Elcy and High Commission mines, Downieville district; at 
Gold Canyon, three miles from Moore's Flat; at the Kenton, Ironsides 
and Four Hills mines with chakopyrite and galena. 

Tehama County : Occurs with quartz and pyrite at Sarkenita. 

Trinity County: Gold-bearing ar.-«enopyrite occurs in the Craig 
mine, two miles east of Dedrick; on Lowden's Ranch and Burnt Ranch 
with gold ; near Weaverville. 

Tulare County : Found in the Mineral King district. 

Tuolumne County : Crystals of arsenopyrite having crystallized gold 
deposited on them occur at the Alameda mine, Rawhide mining dis- 


Arsenido of nickol, NiA.s. 

Hexagonal. U.sually massive. Brittle. Color pale copper- rod. Luster 
metallic; streak brownish l)lar-k. 11 = 5 — 5.5; = 7.33 — 7.67. Fuses on 
charcoal to a globule giving- off fumes of arsenic. Koasted mineral fused 
in borax bead gives a brown bead in oxidizing flame and a gray, cloudy Ix'ad 
in reducing flame. T'sually contains some cobalt. 

Niccolite is often associated with smaltite and both cobalt and nickel 
i-eactions ai'e generally obtained. A very rare mineral in the State. 

San Diego County: The only nickel mineral named as possibly pres- 
ent in the pyrrhotite of the Friday mine, Julian district, is polydymite, 
but the ore carries eonsiderable arsenic and cobalt, so there is a strong 
probabilit\- that niccolit(> and smaltite are both ]U'esent. 


52. SMALTITE— Cobalt Glance. 
Arsenide of cobalt, CoAso. 

Isometric. Geuerallj' massive. Color tin white. Streak grayish black. 
Metallic luster. H = 5.5 — 6; G = 6.4 — 6.6. 

(iives a white coating of arsouic trioxidc on charcoal. A cobalt blue bead 
of borax is obtained, using the roasted mineral. The roasted mineral be- 
comes magnetic. 

Smaltite usually contains some nickel and it is the more common form 
of cobalt compound. A few small veins and seams of the mineral have 
been found in the State but no important deposits. 

Lassen County : Specimens of gray smaltite with erythrite and anna- 
bergite as alteration products have come from some locality in this 
county. . 

Lo.s Angeles County : At the old Kelsey and 0. K. mines near San 
Gabriel Canyon smaltite coated with erythrite occurred with the native 
silver and argentite. 

Napa County : The mineral has been found in thin seams with eryth- 
rite in the serpentine rock of the Beryessa Valley. 

Nevada County : Occurs in the ]\[eadow Lake district. 

San Diego County: Specimens have been received from a locality 
nrai- the ^Mexican line. 

Arsenide of iron, FeAs,. 

Orthorhombic. Small crystals or granular. Color silver white to light 
steel-gray. Streak grayish black. Metallic luster. H = 5 — 5.5; G = 
7 — 7.2. 

Similar to arsenopyrite in its reactions except that it gives no sulphur 
deposit in a closed tube. 

This mineral is rare as most of the arsenical iron is arsenopyrite. 
Leucopyrite is a variety with a different proportion of arsenic and 
iron, FcgAs^. 

Amador County: Small crystals of lollingite were found in the 
black slate at the Maj^ower mine, Amador City. 

Los Angeles County : Specimens of leucopyrite have come from this 
county, Hanks^^). 


Selenide of mercury, HgSe. 

Isometric, tetrahedral. Generally massive. Color dark lead-gray. Streak 
black. H = 2.5; G = 8.30 — 8.47. 

Gives the peculiar odor- of selenium when heated on charcoal. Reduces 
easily to metallic globules of mercury. 

The selenide is not a common form of mercury but some large masses 
of it have been found in the cinnabar districts. 


Lake County: According to W. P. Blake^^^ the mineral occurred in 
large masses in the vicinity of Clear Lake. Masses of it occurred in 
the Abbott mine associated with cinnabar and petroleum. 

Orange County: Found with cinnabar and metacinnabarite at the 
San Joaquin Ranch mine. 

Santa Clara County: Found witli cinnabar at the old Guadalupe 
mine near New Alraaden. 


Telluride of bismuth, BuTe^. 
Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Commonly granular. Color steel-gray. 

H = 1.5 — 2; = 7.2 — 7.6. Cleavage perfect basal. Metallic luster. 

Yields a yellow coating ou charcoal which becomes bright red on its outer 
border when fuse<l with the potassium iodide and sulphur flux. 

The characteristic reaction for all tellurides is the violet solution ob- 
tained by boiling a little of the powdered mineral in a few drops of con- 
ctuitrated sulphuric acid. 

This rare telluride is probal)ly present in some of the gold mines 
where bismuth and tellurium are found in the concentrates, but it has 
only been identified in a few localities. 

Calaveras County : Found with gold in the Melones and in the Mor- 
gan mines on Carson Hill, associated with other tellurides of this 
famous telluride locality, Hanks^^^. 

Nevada County : Occurred at the old Murehie mine near Nevada City, 

Tuolumne County : Small amounts have been found at the Soulsby 

Telluride of silver, Ag^Te. 

Isometric. Generally in distorted octahedrons. Sometimes massive. 
Color lead-gray. to steel-gray. Streak dark gray to black. Metallic luster. 
H = 2.5 — 3; G = 8.31 — 8.45. 

Reduces easily to a metallic button of silver when fused on charcoal, and 
yields a white coating of telluric oxide. Gives the tellurium reaction like 

Hessite generally contains gold and often grades into petzite so the 
two tellurides are apt to be together in mines. They are the more 
common forms of tellurium and occur in most mines where gold tel- 
lurides are found, often associated \Wth sylvanite or calaverite. 


Calaveras Coiiuty : Hessite was one of the tellurides of the old Stanis- 
laus mine on Carson Hill. It was analysed by Genth^^). 

Au Ag- }*b Ni Te 

3.2S 46.34 1.65 4.71 44.45 -100.43. 

3.22 55.60 — 1.54 (39.64) 

El Dorado County : Found massive as a drift specimen with galena 
and inclo.sing gold at (jeorgetown, W. P. lilake'^'. Reported to oeeur in 
Barnes P]ureka mine, three miles northeast of Shingle Springs. 

Kern County: Has been observed with the silver minerals at the 
Amalie mine. 

Nevada County : A specimen of pyrite, galena and native gold from 
the Nevada City mine contained some soft gray hessite, Lindgren^^^ 

Shasta County : Found in the Shearer and Rattler mine, 3 miles from 

Sierra County: Found in the Golden King mine on Kanaka Creek 
near Alleghany. 

Trinity County : Gold tellurides, probably hessite, occur in some 
of the mines of the Carrville district. 

Tuolumne County : Occurred in the old Reist mine on Whiskey Hill, 
Silliman^''^. Is present in the Jumper and Bonanza mines near James- 

Telluride of silver and gold (Ag,Au)2Te. 

Massive. Color steel-gray to black. Streak black. Metallic luster. 
Hzz2.5 — 3; G = 8.7 — 9.0. 

Similar to hessite in its reactions, but yields more gold in the buttons. 
Ilossite and petziti' may grade into each othor so as to he iiidistinguishahle 
by the blowpipe. 

Petzite is usually associated with hessite, sylvauite and calaverite. It 
is the commonest form of the gold telluride found in the State. 

Calaveras County : Found with hessite in the Stanislaus and Melones 
mines on Carson Hill. Specimens fi-om th.^ Stanislaus mine have been 
analysed by Genth^'^ and Kustel*^^^. 

Au Ag Te 

25.55 41.93 32.52 per cent 

25.70 42.36 31.94 

Kustel 24.80 40.60 35.40 

Genth } ' 

EI Dorado County : Found with calaverite at the Darling mine about 
three miles northeast of American Flat. 

Inyo County : Occurs at Telluride in the Gilt Edge claim seven miles 
southeast of Olancha. 

Siskiyou County : Has been found in the northern part of county 
near the State line, with calaverite and free gold. 



Tuolumne County : One of the telhuitles in the Golden Rule, Raw- 
hide Ranch and Norwegian mines near Tuttletown. Analysed from the 
Golden Rule mine by Genth^'^^ and from the Norwegian mine by Hille- 

Au Ag Te Se ISInO 

125.60 41.86 32.68 __ __ =100.14 per cent 

1 24.97 40.87 34.16 __ __ =r 100.00 

Norwegian 25.16 41.87 33.21 tr. 0.08 = 99.32 

Golden Rule 


Tellurlde of lead, PbTe. 

Isometric. Small octahedrons and massive. Color tin-white to dark 
gray. Metallic luster. H=3; G = S.16. 

The yellow coating of lead and the violet solution for tellurium serve to 
(leterniine it. 

Altaite is found associated with hessite, petzite and gold tellurides in 
a few localities. 

Calaveras County : Occurred with hessite and petzite at the Stanis- 
laus mine, Carson Hill, and analysed b}^ Genth^'*^ 

Pb Ag Au Te 

60.71 1.17 0.26 37.31 = 99.45 per cent 

Nevada County : One of the minerals at the Providence mine, Nevada 
City, occurring in bunches in the Ural vein intergrown with native gold 
and associated with quartz,, pyrite and galena, Lindgren^^^ 

Tuolumne County : Occurred in the Golden Rule mine, near Tuttle- 
town, Genth<*\ Also at Sawmill Flat with the forms (111) and (322) 
and was partly analysed by Sharwood, Eakle^^\ 

Pb Ag Au Te 

65.0 tr. none 35.0 


^ Telluride of mercurj-, HgTe. 

Massive, granular. Color iroil-black. Metallic luster. H=3; G = S.63. 

A white coating of telluric oxide and globules of mmcury are obtained 
when roasted on charcoal. Gives the characteristic reaction for tellurium 
like tetradymite. 

The telluride of mercury is a very rare mineral, and only one speci- 
men has been found in the State. 

Tuolumne County: Hillebrand^^^ found one specimen which he 
identified as coloradoite, associated Avith the other tellurides of the Nor- 
wegian mine near Tuttletown. 







= 99.21 per cent 




= 99.92 


Telluride of nickel, ISi^Teo. 

Hexagonal. Comniouly gramilar and foliated. Cleavage perfect basal. 
Color reddish white. Slreak dark sray. Metallic luster. 

The tellurium is n-adily driveu oil" in white oxide fumes when heated on 
charcoal. The roasted residue yields the hrown head of nickel with borax. 
Gives also the characteristic \ iolet solution of a telluride when boiled in 
strong sulphunc acid. 

This rare telluride has only been found in one locality, and there is 
some question of its exact foriiiu];i. 

C'alaveras County : 'i'lie rare telluride of nickel was discovered among 
the other tellurides of the Melones iiiiiic on Carson Hill in 1867 and was 
named hy (ieiitli*"' *", tor llie mine, and therefore should have been 
called meloncsite. A similai- miiieinl \va.s later found in llie Stanislaus 
mine and analysed by Ilillebrand'". 

Genth 73.43 

Hillebrand 80.75 

61. SYLVANITE— Graphic Tellurium. 
Telluride of gold and silver, (Au, Ag)Te2. 

jMonoclinic. Bladed crystals and massive. Cleavage perfect clino- 
piuacoidal. Color yellowish silver-white. Streak silver gray. Metallic 
luster. H = 1.5 — 2; G = 7.9 — 8.3. 

The tellurium is easily driveu off as an oxide by heat, leaving a button of 
gold and silver. The silver can be extracted from the button by nitric acid 
and silver chloride is i)recipitated from solution with hydrochloric acid. 

This important telluride may be present in many of the gold districts 
where tellurium is found, as it is one of the commoner forms of tel- 
lurium. It has been identilied in very fcAv localities. 

Calaveras County: Sylvanite was one of the tellurides occurring in 
the Carson Hill mines and was especially prominent in the Melones and 
Stanislaus nunes. An analysis of it from the latter mine was made by 

Tc Au Agr 

59.6 25.5 13.9 

Trinity County: It has been found with gold in the Yellow Jacket 
mine, and with nagyagite at the Dorleska mine. Coffee Creek district. 

Tuolumne County : Occurs in tlie Sugarman and Nigger mine, two 
miles north of Sonora. 

Yuma County : Occurs with the gold in the Red Raven mine, Dobbins 



Telluride of gold and silver, (Au, Ag)Te.^. 

Monoclinic. Crystals with striated faces ; also massive. Color pale 
bronze-yellow to yellowish silver-gray. Streak yellowish gray. Metallic 
luster. H=2.5; 0=9.04. 

Similar to sylvauite in its roactious. Calaverite and sylvanite give deep 
violet solutions when boiled with concentrated sulphuric acid. 

A chemical investigation of the various telkiride minerals from the 
mines on Carson Hill by Genth^^^ proved the existence of a new tel- 
luride of gold and silver which he named after the county, and there- 
fore should have been called calaverasife. Since that original discovery, 
the mineral ha.s been found in very valuable deposits at Crip})le Creek, 
Colorado, and in Australia. < 

(Jalavcras County: Discovered at the old Stanislaus mine and later 
in the Melones mine, the latter mine l)eing the only one of this famous 
group of mines on Carson Hill still in active operation. An analysis of 
the mineral from the Stanislaus mine was made by Genth^'*^ 

Au Ag Te 

40.70 3.52 55.89 =100.11 per cent 

40.92 3.08 (56.00) 

El Dorado County: Found with petzite in the Darling mine near 
Rock Creek, about three miles northeast of American Flat. 

Siskiyou County: Reported from the northern part of the county 
near State line, associated with free gold and petzite. 


Sulpho-telluride of gold, lead and antimony, AuoPbuSbaTeiS,:- 
Orthorhombic. Generally foliated and granular. Perfect cleavage into 

thin flexible laminae. Dark lead-gray color and streak. Metallic luster. 

H = 1 — 1.5; 0=6.85 — 7.2. 

Gives the yellow and white coatings of lead, antimony and tolhuium 

oxides, when roasted on charcoal, with a slight odor of sulphur. The 

presence of tellurium can best b(< tost.'<l by boilinu- in sulphuric acid and 

ol>tiuriing till' violet color. 

This is a very rare telluride aud lias oidy been observed at one 
locality in California. 

Trinity County: Observed with hessite at the Dorleska mine, Coffee 
Creek district. 




Snlphautimouite of iron, FeSb-Si- 

Long prismatic. Usually fibrous massive. Color dark steel-gray. Streak 
grayish black. Metallic luster. H=r2 — 3; G=4 — 4.3. 

A slighr coatiiijj of white n\'u\o of antimony and a slight odor of sulphur 
can ln' ohtaiiu'd by rojisting on <-liarfoal. Tlio roasted mineral becomes 

This is a rare iron coinpound and its existence in the State has not 
been definitely established. 

Tuolumne County: Heavy ledges of dark ore occur in an area of 
schists on the southeast slope of Mount Gibbs, which appear to be an 
impure berthierite mixed with galena, pyrite and quartz, Turner^''). 

65. JAMESON ITE— Feather Ore. 
Sulphantimonite of lead, PbjSbjSs. 

Orthorhombic. Generally fibrous massive. Cleavage perfect basal. 
Color lead-gray. Streak grayish black. Metallic luster. H = 2 — 3; 
G = 5.5 — 6.0. 

The yellow and white coating on charcoal of lead and antimony oxides 
and odor of sulphur are obtainwl by heating. Dissolved in nitric acid, the 
lead goes into solution, while th:^ antimony is pi-ecipitated as an oxide. 

Jamesonite is one of the common lead sulpho-salts and is often 
present in silver-lead districts, sometimes in large masses. 

Calaveras County: Found at Mokelumne Hill, Hanks(^>. 

Inyo County : Compact massive specimens have come from the Cerro 
Gordo mine, associated with argentiferous galena. 

Napa County: The delicate capillary or hair-like variety was found 
with cinnabar at the IVIanhattan mine, near Knoxville. 


Sulphantimonite of lead and copper (Pb,Cu2)3SboSa. 

Orthorhombic. Short prismatic and tabular crystals and massive. 
Color and streak lead-gray. Metallic luster. H=2.5 — 3; G = 5.7 — 5.9. 

Fuses easily and on charcoal gives a white coating, at first of antimony 
oxide, followed by a yellow coating of lead oxide nearer the assay. Dis- 
solved in nitric acid and ammonia added, the solution tunis blue ; soluble 
in hj'drochloric acid with odor of hydrogen sulphide. 

Bournonite is occasionally found in silver-lead districts where copper 
is also a constituent of the veins. It occurs in good crystals as well as 

Inyo County: The only known occurrence of the mineral is at 
Cerro Gordo, where it is found massive, Reid^*\ 



Snlpliantiinoiiito of silver, AgSbS:.. 

Moiiocliiiic. Crystjils mihI gnniiiUir massive. Color black to sted-.uray. 
.Alftallic luster. Streak eliorry-red. H=2 — 2.."i : = 5.30. 

Fuses easily on charcdal with the emission of sulphur fumes and gives a 
white continir of antimony oxide. Continued o.xidation with the blowpipe 
l)roduces a silver button. Soluble in nitrie a<Md with the separation of 
Miljiliur ;ni(l aiitiniiiHV nidxidi'. 

Miai'gyritc is one (if llic raic forms of silver conipouuds aud has 
not been reported from tlie silver depcsits of this t*ountrj% perhaps on 
account of its resemblance to pyrargyrite when massive. 

San Bernardino County : A large part of the ore of the Coyote mine 
near Randsburg is miargyrite instead of ruby silver, as was supposed. 
Fine monoclinic crystals have been found. 

68. PYRARGYRITE— Dark Ruby Silver. 

Sulphantimonite of silver, Ag3SbS3. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Prismatic crystals. Also massive. Color 
grayish black, or dark red. Streak purplish red. Metallic luster. 
H = 2.5; G = 5.S5. 

Gives a white antimony oxide coating ou charcoal aud reduces to a 
globule of metallic silver. The suliihur can best be detected by fusion in a 
closed tube. 

The ruby silver ore is found in silver veins as a secondary mineral 
and is associated with argentite, polybasite, stephanite, tetrahedrite and 
other silver minerals. It is characteristically found as dark gray 
})lotches and bands with red streaks, in massive white quartz. 

Alpine County : It occurred in the old T X Iv and Exchequer mines 
of the Silver Mountain district. 

Kern County: Found associated with argentite at the Amalie mine. 

Mariposa County : One of the minerals found in the Bryant Silver 
mine, a.ssociated with argentite and proustite. 

Mono County : In the Oro, Addenda, Fortuna and other mines south 
of Bodie pyrargyrite and stephanite w-ere abundant. Crystals were 
found in a vugg in the Bodie mine. Pyrargyrite also occurred in the 
Blind Spring mines, in the Tow-er mine, and in other mines near 
Benton, Whiting^^^ 

Nevada County: Found in a sjiecimen from the Allison Ranch mine, 
associated with pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena; also in the Central 
mine south of Banner Hill, and is probably present in other mines of 
the Grass Valley and Nevada City district as indicated by the silver- 
rich concentrates, Lindgren^^^ 

Shasta County: Small amounts of pyrargyrite were occasionally 
found in the mines near Igo. 


69. TETRAHEDRITE— Gray Copper. 
Sulphantimouite of copper, CusSb-S;. 

Isometric, tetrahedral. Generally massive. Color dark steel-giay. 

Streak black, sometimes cherry-red. Metallic luster. Hr=3 — 4.5; 

0=4.4 — 5.1. 

liofractive index: ;i = >1.'.7"J. 

(iivcs a sliglit white coalinj; on (luircoal and a faint odor of sulpluir. 
Til? roasted mineral gives the ])lup bead of copper with borax. Soluble in 
nitric acid and the antimony ])rerii)itates as trioxide. Ammonia added will 
-ive the characteristic lilne solution of copper, and precipitates any iron 

The Steel-gray metallic tetrahedrite is quite common in many of the 
gold and copper mines of the State. It is, however, seldom prominent 
hut occurs in small amounts mixed with galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite 
and other common sulphides. 

Freibergite is the argentiferous variety and is perhaps the most com- 
mon form of the mineral in California. 

Tennantite is a sulpharsenite of copper and while really a distinct 
mineral, it may he considered as a form of tetrahedrite with its anti- 
mony replaced hy arsenic. The two minerals are seldom ditferentiated. 

Alpine County: Considerable tetrahedrite has been found in the 
Silver Mountain district. 

Calaveras County : Small amounts of the mineral were found in the 
mines on Carson Hill. Present in the ore at the Jones mine, Carson 

Del Norte County: Found at Crookeshine. 

Imperial County: Occurred in llio Blue Jacket and other mines of 
the Picacho district. 

Inyo County: Tetrahedrite was an important mineral in the Cerro 
Gordo district containing a large percentage of silver. Occurred also 
in some of the White Mountain mines, in the mines of the Button 
Eange and in the old San Carlos mine. 

Los Angeles Countj^: Found in the Zapate mine in the San Gabriel 

Mariposa County : A common mineral in the gold mines of the 
county, associated with quartz, pyrite, galenite and sphalerite. The 
silver-rich variety freibergite was found in large mas'>'es in white quartz, 
at the Live Oak mine, near Mariposa, PIanks^^\ The mineral also 
occurred in the Pine Tree mine near Coulterville. In the Louisa and 
Bunker Hill mines. 

Mendocino County: In. the Redwood Copper Queen mine with 
chalcopyrite, gold and silver. 

Mono County: An important silver ore in several districts. In the 
Diana. Comet, Comanche and other mines of the Blind Spring Hill 


district, it occurred massive associated with partzite. Also found in 
the Bodie district. 

Nevada County: A heavy mass was found in the Osborn Hill vein, 
associated with zincblende and chalcopyrite. In small quantities at the 
North Banner and at other mines of the Banner Hill and Willow Valley 
districts, Lind^ren""". Tt is pi-cscnt in tlie oi'o in the Badiivr Hill mining 

Placer County: Dark .slcel-gray tetrahedrite associated with other 
sulphide minei*als and with electruin was quite common in the Ophir 
district, having been noticed in the Boulder, Gold Blossom, Pine Tree 
and Golden Stag mines, Lindgreii'^'. Observed at Michigan Bluff. 

Plumas County: Found at the Irby Holt mine in Indian Valley. 
Argentiferous tetrahedrite was found at the Trask and Coffer mine. 
Observed in small amounts in the ore at Bngels. 

Riverside County : A small amount of gray copper ore was found in 
association with chalcopyrite, pyrite and galena, at Crestmore. 

San Bernardino County : It has been found massive in the New York 
and other mines in the New York Mountains. 

Shasta County: Gray copper is of rather common occurrence in the 
copper mines of the county although in small amounts. It has been 
found in a barite gangue in the Bully Hill mine. 

Tuolumne County : Occurred as one of th€ mirerals on "Whiskey Hill, 
Silliman^5\ Found massive in the Golden Role vnine, near Jamestown. 


Sulphantimonite of lead, PbsSb^cj,, 

Ortliorhombic. Generally massive, granular or earthy. Col»r bluish 
lead-gray. Streak lead-gray. Metallic luster. H = 2.5; 0^1:6.3 — 6.4.5. 

GiA'es the same reactions as jamesonite. 
Geocronite is one of the very rare lead minerals found in the State. 

Inyo County: According to Hanks^^^, small masses were found with 
galena in the Inyo Mountains. 

Mono County: It was observed in the Garibaldi mine, Prescott 
district, associated with galena and sphalerite. 

71. STEPHANITE— Brittle Silver— Black Silver. 
Sulphantimonite of silver, AgjSbS,. 
Orthorhombic. Crystals common, usually with striated faces. Also 
massive. Color iron-black. Streak black. Metallic luster. H = 2 — 2.5; 
= 6.2 — 6.3. 

The reajctions are similar to fliuse for pyraruyritc. but llio streak or pow- 
der is black, whereas pyrareyritc is reddish. 

Stephanite is a very important and usually prominent silver mineral 
in silver districts but it does not appear common in California. It is 


often associated with argentite and polybasite as an original mineral 
of the veins. 

Alpine County : Said to have been found in the Morning Star mine, 
J. D. Dana(i). 

Mono County: In llic Blind Spring Hill district it occurred as one 
of the associate minerals. Jjarge inasses were found with pyrargyrite 
in the Oro, Addenda and Fortuna mines, Bodie district, Whiting*^i>. 
Also one of the minerals of the Sweetwater Range north of Bridgeport. 

Nevada County: One of 1]i(^ minerals found in tlie Grass Valley 
mines, Lindgren^*'^ 

Shasta County: Occurs witli native .silver, i^alona and splialerite in 
a caleite-<[uartz gangue at the Igo consolidated mines. 


Sulphantimonite of silver, AgjSbSo. 

Orthorhombic. Tabular crystals and massive. Color iron-black. Streak 
black. Metallic luster. H=2 — 3; G = 6.2. 

In its blowpi])!' n^aetioiis polybasite is like stopluuiite ami p\rargyrite. 

I'olybasite cldsely resembl(\s stcphanite; the two are often mixed and 
are seldom differentiated. When in good crystals they can be told 
apart but when massive their separate identification is difficult. 

Alpine County : The only reported occurrence of polybasite is from 
this county. Specimens have come from the Pennsylvania mine in the 
Silver Mountain district, and Hanks^^^ observed it in microscopical 
crystals from the Monitor and Mogul districts. 



Sulpharsenite of lead, PbiAs^Sj. 

Orthorhombic. Generally massive. Color dark lead-gray. Streak red- 
dish brown. Metallic luster. 11 = 3; G = 5.56. 
Refractive index : n = 2.72. 

Like jamesonitc in its rt-actioiis. cxccitt thai tlic more \'olutil<' fumes of 
arsenic trioxido. instead of the antimony, are given off. 

This compound of lead is a very rare mineral and its existence in 
California is somewhat doubtful. 

Inyo County : Reported to have been found in the Cerro Gordo dis- 
trict, Hanks (^>. 


74. PROUSTITE— Light Ruby Silver. 
Sulpharsenite of silver, AgjAsSs. 
Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Prismatic crystals and massive. Color and 
streak scarlet-red. Adamantine luster. H = 2 — 2.5; G = 5.5. 

Refractive indices: £=2.711; 4^ = 2.979. 

The fumes given off by lioat are more volatile than from antimony, and 
have a slight garlic odoi*. Othenviss^ the reactions are the same as for 
l)yrargyritp. The two minci'nls (jfton are intermixed or grade into each 

The term "ruby silver" is given indiscriminately to proustite and 
pyrargyrite. Both minerals usually contain arsenic and antimony and 
they often grade into each other. The metallic gray pyrargyrite is 
more common than the transparent red proustite, but the tAvo are often 

Kern Countj'^: Specimens of proustite with pyrargyrite have been 
found in the old Amalie district. 

Mariposa County: The light ruby silver occurred with pyrargyrite 
and argentite in the Bryant Silver mine. 

Mono County : Found in the Oro and Bodie mines, Bodie district, 

Shasta County : Occurred in the Chicago mine near Igo, associated 
with galena, pj^rite and quartz. 

Sulpharsenite of copper, Cu^AsS^. 

Orthorhombic. Crystals and massive. Cleavage perfect prismatic. Color 
grayish black. Streak black. Metallic luster. H=3; G=4.4. 

Fuses and gives a faint coating of arsenic. The roasted mineral can be 
reduced to metallic copper by fusion with sodium carbonate. The liorax 
bead is blue. Soluble in nitric acid with the precipitation of a small amount 
of antimony trioxide. Famatinite gives a larger amount of antimony tri- 
oxide when dissolved in nitric acid. 

Enargite is a valuable but not a common copper compound in the 
State. Very few of the copper districts shoAv it even in small amounts. 

Famatinite is a corresponding sulphantimonite of copper and the 
enargite of Alpine County appears to grade into this mineral. 

Alpine County : Enargite was found in large masses associated with 
massive pj'rite in the Mogul district and formed the chief copper 
mineral of the Morning Star and a few other mines of this locality. An 
analysis of the mineral was made by Root^^^ from the i\Ioruing Star 

S Cu As Sb 

31.68 47.21 14.06 6.19 =99.14 per cent 

Crystals have the forms : (110), (001), (100), (010), Silliman^^) and 
(130), (250), (101), Eakle<'?). 

El Dorado County : Some enargite was found in the Ford mines near 

Plumas County : Small amounts occur with the bornite and chalco- 
pyrite at Engels. 

mtnp:rals of California. 





Ch lofidcs. 
Sal Amiuoniac 







Chloride of mercury, HgjCL. 
Tetragonal. Small crystals. Color white, gray, browu. Adamautiue 

luster. H = l — 2; G = 6.4S. 

Refractive intlicos : £ = 2.(ir)(>; ^,- 

On charcoal oasih- volatilizes and coats the coal white. 

, = 1.!»7:!. 

The mineral is 
easily reduced to mci-cury globules by fusion Avith soda. 

The calomel used in medicine is a manufactured product as the nat- 
ural mineral is very rare. It is sometimes found in clear colorless 
crystals of a brilliant adamantine luster, and in white crystalline coat- 
ings, in cinnabar districts. 

Napa County : White coatings of the mineral on metacinnabarite 
occurred at the Oat Hill niine. 

San Mateo County: Small amounts of calomel associated with cinna- 
I)ar, native mercury and eglestonite occur about five miles west of 
Palo Alto. Rogei-s •". 

77. HALITE— Rock Salt 
Chloride of sodium, NaCl. 

Isoinctric. (^'ubcs niassi\(', uranular and crusts. Cleavage perfect cubic 
Color white, reddish and colorless. Vitreous luster. Hr=2.5; G — -y.lo. 

Refractive index: ii = l.~A4. 

Fuses with intumescence and gives a strong yellow flame. Easily soluble 
in water and has a taste. 

Most of the salt produced in the State is obtained by the evaporation 
of the water of San Francisco Bay, yet extensive deposits of the mineral 
exist in the southern counties and some of them are mined. Salt is of 
very common occurrence in the desert regions, where former lakes 
existed, and the deposits reach considerable thickness in some localities, 
often alternating with beds of sulphates, borates, carbonates and mud 


shales. Salt wells, salt springs, salt marshes, and salt- rivers occur in 
these arid plains and white incrustations of salt are often found along 
their borders. 

Alameda County : The salt Avorks at Alvarado evaporate the water of 
San Francisco Bay on a large scale, and the bulk of the salt produced 
in the State is obtained by this method. 

Colu-a County : Salt was obtained by evaporation from the saline 
springs on the Peterson Ranch in Antelope Valley, near Sites. 

Glenn County : Salt springs occur in Salt Spring Valley, four miles 
north of Stonyford and some a few miles west of Elk Creek postoffice. 

Imperial County: Efflorescences of salt on the dry plains of the 
Great Colorado Desert were early reported. 

Inyo County : Salt is common in the dry valleys as white efflorescences 
and in solution in many of the springs, marshes and lakes of this county. 
In the borax district of Death Valley it is a common associate, and the 
bottom of this valley is an extensive salt marsh, into Avhich the Amar- 
gosa River sinks. The waters of Owens Lake have been evaporated for 
salt and soda. Pure white crusts occur in Saline Valley and at Salt 

Kern County : In the Mojave Desert region on the eastern side of 
the county, numerous salt lakes and wells occur. The alkaline desert 
from the Kern River to the Caiiada de las Uvas is impregnated with 
salt. Salt and borax are associated at the Buckthorn, Indian and 
Mesquite springs. 

Riverside County : The well-known Salton Sea is an extensive depres- 
sion in the south central part of the county which was noted for its 
immense deposits of white salt and where thousands of tons have been 
gathered. It is now covered by the waters of the Colorado River and 
the salt works have been wholl3^ obliterated. An analysis of this salt 
Avas made by Allen^^^ 

NaCl CLl N02SO4 Gypsum H2O Insol. 

5)4.54 0.31 3.53 0.79 0.14 0.50 =99.81 per cent 

San Bernardino County : Numerous diy lakes exist in this county, 
all of which contain salt. Some of the salt near Daggett has been 
mined locally for chloridizing the silver ores of the district. A large 
lake deposit occurs in the desert about twenty-five miles southeast of 
Danby and the Surprise salt mines have produced large quantities. 
Bailey^i^ reports a vein of rock salt 12 to 16 feet thick on the Avawatz 
Mountains. Crusts of the mineral associated with sodium, magnesium 
and calcium sulphate occur at the Mojave sink. Salt and borax with 
some nitrates exist along the Amargosa River, near the Inyo County 


San Luis Obispo County: Along the shores of the Salinas River 
white crusts of salt can he found in many places. The Soda Lake in 
Carissa Plains is a dry lake in the eastern part of the county, and the 
surface contains crusts of salt and sodium sulphate. 

Slrnsta County : Sandstones occur on Salt Creek, about twelve miles 
east of Kedding, which are slightly impregnated with salt. 

Solano County : Halite is obtained by evaporation of salt water from 
a gas well eight miles northeast of Suisun. 


Chloride of potassium, KCl. 

Isometric. Cubes and octahedrons; also granular massive. Cleava.ure 
perfect cubic. Colorless to white. Vitreous luster. H = 2;G = 1.97 — 1.99. 

Refractive index: h = 1.4!X>. 

Resembles salt and tastes salt and sli.nlilly l)itt<'r, Imt is distinguished bv 

ts \in]i't flnnii' when fu.«ed. 

The potassium salt is sometimes associated with the sodium salt, but, 
unlike the sodium chloride, it is very rare and no deposits of it occur in 
the State. The brines of Searles Lake contain potassium which may 
be sylvite in solution. 

Inyo County: According to Bailey^^^ sylvite occurs in traces in some 
of the springs of this county. Analyses of some of the impure salt 
covering depressions in Death Valley show low percentages of potas- 
sium chloride. 

79. SAL AMMONIAC— Salmiac. 
Chloride of ammonium, NH^Cl. 

Isometric. Ciystals, crusts and efflorescences. Color white, yellowish. 
Vitreous luster. H = 1.5 — 2; G = ].53. 

Refractive index : ii = \AJi2. 

A'ery easily volatile witliout fusion w hrn heated and is wholly converted 
into dense white fumes. Heated in a dosed t\ihe with soda or lime, am- 
monia is givfn ofl" whicli cnii \k- detect^] by odor. Sohiblr in water. 

Inyo County : According to Bailey(i> sal ammoniac is found as efflo- 
rescences at some of the fissure springs in Death Valley. 

Los Angeles County: A Avhite crystalline incrustation of sal ammo- 
niac was found in the Monterey shale of Burning Mountain, Rogers^^). 

Santa Barbara County : Crusts 5 nun. thick, associated with sulphur, 
came from burning oil-shales on the Hope Ranch, Rogers^^). 


80. CERARGYRITE— Hornsilver. 
Chloride of silver, AgCl. 

Isomotiic. Usually in tliiu plates and crusts. Sometimes massive. 
Color gray but generally tarnished brown. Highly sectile. Waxy. 
n=l — 1.5; G = o.55. 

Refractive index : »r= 2.061. 

Easily reduced on charcoal to metallic silver. Mixed with copper oxide 
It imparts to the flame the azure blue color of the copper chloride flame. 
Insoluble in acids, but soluble in ammonia. 

Cerargyrite has been one of the most important silver minerals of the 
State. It is characteristic of silver deposits located in arid regions and 
is often abundant in such regions. It has been formed in general by 
solutions from above carrying alkali chlorides, obtained from the over- 
lying strata, acting on the silver minerals of the veins and forming 
solutions of silver chloride, from which the mineral is precipitated along 
fissures and in cavities of the gangue, mostly in the oxidized zones of 
the deposit. It is usually accompanied by the chlorobromide, embolite, 
and occasional!}' by the iodide, iodyrite. Barite is a common gangue 

Inyo County : Hornsilver with argentiferous galena, argentite and 
copper minerals has been found abundant in the Argus and Coso ranges 
and to some extent in the Darwin and Cerro Gordo districts. Hanks^^^ 
mentions it from the Slate Kange and in microscopical crystals at the 
Modoc mine near Darwin. Cerargyrite with cerussite oecur^s in the 
Noonday mine, Tecopa; associated with chiwsocolla at the Bonanza 
King mine, Sherman district. 

Kern County : The mineral has been found in the Amalie mine with 
pyrargyrite and native silver. 

Mono County : Cerargyrite has been found in the Blind Springs 
district near Benton and in some of the mines of the Bodie district, but 
never in large masses. It occurs also in the Sweetwater Range. 

Placer County : It occurred in small amounts as one of the minerals 
in the Ophir district, on Duncan Hill, Lindgren^^^ 

San Bernardino County : Hornsilver has been a very important silver 
mineral in the Calico and Barstow mines. The chloride, together with 
the chlorobromide, has been deposited along the fault planes and in 
the numerous fissures of brecciated vein-rock formed by much faulting. 
The minerals associated with the hornsilver of this region are embo- 
lite, cerussite, barite, pyrolusite, chrysocolla, malaehite and jasper. It 
occurs with limestone associated with embolite, wulfenite, sphalerite, 
galena, cerussite and pyrite in the Silver Reef district, on the desert 
about forty miles east of Victor. It is associated with argentite and 
secondary from it at the Bonanza King mine on Providence Mountain 
and in the Imperial mine. Lava Beds district, about nine miles from 


Lavic. Cerargyrite was reported as one of the minerals with borax at 
Searles Lake, but the hK'ality was probably Calico. The silver deposits 
at Calico and liarstow have been fully described by Lindgren^i^ and by 

Chloride of magnesium, MgCL. 

Efflorescence. Color wiiite. 

Refractive indices: £3=1.59; („ = l.(>7r). 

Mixed witii copper chloride, the azure h\uo. llamo is obtaiiit'd. Soluble in 
water and the magnesia is precipitated as magnesium pyrophosphate on 
addition of sodium ])h()s|iliale. 

Magnesium chloride exists in soluble state in the waters of some of 
the springs and lakes but its easy solubility prevents it from forming 
as a mineral except in the dryest climate. 

San Bernardino County: White efflorescences of chloromagnesite 
occur at Saratoga Springs, near the southern end of Death Valley, 

Hydrous oxichloride of copper, CU2CIH3O3. 
Orthorhombic. Slender needles and fibrous reticulated masses. Color 
deep grass-green. H=3 — 3.5; 6 = 3.7. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.S31; y3 = l.SGl; y = 1.8S0. 

Fuses aud imparts an azure blue color to the flame. Readily reduced on 
charcoal to metallic copper. Silver nitrate added to a nitric acid solution of 
the mineral precipitates flocculent silver chloride. Ammonia added to a 
nitric acid solution gives a blue color to solution. (Jives water in a closinl 
tube, which reacts acid. 

Atacamite is a very rare form of copper and its occurrence in Cali- 
fornia has not been definitely established. 

Inyo County: J. D. Dana^^^ gives this mineral from an unknown 
locality in this county. As the Cerro Gordo mine was the best known 
for rare minerals, the atacamite, if correctly identified, perhaps came 
from this mine. 


Oxichloride of mercury, Hg4CL0. 

Isometric. Minute crystals. Color yellowish brown, changing to black. 
Resinous to adamantine luster. H = 2 — 3; G = 8.327. 

Refractive index : n = 2.49. 

Easily reduced to globules of mercury. Solnl)]f in nitric acid and silver 
nitrate precipitates silver chloride. 

This is a very rare mercury mineral which has been found associated 
with cinnabar, metallic mercury and calomel. 



San Mateo County : Minute yellow crystals of eglestonite occur about 
five miles west of Palo Alto in seams and cavities in the silicious material 
so common in the serpentine of tlie cimiabar districts, and the crystals 
were described b}' Rogers^'*\ Forms: cube (100), octahedron (111), 
ihombicdodecahedron (110), and trapezohedron (211). 



The mineral was associated with cinnabar, mercury, calomel, dolo- 
mite, magnesite, opal and quartz. 



Chlorobroniido of silver, A.a;(P»r,('l ) 

Isometric. Generally massive. Color green. Resinous luster. 
H = l — 1.5; = 5.31 — 5.43. 

Refractive index: h=2.15. 

Heated in a closed tube with potassium bisulphate and pyrolusite, red 
vapors of bromine are set free. Heated in closed tube with galena, yellow 
lead bromide forms, which turns white on cooling. Silver nitrate will pre- 
cipitali' silver l)romid(' from a nitric acid solution. 

The greenish embolite has only been found in association with cer- 
argyrite and in much smaller amounts. 

Inyo County : Found with cerargyrite in the Indiana mine near 
Swansea, Hanks^^^ 

]\Iono County : In the Minnie mine, Sweetwater Range, with horn- 
silver. Hanks ^^^ 

San Bernardino County : An associate of the cerargyrite in the 
Calico, Grapevine and Silver Reef districts. One of the minerals re- 
ported with borax at Searles Lake, probably, however, from the Calico 



Iodide of mercury, Hgl. 

Thin coatings. Color n-ddish brown. 

Reactions for the iodine are similar to those for chlorine and bromine in 
embolite. Violet vapore are given off when heated in closed tube with potas- 
sium bisulphate and pyrolusite. With galena the sublimate is dark orange 
red hot, which changes to lemon yellow when cold. 

Reduced on charcoal to metallic mercui*y. 

Traces of iodine have been found in some of the springs of the State, 
but the occurrence of any iodide is questionable. 

Kern County: This rare reddish brown iodide is said to have been 
found with stibnite in the San Emidio Canyon, J. D. Dana^^). 




Fluoride of calcium, CaFj. 

Isometric, lisually in cubes. Also massive, granular or compact. 
Cleavage perfect octahedral. Colorless, green, yellow, purple, blue, white. 
Vitreous luster. 11 = 4; G=3.2. 

Uefraclive index: /i = 1.434. 

Fuses witli some decrepitation, (iives reddish fianie >>f ciilciuni. Sol- 
ul>l<' in acids and caUinm is precipitated by amoniuni oxalate. Mixed with 
ixitassiuin sulplialc and fused in a closed tube, tlie ulass becomes etched. 

Fliuii'ito is a comnioii uiiiuTal, especially as gangue in lead districts 
vvitli galeua. Tt soinetiines forms tliiek veins and becomes important 
as a tlnx. No good deposits are known in the State. 

Contra Costa ('ounty : Small cubes of white tliiorite were found on 
^Vlount Diablo with some copper minerals, Hanks^^). 

Inyo County : Found as a gangue mineral with argentiferous galena 
in the Cerro Gordo, Darwin and other districts. 

Los Angeles County : Fine specimens have come from the Felix mine 
near Azusa. consisting of purple and green masses and cubes. White 
fluorite occurred on Santa Catalina Island with galena and chalcopyrite. 

Mono County : In the Ferris Canyon on the east slope of the Sweet- 
water Mountains green and violet crystals and masses occur. 

San Benito County : Specimens have come from the western part of 
this county. 

San Bernardino County : Green and purple tiuorite comes from the 
Kings Fluorspar mine, Cave Canyon district, with some iceland spar. 
Occurs in the Cave Canyon district coated witli black manganese oxide. 
Light green occurs near Barstow. Occurs near Ludlow and near 

San Diego County: Occurs in large specimens of green color at Oak 
(irove. Paloiiiar Mountains. A small amount is found at tile ^rountain 
Lily (Jem mine. Aguanga Mountain. 

























87. WATER. 

Oxide of hydrogen, PI^O. 

Hexagonal when solid, as ice. Colorless. Brittle. H = l..'3; G = 0.91G. 

Refractive index : h = 1.333. 

Ice. refractive indices: £= 1.313: ,.,= 1.300. 

The mineral springs of California are very numerous and of a great 
variety. Many of them have a reputed medicinal value and have 
become popular health resorts. 

Thermal springs are common and many of them represent the linger- 
ing remnant of a former volcanic activity- of the region. Some owe 
their origin to the heat develojoed by decomposition of sulphides and 
other mineral bodies below, in the courses of the underground waters. 
These springs are usually strongly sulphurous as Avell as hot. 

The salts most commonly found in the spring waters of the State are 
the carbonates, sulphates and chlorides of magnesium, sodium, calcium 
and iron. Traces of boron are found in many and in some localities 
like Clear Lake, Lake County, and the desert regions of Inyo and San 
Bernardino counties, boracic acid has been an abundant ingredient. 

Some of the lakes are also strongly saturated with salts, and Mono 
Lake and Owens Lake are noted for the large percentage of solid con- 
tents of their Avaters, mostly sodium bicarbonate. 

Stream waters are purest in granitic regions, less pure and harder in 
limestone regions, and quite impure and strongly alkaline in the arid 

Colusa County : There are many mineral springs in the county along 
Sulphur Creek. 


Lake C'ount>" : 'Pliis couiily is the most noted oiio in the State for its 
luiiieral si)rin^'s. Adams, Anderson, Bartlett, Castle, Harbin, Highland. 
Howard, Saratoga. Siegler, Soda liay and AVittci- S|)rings are noted 
tourist resorts. 

Mendoeino ("oniity: Several mineral .springs occiii- in tlie county. 
Vichy, Orr's and Duncan Springs are noted. 

Napa County: There are several noted mimral spring resorts in 
the county. Aetna. Calistoga, Napa Soda, Napa Vichy. White Sulphui", 
Pope, Se(|uoia. and Walters Springs are well known, all of them con- 
taining iiiinrriil salts in solution. 

San liuis Obispo County: The Paso Robles Hot Springs are the most 
noted in the State. 

Sonoma County : Numerous .springs exist in the county containing 
mineral salts in solution. Agua Caliente, Alder (tIcu, Barcal. Boyes, 
''Tilt' Geysers," Lytton, ^Mark West, and Skaggs are noted. 


88. QUARTZ— Silica. 
Oxide of silicon, SiO;. 

Hexagonal, ihomboliedral. Hexagonal prisms with pyramids verj' 
common and sometimes large. Compact and granular massive. Promi- 
nent conchoidal fracture. Colorless, white, j-ellow, red-brown, etc. 
Optically positive. Vitreous luster. H = 7; G = 2.6o. 

Refractive indices: £=1.553: (,^ = 1.544. 

Infusible and insoluble in nitric or hydrochloric acids. Soluble in hydro- 
fluoric acid. Fused well witli a flux oi sodium carbonate, the fusion dis- 
solved in water and hydrochloric acid, when evaporated to dryness, will leave 
the silica as an insoluble residue. The hydrochloric acid solution, after all 
silica is remo\ed. will .ai\e no precipitates of alumina, calcinni or mag- 
ui'siiuu when trejited suceessively witli ammoniuui. junmniiinni oxaliiti^ and 
sfidium phi:si(liaf(>. jiroxing the uiineral to be silica and not a silicnte. 

Silica constitutes al)Out three-fifths of the solid crust of the earth; 
eonse(|uently (piartz and chalcedony and their varieties are exceedingly 
connnon minerals. It is usual to class under (piartz those forms of 
silica which arc phenocrystalline, that is, those with a distinct crystal- 
line structure, and under chalcedou}^ those forms which are crypto- 
crystalline, that is, those so finely crystalline that they appear non- 
crystalline except under the microscope. Under each of these two 
mineral species are grouped many varieties based generally on color 
and structure. 

Common quartz is an essential constituent of granites, granodiorites, 
quartz-porphyries, rhyolites, gneisses, schists, (piartzites and sandstones, 
and is an accessory mineral in many other kinds of rock, either vol- 
canic, metamorphic or sedimentary. Veins, ledges, seams and pockety- 
masses of white quartz are common in volcanic and metamorphic 


areas and much of it in California is gold-bearing. In ordinary rock 
decomposition silica remains as a rcsidnal i")rodnct, as it is practically 
unattacked by the usual weathering agencies. 

Rock crystal is the clear colorless variety -which is seldom to be found 
except as hexagonal crystals. Fine large groups of these crystals are 
frequently found in the mines. 

Amethyst is the variety colored violet by manganese or possibly 
titanium. It also occurs in groups of crystals, being rarely massive. 
Very little good amethyst has been found in the State. 

Rose quartz is a massive variety colored pink by manganese. Some 
very deep colored rose quartz has been found. 

Smoky quartz or Cairngorm stone is the hair-brown transparent 
variety, also in crystals, the color being due to carbonaceous material. 
The color is readil}' discharged or converted into citrine-yellow by heat 
and much of the so-called "false topaz" has been made in this w^ay. 
This is a y^Yy common variety and some excellent large crystals have 
been found in the State. 

Inclusions of other minerals in (juartz are very common and have 
several varietal names. 

Phantom crystals show the outlines of one crystal within another, due 
to inclusions of green chloritic matter or brownish earthy material 
arranged about the boundaries of the forming crystal during a stage in 
its growth. Some fine phantom crystals have come from near Plaeer- 

Sagenite or rutilated quartz is rock crystal pierced by long red needles 
of rutile. No good sagenite has been found in the State. 

Thetis hairstone is rock crystal containing long hair-like fibers of 
asbestos or actinolite. 

Avetiturine or gold-stone is glassy (quartz speckled with flakes of 
hematite or brow)i mica. Good aveuturine is very uncommon. 

Alameda County : Yellow crystals occur associated with albite 
at the Newman mine on Cedar Mountain, twelve miles southeast of 

Alpine County : Fine specimens of rose quartz have been found in 
Hope Valley and in the Mogul and Monitor districts. 

Amador County : Fine large .specimens of rock crystal have come 
from Volcano and Oleta. This section has also produced good speci- 
mens of amethj'st, smoky and rose quartz. Thetis hairstone has been 
found at Oleta. 

Butte County: Smoky quartz occurs on the North Fork of Feather 
River. Fine rose quartz occurs lu^ar Forbestown; also clear crystal 

Calaveras County : Good rock crystal in fine large aggregates have 
been found in many of the gold mines. Mokelumne Hill, Green 


Mountain gravel mine near iVIiirphy, Angels and West Point have pro- 
(liK-eil large crystals. Clear (|uart/ crystals occur at llic .Icnnic Ijjiul 

Colusa County: The Colusa sandstone from near Sites is one of the 
best known in the State. 

El Dorado County: Roek crystal, i)hantom crystals and smoky quartz 
have come from near I'lacerville, which are the best in the State. A 
fairly ]n\Vi' wliile (|uart/. is found on the .McDonald Ivam-li. mar Shingle 
Springs. A large deiM)-it occurs ten miles northwest of I'lacerville. 
Cleai- ciystals are found in While Rock Canyon iicmi- Georgetown. 
Quaitz with actinolite occurs near Fairplay. 

(ilenn County: The i)rincipal mineral output of the counly is sand 
and gravel produced chieHy at AVyo and Willows. 

Inyo County: Good rock crystal has been found in the Cerro Gerdo 
and Darwin districts. 

Kern County : Rose quartz reported as occuri'ing north of Kernville. 

Los Angeles County: Thetis hairstone has been found near Los 
Angeles. Vein quartz some thirty feet thick has been reported to occur 
six miles northwest of Acton. Quartz in vein.s occurs between Lancas- 
ter and Muroc. Occurs on ^loonstone Beach, Santa Catalina Island. 

Marin County: Chert, quartzite and sandstone are the chief mineral 
products of the county, u.sed for macadam. Quartz amygdules occur on 
]Mt. Tamalpais. 

]\[ariposa County : Fine rock crystal occurs at Mount Bullion. 

]\Iono County: Rock crystal, amethyst and tabular drusy quartz 
have come from the Bodie district. 

Monterey County: White quartz .^^and occurs in sand dunes at Del 
]Monte and Carmel Bay. 

Napa County : Good rock crystal occurs near Calistoga. 

Nevada County: Good specimens of rock crystal are often found at 
(Jrass Valley and Nevada City. Large crystals occur near Washington. 

Orange County: Sand (luai'tz occurs with biotite and muscovite one 
mile northeast of Capi.strano. 

Placer County: Quartz containing green chlorite is found at Shady 
Uun. Rock cryi-tal occurs in the Ophir district. Rock crystals, some 
with inclusions of green chlorite, occur at Shady Run. 

Plumas County: Rock crystal from the Granite Basin. Some deep 
colored rose (piarlz has come from IMeadow Valley. 

Riverside County: Rock crystal, smoky quartz and pink quartz in 
fuie large crystal are associated with the gem tourmaline at Coahuila. 
Granular quartz occurs in the Crestmore limestone quarry. Quartz 
as massive quartzite occurs in large quantity on Eagle i\Iountains. 

Sacnnnento County: Rock crystal is found at Folsom of fine (|uality. 


San Bernardino County : Quartz with rutile needles has been found 
in the San Bernardino Range. Found as pseudomorph.s after calcite 
at Hart. Clear white occurs in tlie Fremont mininf? district. Found 
associated with specular hematite and epidote in the San Bernardino 
]\rountains about tliirty miles northeast of San Bernardino. 

San Diego County : Excellent specimens of rock crystals, smoky quartz 
and ])ink quartz are associated with the green and ])ink tourmaline of 
the county. Large groups of crystals and single crystals of a deep 
rose color occur in the pegmatite veins which carry the tourmaline, some 
at Pala, Mesa Grande and Kincon. Rock crystal with long and almost 
black needles of tourmaline occur at Pala. Crystals from Pala and 
Rincon have the forms: (3031)., (4041), (50ol), (1121), (3141), 
(41ol), (5161), Waring*^'. A deposit of rose cpiartz of some size 
occurs twenty-nine miles from Tia Juana on road to Ensenada. An 
opalescent rose quartz occurs at Escondido. Tourmalinated quartz 
has been found on the east side of Chihuahua Valley. 

San Luis Obispo County : Glass sand reported to occur about four 
miles south of Edna and also fortv miles east of Arrovo Grande. 

Sierra County: Yellow or citrine quartz has been found on Bald 

Stanislaus County : Large ledge of quartz about twelve miles above 
Patterson on El Puerto Creek. 

Analysis : 

SiO.. 00.78 

ALO, 0.21 

FeoO.i None 

Tulare County : Rock crystal occurs at Three Rivers and in Drum 
Valley. Rose quartz is found at Bull Run IMcadows and at Yokohl. 
Quartz Avith inclusions of hornblende is found at Deer Creek. Beautiful 
rose quartz occurs at the Summer Rose Quartz claim, eight miles south- 
east of California Hot Springs near Kern county line. Rose quartz 
of good color occurs on the west side of Bull Run Ridge, near county 
line associated with graphic granite. Good rose quartz occurs near 
Lemon Cove and near Badger. Excellent rose quartz occurs on the 
Gasenberger Ranch near Exeter, in a pegmatite associated with massive 
])lack allanite. 


Silicon dioxide. SiO;. 

Ki'l'i;.' li\i' imli'A : /^ I.'nIT. 

Kcactidiis llir s;\nic ;is with (iiinrtz. An iuiimi'ity of iron will usually be 
sJKiwii on rill- iiddition of aniinonia to (In- liydriH-lildric acid sDlution after 
tlie silica is ri'nio\cd. 

The ehalecdonic forms of silica are never transparent, but occur in 
dense cryptoerystalline masses and layers, translucent to opaque, and 
without crystal form. Hot solutions, especially alkaline solutions, act- 
ing on silieious rocks dissolve some of the silica and this is deposited 
in layers along the Avails of cavities, or completely fills cavities, forming 
geodes and irregular shaped masses, with often a banded structure. 
]\Iany of the large masses of chalcedony and jasi)er have been formed 
by deposition from springs, whose waters contain soluble silica. Chal- 
cedony is a ver}- common secondary filling of cavities and fissui-es in 
volcanic rock, and may form large geodes in this way. There are many 
names given to the varieties of cry])tocrystalline silica which may be 
classed under the head of chalcedony, most of them based on color or 
structure. They include chalcedony, agate, carnelian, sard, prase, 
heliotrope or bloodstone, chrysoprase, onyx, sardonyx, jasper and flint, 
all of which may l)e found in the State. Ordinary silicified wood and 
agatized wood are silieious pseudomorphs after wood. 

Myrichitc is a local name applied to a chalcedony, having blood-red 
spots and patches of cinnabar. 

Kinraditc is a local name given to a spherulitic jasper occurring on 
the shores of Golden Gate. 

Alameda County : Small geodes of chalcedony are common in the 
Berkeley Hills. 

Alpine County: Kcd jasper is common in the IMonitor district. 

Amador County: Bluish chalcedony occurs at Volcano. 

Calaveras County : Red, green and brown jasper is found near 
Murphy. Silicified wood at Angels. 

Del Norte County : Agate, chalcedony and jasper pebbles are com- 
mon beach pebbles at Crescent City. 

101 Dorado County: Some chalcedony occurs with the quartz at 

Fresno County : Chrysoprase has been found fifteen miles northwest 
of Coalinga. Banded, delicately-veined masses of white chalcedony 
occur at Panoehe. 

Humboldt County : The beach peljbles at Big Lagoon are agate, chal- 
cedony, jasper, prase, carnelian, etc. 

Imperial County: Pine agates are found as drift pebbles in Colorado 
Desei't, near Canyon Springs. 


Inyo County : Porcelain jasper has Ijeen found in the Coso district. 

Kern County : Deep blue and sky blue masses of chalcedony occur 
near Kane Springs. 

Los Angeles County : The beach pebbles at Redondo are largely chal- 

Marin County: The beach jjcbbles at Bolinas have agate and chal- 
cedon;/. Red jasper outcrops on Reed Ranch. Spherulitic jasper, 
i-alled "kinradite. '' occurs on shore west of Sausalito between Point 
Bonito and Lime Point. Some of the beach pebbles at Bolinas Point 
are used for moonstones. The red and yellow jaspers from the Fran- 
ciscan cherts make beautiful polished specimens. 

^lendocino County : Red jasper is quite common at Shelter Cove. 

Xapa County : Red jasper is found on Mount St. Helena. Chal- 
cedony is common at the ^lanhattan cinnabar mine, Knoxville. The 
I>etrified wood of the Petrified Forest near Calistoga is largely chal- 

Nevada County : Brown jasper occurs at Nevada City. The beach 
pebbles at Lake Tahoe contain chalcedony, agate, jasper, carnelian, 
prase, etc. Good moss agate is found near Indian Flat. 

Placer County: Fine geodal masses of chalcedony have been found 
at the Spanish mine. Ophir district. 

Plumas County : Banded green and red jasper occurs in the slates 
and schists west of Meadow Valley. 

San Benito County : Bluish gray chalcedony occurs as pseudomorphs 
after elongated crystals of barite and also forms shells about oily 
bituminous matter, in the Phipps Quicksilver mine, east of Emmet. 

San Bernardino County : Moss agate has come from the San Ber- 
nardino Jlountains. Bluish chalcedony is associated with opal in the 
Black Mountains north of Barstow. ]\Iyrickite occurs forty-five miles 
northeast of Johannesburg and fifteen miles northeast of Pipe 
Springs, in bunches and small masses. Fine blue chalcedony occurs 
two miles northeast of Lead Pipe Springs. Bloodstone occurs in vesicu- 
lar basalt with jasper near Lead Pipe Springs. 

San Diego County : Red and white banded chalcedony occur south- 
east of Dulzura and east of Donohue mine. The amethystine-colored 
chalcedony found east of San Diego has been called ''violite. " 

San Francisco County : Red. green and brown jasper is common in 
the serpentine of San Francisco. Spherulitic ja.sper called "kinradite" 
is found near Land's End. 

San !Matco County : The beach pebbles at Pescadero contain fine 
specimens of chalcedony, agate, carnelian, jasper, etc. 

Santa Barbara County : The beach pebbles of this county contain 
agate and chalcedonv. 


Siskiyou County : Jasper is coninion with the numerous serpentine 

Sonoma County : Red jasper is found at Windsor. 

'I'rinity ("ouiity: Jasper oecuis on R<'d ^Fountain at the head iJ" 
I'r'os]n'('t l*('ak. 

Tuhuv Counly : Fine moss agate oeeurs on Deer Creek. Chrysoprase 
is fcMUid in the liills east of Visalia, on Deer Creek and at Yokohol. 
Chrysoprase was mined at N'euiee Hill, Stokes ^Mountain, on Tnle River, 
Deer Creek and one mile east of Lindsay. 

Tuolunnie County : Yellow and brown jasper oeeurs at Shaws Flat. 


O.vide of silicon. Si(X. 

Hexagonal. Tliiii i)iates ofu-n ovi'iiappin.i;'. ("ulnrirss to wiiili'. lIi 7: 
G = 2.28 — 2.33. 

Hi'frac'tive indices: oc=^''>7: «— 1.47; ,, = 1.473. 

Reactions the same as with quartz. 

Tridymite is a form of siliea which is found in recent volcanic rocks. 
It occurs in thin and often overlapping hexagonal plates, crystallizing 
as a secondary mineral in the cavities and fissures of the rock. The 
mineral is generally of microscopic size and therefore is rarely seen, 
except in thin sections of rocks. As a rock miner;*! if may occur in all 
of the recent voleanics. 

Mono County: Observed in the cavities of lava as small hexagonal 
plates, near Bridgeport, with the forms: (0001), (lOTO), (3250), 
(5490), (3034), (10T2j, Schaller^"). 

Sliasta County: Oecuis abundantly in ^•esi(•lllar basalts on road to 
Terry's Mill, east of Kouiid .Mountain. 

Tuolumne County: Found l)y Kogers^''^ in cavities of an audesite 
near Jamestown. Occurs as very thin, Avhite hexagonal plates. 

Silicon liio.Kide. SiO.. 

Isonntiic. Siiiall oclalicdrons. Color while. Dull luster. II=<i — 7: 
(i = 2.27. 

Refractive index: ;( = 1.4(!S. 

In.soluhle and infusible, like <|uariz. Au isouu'tric iiiodiliculiou of Si()_. 
formed at temin-ratures above 1100°. 

Tehama County : Occurs as eon.stituent of rock near Tuscan Springs, 

Tuolunnie County: Occurs as distinct octahedral ei-ystals in augite 
aiulesite (auganite) near Jamesto^^■ll. Rogers^''. 


92. OPAL. 
Hydrous oxide of silicon, SiO^-iiIIjO. 

Amorplious?. Colloidal massive. I'rouiineot couchoidal fraclure. Yellow 

brown, green, red, white, gray and colorless. Waxy luster. H = r»..~) — 6..") 
of compact varieties. G = 2.1 — 2.2. 

Uffractivc index: ;i = 1.40(5 — 1.4<i. 

(lives a slight amount of water iu a clusi^rl tnln'. dtln'rwisc like (juartz 
and chalcedony in its reactions. 

Opal differs from chalcedou}- in Ijeing wholly amorphous, somewhat 
softer and eontaiuing a varying percentage of water. It is silica which 
has solidified from a colloidal state. It fills cavities and seams in many 
different kinds of rock and is a very common form of silica. 

Precious opal shows a beautiful play of colors and very little of this 
variety has been found in the State. 

Common opal is the white, yellow, brown, bluish or greenish masses 
with no opalescence, having a prominent choncoidal fracture. The 
occurrence of this kind is quite universal. 

Hyalite is transparent glassy opal occasionally found ir the cavities 
of volcanic rock. 

Cacholong is a pearl-like opal. 

Chrysopal or prase opal is a name applied to a greenish opal found 
with chrysoprase. 

Moss opal is common opal with moss-like inclusions of pyrolusite, 
chlorite, etc. 

TTood opal is very abundant in the State, especially in the foothills 
of the Sierras, where whole forests have lieen covered by the great 
thickness of gravel. Masses of wood opal are sometimes white, but 
usualh" light to dark brown in color.* The structure of the wood is 
often so well preserved that the species can be identified. 

Geyscrite and silicious sinter are names applied to hydrous silica 
formed about the vents of geysers and hot springs. 

Diatomaceous earth, infusorial earth and tripolite are names applied 
to deposits of silica formed by fresh or salt water diatoms. The waters 
of the lakes during Tertiary time swarmed with infusoria which 
secreted silica and their silica remains have formed thick and extensive 
deposits of white and very light chalk-like material. 

Alpine County : AVood opal occurs at Eed Lake Peak. 

Amador County : Wood opal at Volcano. Diatomaceous earth in 
lone Valley. 

Butte County : "Wood opal at Dodsou mine. 

Calaveras County : Common and hyalite opal has been found at 
Mokelumne Hill. AVood opal at Chile Gulch, Bald Hill, Angels and 
other mining camps. 

Contra Costa County: Hyalite and common opal has been found on 
Mount Diablo. 


Fresno County : Dendritic or moss opal has eoine from the moun- 
tains east of Fresno. Some dialoiiiiiceous earth is repoi'ted a i"i'\v miles 
southwest of Mendota. 

Inyo County : Diatomiict'ous c-ti-ih rc])oi-t<'d fi'om Iii(lc|)riidciiif \';d- 
h'y near main hiL;li\v;iy. 

Kern County: ^Vhi1e ()i)al is found on the sunuiiit of Teiiaehapi 
^fountain. Fine moss and dendritic opal occurs eifrhteen miles north- 
west of Johannesl)ur^'. 

Lake County : Fiorite opal has ))een found at Sulphur Bank. Hyalite 
has come from ]\Iiddletown and Kelseyville. Diatomaceous earth occurs 
on Lost Spring Kaneh. 

Lassen County: Wood opal is found in Surprise \'mII(\v. Vdlow 
and white have been found near Honey Lake. 

Los Angeles County: Dintomaceous earth at Santa Monica and on 
Santa Catalina Island. A deposit of diatomaceous earth is reported as 
occurine near Bairdstown. Also in the bluffs three miles south of 
Kedondo; at Point Duma, northwest of Santa Monica; at Palos Verdes 
Ranch, San Pedro Hills and near Acton. 

^ferced County: Oiatomaeeous earth of good (|iialily occurs in the 
bills west of Newnum. 

Afodoc County: A deposit is said to occur in Secret Valley. 

Mono County: Diatomaceous earth has come from near Bodie. 

Monterey County: The ]M(mterey shales grade iiilo i)uiv diatonuiceous 
earth. A bed of diatomaceous (>artb oecui-s nine miles iiortliwest of 

Xaj)a County : Wood opal in large trees occurs in the fossil forest near 
Calistoga. Some diatomaceous earth occurs in Friend's ^''a]ley west 
of Calistoga; also four miles .southeast of St. Helena. 

Nevada County: Wood opal at Chalk Bluff, Nevada City, North 
Bloomtield, and Shelly Hill. ^Masses of moss opal are found at New- 

Orange county: Diatomaceous earth around Allison Creek south of 
El Toro. 

Placer County: Wood opal at Cold llun and near Roseville. Dia- 
tomaceous earth at Dutch Flat. 

Plumas County: Wood oi)al in Gravel Range. 

Riverside County: White hyalite coats the walls of some of the small 
cavities in the feldspathic pegmatite at Crestmore. It shows strong 
yellow liuninescence under the electric spark, indicating the presence 
of uranium. Wood opal of a dark bi-own color also occurs at the tpiarry. 

San Bernardino County: ()i)al occurs in the Black Mountains about 
25 miles north of Barstow. some of which is good gem material and is 
worked. IMost of it is coiinne.n opal with chalcedony. Some clear 


hyalite occurs with it. Common white, colorless hyalite, red, and gem 
opal occur in cavities in rhyolite two miles northeast of Lead Pipe 
Springs. An opal deposit occurs about twenty-five miles north of 
Barstow, in Copper Mountain. 

San Diego County: Thin coatings of glassy hyalite occur on the 
quartz and iilhite at Rincon, Rogers'"'. Diatomaceous earth has come 
from about forty miles north of San Uiego. 

San Francisco County : Nodular masses of common opal occur in the 
serpentine of San Francisco. A moss or dendritic opal occurs on the 
Black Hills. 

San Joaquin County: Diatomaceous earth is found on Staple's 


San Luis Obispo County : Diatomaceous earth occurs near Port Har- 
ford, near Arroya Grande and near Edna. Several occurrences of dia- 
tomaceous earth are reported: In the mountains back of Pismo; in 
the hills on the south side of San Luis Valley; in the San Luis Range 
south of Morro Bay; various points in Salinas Valley as far north 
as Rinconacla. 

San Mateo County: Diatomaceous earth at San Gregorio. 

Santa Barbara County : A large deposit of diatomaceous earth occurs 
at Lompoc. Also on south slope of Santa Ynez Mountains and near 
Santa Barbara. Diatomaceous earth is exposed in low hills south of 
Surf and along the coast south of Goleta. 

Shasta County : Diatomaceous earth is found in extensive beds along 
the Pit River and on Hat Creek. A pure white diatomaceous earth 
occurs a few miles southwest of Bartle in T. 37 W.. R. 3 E. 

Sierra County : Wood opal has come from Downieville. 
■ Siskiyou County : Fire opal has been found near Dunsmuir. 

Sonoma County : "Wood opal near Santa Rosa ; diatomaceous earth 
about ten miles north of Petaluina : geyseritc at the Geysers. Yellow 
masses occur on hills north of Sonoma. Some opal of gem- (piality 
lias been found neai- (Jlen P]lleu. Fire opal has been found in a clay 
.deposit on the Wcisc Ranch, bi'tween Glen Ellen and Kenwood, infn- 
sorial earth occurs as a five-foot-thick bed, one mile north of Mark 
West Springs and six miles east of Windsor. A deposit occurs also 
two miles northeast of Agua Caliente. 

Tehama County : Diatomaceous earth near Lassen Butte. Probably 
is volcanic tufiF. 

Tulare County : Wood opal in Kings River Canyon. Diatomaceous 
earth near Exeter. Chrysopal or prase opal is a nickel green opal 
f(;und with chrysoprase in hills east of Visalia and Porterville. Yellow 
opal occurred with chrysoprase at Yokohol. 

Tuolumne County : Wood opal has been found near Columbia. 



93. ARSENOLITE— White Arsenic 
Oxide of arsenic, AsoOj. 

Isometric, commonly fibrous crusts and earthy. Color white. Silky or 
vitreous luster. 11 = 1.5: G = 3.7. Taste sweet. Astringent. 

Refractive inde.K : «=: 1.785. 

Fusible with wliitr fuuifs ;uh1 :;;n'lif odor. (Jives no sulphur in dosed 
tube. , 

The white oxide of arsenic is readily obtained by heating any arsenic 
compound l)nt it is not very common native. 

Alpine County : Found as an alteration of enargite at {he Exchequer 
mine. Small white octahedrons occur in the pyrite and enargite 
associated with ivalgar at the Monitor mine. 

San Bernardino County : Large masses occurred with gold at the 
Amargosa mine, W. P. Blake^^^ 

Trioxide of arsenic, As.O.. 

Monoclinic. I'lat.v crystals. I'crl'cM-t clinoiiinncoidal clcnNiinc. ('oloi- 
less to white. 11 = 2.5; = 4.05. 

Refractive iiidices : a-l-S71; ^ = 1.1)2; y = 2.01. 

Dense white fumes and garlic odor when heated on charcoal. 

A mineral formed hy oxidation of arsenides of metals, and is rare. 

Trinity County: Occurs in crusts of well-formed monoclinic crystals 
in the pyrrhotite deposit at Islantl ^lountain. 

Trioxide of antimony, SbnOj. 

Orthorhombic. Genei'ally cohimnar masses. Perfect bracliypiuacoidal 
cleavage. Color snow-while to ash-gray. H = 2.5; G = 5.5G. 

Refractive indices: oc=2.lS; ^=2.;>5; y = 2.35. 

Gives white coating, but: no odor on charco.-il. Gives no siilplnir in closed 

Valentinite is an oxidation product of antimony minerals, especially 
of stibnite. 

San Benito County : Lemon-yellow bladed aggregates of valentinite, 
probably pseudomorphs after stibnite, occur at the Picahotes mine 
associated with cinnabar, (piartz and chalcedony, Rogers^^\ 

San Bernardino County: Occurs as white coating on stibnite in 
northern part of county. 


96. BISMITE— Bismuth Ocher. 
Oxide of bismutli. Bi^O;.- 

Orthoiliombic. Coininonly occurs ns nil earthy coaling. Color yellow to 
irray. G = 4.36. 

U.'fractivo indices: £ = 1.82; ,„ = 2.(lO. 

(ii\i'S yellow coating ou charcoal, which heeoincs liri'^'ht red wlii'n fii'ied 
with jjotassinni iodide and sulphur. 

Bismite occurs generally as a yellowish powder or coating on bisiiiuUi 
minerals, especially on native hi.snmtli. 

]\l()ii() Connly : Foiuul at Lone Pine. 

San Diego County: Bisnnitli ocher was found as a yellow and gray 
powder with native bismuth at Pala, Kunz*°\ This powder is, accord- 
ing to Schaller^^^, in ])ai't hismiith hydroxide, bismuth vanadate and 
mixtures of these two. An analysis of the yellow ocher from the 
Stewart mine showed it to be a mixture of the hydroxide and the 

Gang HoO 

Bi..O.-. V-O-. .Sol. in HXO;.. jnsol. in HNO., 107° 210° Ign. 
04.43 12'.11 2.27 17.(i3 0.32 0.224 3.43 =100.43 per cent 

An analysis of the gray ocher from the Stewart mine showed it to be 
probably bismuth hydroxide with the formula Bi.0.....3H.O. 

Gang H.O 

Bi..Os V-.0-, Sol. in HNO;.. hisol. in HXO~ 107° 240° Ign. 
04.0 0".s f)..-, ]:;..-, 0.4 0..'1 11.4 =100.8 per cent 

All analysis of the yellow ocher from the Pala Chief mine showed it to 
be the bismuth vanadate, pucherite. 

Yellow bismite in small irregular particles and minute tabular crystals 
with the forms (100) and (0^^) occur at the Victor mine, Rincon, 
Rogers^ ^\ 

97. MOLYBDITE— Molybdic Ocher. 
O.xide of raolybdennui, M0O3. 

Capillary crystals in radiating tufts and earthy. Color straw-yellow. 
11 = 1 — 2; G = 4.r>. 

Refractive indices: cc =1.720; ^=1.733; ^ = 1.03.'). 

A deej) blue solution is obtained by dissolving the powder in concentrated 
sul])liuric acid and adding a scrap of paper not larser than a i)in head. The 
si)Iulion sioii turns brown. 

Molybdite occurs as a yelloAv powder or as small radiating tufts as a 
secondary alteration product of molybdenite. JMost of the localities 
given for molybdenite will show some of the yellow oxide. 

Del Norte County: Found associated with bornite at French Hill. 
Mono County: Occurs with molybdenite at Cameron and at Silverado 
Creek, Whiting^). 


Nevada County : Occurred mixed with linionite at the Wisconsin and 
Illinois claim, Nevada City. And in Stuart Ledge. 

Shasta County : Occui*s on Boulder Creek west of Gibson Siding, 
associated wth molylidenite. 

Tuolumne County : Found in some of the rocks on the Stanislaus 

98. CERVANTITE— Antimony Ocher 
Oxide of antimony, SboOs. 
Orthorhombic. Usually as a crust or powder. Sometimes massive. 
Color yellow. 11=4 — 5; G = 4.0S. 

Kefractivi" indox : // = l.t)S. 

Differs from valcntiiiitc in hciii.^- iufusildc and the antimony coaliny, on 
charcoal is ubtaint-d only when reducod by moans of a flux like sodium car- 

Cervantite usually occurs as a yellowish crust or powder as an oxida- 
tion product on stibnite. 

Inyo County: Found massive yellow at the Lottie mine, Wild Rose 
district and at the St. Ignacio mine. 

Kern County: Occurred associated with stil)nite at the San Emidio 

Hydrous oxide of antimony, Sb204lLO. 

Massive or as a crust or powder. Color yellowish white. H = 4 — 5.5; 
G = 5.1 — 5.28. 

Refractive index: h^I.OO — l.i). 

Reactions like cervantite, but also yields water in a closed tube. 

Occurs as an alteration product of stibnite or native antimony in 
massive crusts or powder, of a yellowish white color. It is the common 
oxidation of antimony minerals. 

Kern County: Found with luitive antimony at Ijittle Caliente 
Springs and on Erskinc Creek. 

San Benito County : Occurs with stibnite at some of the mines of the 
northeast part of the county. 

Santa Clara Count}- : Found with stil)nite at some of the mines of the 

Hydrous oxide of antimony and iron. 

Amorphous. Color straw-yellow. Resinous luster. H = 4; = 3.6. 
This oxide was found as a thick coating on stibnite from Santa Clara 
County and Avas described as a new mineral by Goldsmith'^^^ The 
analysis of the substance suggests that it was a mixture of stibiconite 
and silicious limonite and not a new mineral. 













Hydrous oxide of antiniony, coiiin'i- and otlit-r bases. 
^Massive. Color blackish srocu to black. 11 = 3 — 4; G = 3.8. 

Blackish green to black masses occurring in the oxidation zone in the 
mines of the Blind Springs district. 

Stetefeldt'Uc is similar to ])art/ite with more silver. 

Mono County : Found in the Kerrick, Comanche, Diana and Comet 
mines of the Blind Si)rings district and described as a new mineral and 
analysed hy Arents'^'. Considered, however, by W. P. Hlake*^^^) f,, \^^, 
a mechanical iiii.xtui-c of the liydrous oxide of antimony with other 
metallic bases. 











i> MO 


3=0S..')1 IH'V CCIll 

A specimen labeled stelefeldtite 1ms come from the Giant mine. 






























102. CUPRITE— Red Copper. 
Red oxide of copper, Cu^O. 

Isomoliic. Small cuhcs an I octahedrons. Generally massive. Color red. 
Streak brownish red. Adamantine to snbmetallic liistev. H=r3.r) — 4. 
G = 5.99. 

Refractive index : « = 2.S49. 

Mixed with sodium carbonatf. it is easily reduced on chiin-oal to metallic 
copper; ammonia add<'d to tiie nitric acid solution produces a deep blue 
color, but no priii|)itate if mineral is pure. 

Cuprite occurs in most of the copper localities as a secondarj' mineral 
in the oxidized portions of the deposits. Massive specimens have come 
from various counties but no large bodies of the mineral are known. 
It is ail important ore of copper. CJialcofrirhite is a long hair-like 

Alameda County : Massive specimens have been found near Liver- 

Amador Country : At Volcano. 

Calaveras County: Masses are occasionally found at Copperopolis 
and Campo Seco, associated with the chalcopyrite. Mentioned by 
Si]liman<5) from Quail Hill. 

Colusa County : Found at the old Candace and Union mines. The 
capillary variety chalcotrichife with massive cuprite was found in the 
Lion mine. 

Del Norte County : Masses with native copper found at the Pearl 
copper mine. Common in the Rockland district. 

El Dorado County: Found with malachite, chalcopyrite and native 
copper at the Cambrian mine. 

Fresno County: Prominent in the Cordon-Fresno Coi)per mine. 

Glenn County : At L 'Homme. 

7— 22t32 


Iluiuboklt County : Occurs associated with native copper and mala- 
chite on Horse ^Lountain. Occurs with melaconite, dialcocite and 
malachite on the Fields Lebanon property. Red Cap Creek. 

Kern County : Found on the old San Emidio Ranch. 

Lassen County : Fine specimens have come from the Lummis mine. 

Modoc County : Excellent specimens of cuprite with malachite, native 
copper, and chrysocoUa have come from the Christy mine, Fort Bid- 
well, and from the Leitz mine, seven miles south of Fort Bidwell. 

Mono County: Massive at the Eclipse, Kerrick and Mammoth 
mines. Also near Lundy with cerarg:yi'it(' and chrysocolla. Occurs 
with native copper at the Cavin mine. Copper ^lountain. twenty-two 
miles .southwest of Hodie. Excellent specimens of cuprite with mala- 
chite and melaconite are found in the Detroit Coi)per mine. Jordan 
district, about six miles northeast of Lundy. 

Napa County : Found near Calistoga and St. Helena, some of it the 
chalcotrichite variety. 

Nevada County: Occurs with chalcorite and native copper at 
^leadow Lake. Occurs \\ith chalcocite and malachite at the Oro (irande 

Placer County: Massive near Lincoln. Occurs at the Elder miiic 
with chalcopyrite. 

Plumas County : In Light's Canyon. "With native silver at the Poca- 
hontas mine, Lidian Valley. 

Riverside County: Occurred in (|uantity at the Red Cloud mine. 
Chuckawalla ^Mountains. 

San Bernardino County : IMassive in Holcombe Valley. Common at 
the Copper World mine, Clarke Mountain. 

Shasta County : Massive pieces have been found at the Peck, After- 
thought, Copper City and other mines of this county. 

Trinity County : Massive at Trinity Center. 

Tulare County : In the ]\Iineral King district. 

Tuolumne County: At Whiskey Hill. Silliman(5). 


Oxide of inasnesium, MgO. 

Isometric. Cubes and octahedrons. Cubic cleavaso. White or colorless. 
H = G; G = 3.(57— 8.00. 

Refractive index: » = 1.78G. 

lnfusil)lt'. l)ut completely soluble. Ammonia and sodium phosphate added 
to hydrochloric acid solution precii)ir;'.tcs mai;nesia. .Vltcrs to brucite. 

A very rare mineral found in crystalline limestone. 

Riverside County : Occurred in the crystalline limestone at Crest- 
more, but is altered to brucite and hydro-rnagnesite. Fomid also in the 
City Quarry at Riverside, Rogers''' '. 


104. MELACONITE — Tenorite — Black Copper. 
Oxide of copper, CuO. 
Mouocliuic. Genorally as au earthy powder. Color black. Streak 
black. Submetallic luster. H=:3 — 4; G = 5.82. 

Refractive index: « = 2.fio. 

Haine reactions as (>l>t!iined from cuprite. l>istinj;uished by color. 

The black oxide of copper is a l're(|iieiit oxidation product of clialeo- 
pyrite, forining a black powder or nodular nuisses. It occurs in many 
more localities tliaii what can be given here. 

Calaveras County : Ratlw^r coninion with the clialcopyrite of Copper- 
opolis and Cainpo Seco. Large nodtdar nuisses have come from the 
Satellite mine. Associated with mclacouitc and malachite at the Tele- 
graph nunc, Ilog Hill. 

Colusa County: Found in serpentine with native copper and cuprite 
at the Gray Eagle mine. 

Del Norte County : "With the chalcopyrite at the Alta and Pearl 

Tnyo County : The black oxide of copper occurred with chrysocolla, 
azurite and malachite in the Greeuwater district. 

^fono (,'ounty: Associated with cuprite atid the coppei- carbonates 
at the Detroit Copper mine. 

Nevada County : At the Excelsior mine. 

Shasta County: At the Afterthought and other chalcopyrite mines 
of this county. 


Monoxide of lead. I'hO. 

Tetragonal? Usually in scjiles or scalv masses. ("oIdv lirowiiisli nransc- 
red. H = 2; G = 7.1)S. ' 

Refractive index: ^=2.(54. 

Fuses ea.sily to a yellowish glass. Easily reduced on charcoal to metallic 
lead and yielding- yellow coating. 

Kern County : Has been found in scaly masses near Fort Tejoii. 

Placer County: Said to occur at the Rescue mine, or in tluil 

San Bernardino County: Crystalline scaly masses occur on Cuca- 
monga Peak, associated with litharge and were described by Larsen'-'. 

Monoxide of lead, PbO. 

Orthorhomhic. Scaly uiasses. Color leman-yi>llow to orange-yellow. 
H = 2; G = S. 

Refractive index : « = 2.(>1. 

Fuses easily to a yellow glass. Easily reduced on charcoal to metallic 
lead, and gives yellow coating. 

San Bernardino County : Occurred with massicot on Cucamonga 
Peak. Larsen*-'. 



Oxide of aluminium, ALO3. 

Hexagoual, rhoiiibobedral. Prismatic crystals aud massive. Cleavage 
rhombohedral. Color generally bluish gray ; also blue, green, yellow and 
red. Vitreous luster. H-9; 0=^3.95 — 4.10. 

Refractive indices: £=1.7(iO; (,j=:1.7l)8. 

Infusible and insoluble. Fragments moistened with cobalt nitrate and 
intensely licated assume a sky-blue color. Necessary to fuse ii with sodium 
carbonate in order to get it into solution and i)recii)itate the alumina inHhe 
wi't way. 

Coruiidnin-l)earing rocks are very rare in the State and no workable 
deposits of this useful mineral are known. In the few localities where 
it occurs it exists in very limited (luantities. The gem varieties, ruby 
and sapphire, have not been found in good clear crystals. 

Los Angeles County : The first mention of corundum in the State 
was of some sapphire-blue pebbles found in the drift of the San Fran- 
cisquito Pass, W. P. Blake^"\ Crystals of ruby corundum occur in a 
corundum syenite in San Antonio Canyon, near Uplands. 

Plumas County: Large crystals of a pale violet-blue shade occur in 
the plumasite of Spanish Peak, Lawson^^^. 

San Bernardino County: Found in the Kingston Range, Kunz^"^ 

San Diego County: A con.stituent of the dumortierite schist of De- 
he:-;a, Schaller *'". Occurs in a vein with garnet in a mica schist on the 
north slope of San ]\Iiguel ^Mountains, 2'6 miles east of San Diego, in 
pink colors and as opaque gray cry.stals. Blue corundum is reported 
from Tule ^lountain, north of Jaeumba. 

108. HEMATITE— Red Ocher. 
Sesquioxide of iron, FeoOj. 
Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Crystals, compact massive, granular, mica- 
ceous and earthy. Color black, red. brown. Streak red and reddish brown. 
Metallic, subraetallic or earthy dull. H = 5.5 — 6.5; 0=4.9 — 5.3. 
Refractive indices: £ = 2.!>4 ; ,^ = 3.2li. 

(Jradually acted on by strong acids, and ammonia precipitates ferric 
hydrate. Becomes magnetic on heatinj;. (Jives little or no water in closed 

Hematite is the chief iron mineral and large deposits occur in Cali- 
fornia awaiting development. It occurs massive black, and massive and 
earthy red. The crystalline black masses are found in connection with 
the crystalline metamorphic and igneous rocks while the red earthy 
masses are sedimentary alterations of iron bearing minerals. Red hem- 
atite mixed with ])rown limonite forms the common gossan capping of 
iron sulphide deposits. The flaky specular variety, often termed "spec- 
ularite," is a common constituent of the crystalline rocks of the State. 


Martite is a pseudoinorph of hematite after niaguetite. Much of the 
magnetite of the State shows a change into hematite and martite is com- 
mon in the magnetite-hematite deposits. 

Alameda County : ]\Iassive red earthy hematite mixed with limonite 
forms the caj^ping of the pyrite body at Leona Heights. 

Alpine County : Massive black specimens are common at Monitor. 

Amador County : Small amounts occur about two miles west of lone. 
Impure hematite occurs in a l)ody two miles west of lone, and also 
one-half mile iioi'thwest of Clinton. 

Butte County : Common in the gravels at Magalia, Butte Creek, Oro- 
ville and Stirling City. Specular hematite is found at Bangor. 

Calaveras County: Small amounts found at Douglas Plat, Murphy, 
Wallace and Quail' ITill. 

Colusa Count \- : (iood massive hematite occurs forty miles west of 
Willows. A red hematite suitable for mineral paint occurs in a deposit 
Jour miles southwest of Lodoga. 

Del Norte County: Found at the Kelsey Tunnel, fourteen miles 
southeast of Crescent City. 

p]l Dorado County : Heavy masses at Shingle Springs, in the gravels 
at Diamond Si)rings, Green Valley and Virner. 

Humboldt County : Large vein three miles south of Centerville. Red 
ocher is found near Garberville and also eight }niles from Ferndale. 
Some soft red ocher occurs on Jones Creek, two miles northeast of 
Areata. Some specular hematite occurs at Orleans in the Humboldt 
mine. ^lassive red hematite on Rainbow Ridge; associated with man- 
ganese deposit as red ocher at Fort Bakei". 

Inyo County : Massive specular hematite occurs at the Defiance mine. 
Also found in Owens Valley. Hanks"". A large deposit of specular 
hematite is found near Alvord Station. Specular variety is found in 
iarjre masses in the Inyo Mountains, seven miles east of Kearsarge 
Also in the White Mountains. R«d hematite occurs five miles north of 
Shoshone. Fine specular variety in the Grapevine Range. 

Kern County: At Cane Springs and Ricardo. A deposit of some 
size of specular variety occurs in a mica schist at the foot of ]\rt. 
Breckenridge. about twenty miles north of Caliente. Red ocher occurs 
in the Red Rock district. 

Lake County : ^Massive red near Glenbrook. In Cobb Valley. A 
deposit of red ocher used locally occurs in Jerusalem Valley, near Dollai- 

Lassen County: Excellent specimens of specular hematite have come 
from near Susanville. 

iMadera County : One of the largest deposits of magnetite-hematite 
occurs in the Minaret Mountains. Much of this ore is martite. 


Marin County : Massive specimens have come from the Maillard 
Ranch, about two miles southwest of San Geronimo. 

INIendoeino County : A red ocher once used for paint is found on 
I'orter Creek, ten miles southwest of Ilealdsburg-. Large crystalliiu' 
masses occur seven miles east of Round Valley on Eel River. Some red 
ocher is found in Anderson Valley and some near Covelo. 

Modoc County : Hematite flakes occur along the Feather River. 

Mono County: Common mineral in the Blind Spring district. A])\uid- 
ant masses of specular hematite occur in the andalusite mass on White 
.Mountains in the southern part of the county. Knopf*-"". 

Napa County : Massive red occurs near St. Helena. ]\Iassive at 
White Sulphur Springs and Blaisville. Red and brown masses of hema- 
tite and limonite occur at the Sterling Iron mine. St. Helena. Red 
ocher deposit on Benoli Mountain, two miles south of Ctdistoga. 

Nevada County: Associated with gold at Meadow Lake, Lindgren^^^ 
Minor deposits occur at Indian Springs and at Newtown. 

Orange County : Observed at Fullerton. 

Placer County : Some hematite occurs with magnetite at the Hotaling 
deposit about six miles north of Auburn. Small amounts occur at 
Clipper Gap, Red Hill and near Weimar. 

Plumas County: With magnetite near Crescent Mills; at Mumford's 
Hill, Light's Canyon, Genessee Valley and Nelson Point. Foliated 
masses of specular hematite in quartz occur on north side of Diamond 
Range. Specular hematite mixed with magnetite occurs as a vein very 
close to the Diadem Lode. Black masses Avith magnetite occur near 
Moonlight, eleven miles north of Taylorville. Occurs common at the 
p]ngels copper mine. 

Riverside County: Consideral)le hematite is associated with, and has 
been formed from, magnetite, at the extensive Eagle ]\Iountain deposit. 
The specular variety associated with green epidote is common in the 
Monte Negro district. Some of the cellular cavities formed by leaching 
out of brucite are filled with red hematite, at Crestmore. 

San Benito County: Reported to occur at the old Quilty Iron mine. 

San Bernardino County: The numerous iron deposits of the I\Iojave 
Desert have hematite and magnetite in heavy black masses. The de- 
posits near Dale, on Iron Mountain, in the Kingston Range, at Cave 
Canyon, Newberry, on Providence ^Mountain near Kelso and elsewhere 
in the county are massive hematite after magnetite, or martite. A soft 
red ocher occurs in the Calico district, five miles west of Yermo. Found 
massive on Sheephole Mountain. 

San Diego County : Black massive hematite in Eagle Peak Canyon. 

San Joaquin County : Earthy red hematite as shale occurs at the 
Ladd manganese mine. 


San Luis Obispo County: A vertical bed about ten feet wide in 
shale can be traced crossing Prefumo Canyon, in the mountains soutli 
of Los Osos Valley. 

Shasta County : The Kedding or Pitt River deposit of hematite has 
been utilized at the electric smelting furnace at Ileroult. The capping 
of the pyrite beds of this county are thick deposits of earthy hematite 
and limonite. 

Siskiyou County : The gravels of the Shasta River show specular 

Sonoma County : Deposits are reported near Fort Ross and near the 
west fork of the Guelala River. Hematite occurs on the Lancaster 
Ranch, east of Fisk's Mills. .\ large* body is said to occur six miles 
east of Fort Ross. A silicious variety occurs on Porter Creek, about 
ten miles southeast of IIealdsl)urg. 

Stanislaus County : A foliated variety occurs near La Grange. 

Tehama County : JNIinor deposits occur at Beegum. 

Trinity County: In the sands at Trinity Center. Specular variety 
occurs in the vicinity of Burnt Ranch. 

Yuba County: Li the sands of the Brownsville district. 

109. ILMENITE — Menaccanite — Titaniferous Iron. 

Oxide of iron and titanium, (FeTi)203. 

Hexagonal, rliombohedral. Plates, massive, in rounded pebbles and 
grains. Color black. Streak dark brown to black. Metallic luster. 
H = 5~6; G=4.5 — 5. 

Magnetism usually increased by beating. Fused witli sodium carbonate 
and the flux dissolved in hydrochloric acid, the solution turns reddish or 
l)!iiisli violet when rediici'd with nielallic tin. 

Ilmenite resembles hematite and magnetite so closely that it is not 
often differentiated. The black beach sands and the black concentrates 
in the gold fields contain much of the mineral in small grains and 
rolled pebbles. In most of the localities given below it exists in the 

Amador County : Near Volcano. 

Butte County: At Oroville, Cherokee, Little Rock Creek, Brush 
creek, and Inskip. 

Calaveras County: San Andreas, Murphy and Wallace in consider- 
able amount. 

Del Norte County : At Crescent City. 

El Dorado County: In the Brownsville district, at Green Valley, 
Placerville, Grizzly Flats. Its occurrence is mentioned at Georgetown, 

Freeno County: It occurs with rutile near Friant. 

Humboldt County: At Upper Gold Bluff. 


Imperial C/Oiinty : Mass occurs near Niland. 

Kern County : A large constituent of the black sands at Vaughn. 

Los Angeles County : In the beach sands at Ocean Park. 

Madera County : With magnetite in the Minaret Mountains. 

Mariposa County : Near Princeton and in dolomite as crystals near 

Nevada County : At Rough and Ready, Nevada City, North Bloom- 
field and Relief Hill. 

Orange ('ounty : At Fullerton. 

Placer County : At Gold Run. 

Plumas County: At Spanish Ranch, Crescent Mills, Genessee, La 
Porte and Nelson Point. Occurs intergrown with hematite and mag- 
netite at Engels. Good ci'ystals have been found at Genessee. 

San Bernardino County : Near Needles. 

San Francisco County : A constituent of the dikes cutting across the 

San Luis Obispo County: A constituent of the beach sands of the 

Santa Barbara County : At Point Sal. 

Santa Cruz County : At Aptos. 

Shasta County : At Round Mountain, French Gulch and Redding. 

Siskiyou County : In the sands of Jackson Creek, Happy Camp, 
Forks of the Salmon, Sawyers Bar, Scott River and Shasta River. 

Trinity County: At Junction City, Carrville, Minersville and on 
Trinity River. 

Tulare County: Occni-s with specular hematite and magnetite near 

Tuolumne County : At American Camp. 

Yuba County : At Marysville, Brownsville, Yuba River, Strawberry 
Valley, Indian Hill and Oregon House. 

110. SPINEL, 
Oxide of aluminium and magnesium, MgO.ALOs. 

Isometric. Small crystals ; rounded grains. Color rub.v-red, blue, green, 
brown and black. AMtreous luster. H=:S; G = 3.5 — 4.1. 

Refractive index: /! = 1.723 — 1.75. 

Infusible and insoluble. Fused with sodium carbonate, dissolved in 
liydrochloric acid, the solution yields alumina iiydrate on the addition of 
ammonia, and white magnesium pyropho.sphate on the further iuldition of 
sodium i)hos])h!ite, thus distinguishing it fmm corundum. 

Spinel occurs only as a rock constituent and exists in some of the gold 
sands as ruby-red grains resembling red garnet. Picotite is a brown 
spinel containing chromium and iron which occurs in the serpentine 
rocks. Pleonaste is an iron-magnesia spinel. 


Butte County : Small crystals of ruby spiuel have been found in the 
rock of the diamond mine near Orovillc. 

Ilninboldt County: Ruby spinel occurs in the beach sands at Gold 

Placer Countv : Picotite has been found at llocklin, llanks^*'^ 

San Bernardino County: Jilack spinel occurs in the basalt lldws 
south of Pipes Canyon. Sec. 21 and 22. T. 1 N., R. 4 E. ; also in basalt 
near Quail Springs, T. 1 S., R. 7 E.. S. B. :\r. 

San Diego County: Blue spinel was reported to occur in the Mack 
mine near Rincon ; the deep green, pleonaste variety, in small octahe- 
drons, occurs there, associated with garnet, Rogers^^^ 

San Luis Obispo County : HiUn- spinel lias been observed near San 
Luis Obispo, Kunz^"\ 

Siskiyou County : Picotite occurs in the basalts of JMount Shasta, 

111. MAGNETITE— Magnetic Iron. 
Oxide of iron, FejO^. 

Isometric. Octaliedral crystals, compact and granular massive. Color 
iron black. Streak black. Metallic luster. H = 5.5 — 6.5; 0=5.1. 
Strongly magnetic. 

Very magnetic. Soluble in liydnxlilm-lc acid, and reddish ferric hydrate 
precipitated on the addition of anmionia. Distinguished from hematite by 
strt>ak and ningnetisni. 

Magnetite is one of the most abundant of the iron minerals and good 
deposits of it occur in the State. Jt is a constituent of all igneous rocks 
and in such condition exists in all of the counties. It forms the bulk 
of the black sands. ]\Iost of magnetite occurs with the raetamorphic 
schists and gneisses, and in igneous rocks. Often occurs along the con- 
tact of igneous intrusions tlirough metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. 
Some of the magnetite is titaniferous, grading toward ilmenite. 

Lodcstone is the variety possessing polarity forming a natural 

Alameda County : Octahedral crystals occur in the schists of North 

Amador County: Large boulders have been found at Volcano, W. P. 
Blake(i>. On Sutter Creek. 

Butte County : Abundant in the drift workings at Magalia, in the 
gravels on Butte Creek and in the dredging sands at Oroville. In the 
concentrates at Stirling City, Little Rock Creek, Brush Creek, Lovelock 
and Inskip. Masses occur near Oroville. 

Calaveras County : In the concentrates at Douglas Flat, San Andreas, 
Murphy and Wallace. Some massive magnetite occurs on Carson Hill. 


Del Norte County : At Crescent City, Gilbert Creek, on Smith River. 
Masses of pure magnetite in the French Hill mining district. 

El Dorado County : Massive about two miles northeast of Shingle 
Springs and also fine octahedrons in chlorite. The lodestone variety 
has been found at Colonia. Common in the concentrates at Yirnir, 
Green Valley, Grizzly Flats, Reliance mine and in the Brownsville 
district. Occurs at the Lilyoma mine. Pilot Hill, associated with galena, 
chalcopyrite, calcite, quartz and garnet as a contact deposit. 

Fresno County: Lodestone has been found at the Sparkling Iron 
mine. Kings Creek district. Octahedral crystals associated with copper 
ore occur in Uncle Sam mine at Tehipite Dome, on Kings River. Occurs 
intermixed with bornite at Crown Creek opposite Tehipite Dome. Pure 
masses occur in the Cinnamon Bear district, Pine Flat. 

Humboldt County : The greater part of the black constituent of the 
beach sands at Gold Bluff and Upper Gold Bluff is magnetite. Common 
also at Orleans and Trinidad. 

Imperial County : Found massive near Palo Verde. 
Inyo County: Large deposits are said to occur in the Olancha dis- 
trict near the Haiwee Dam. 

Kern County: Abundant at Ricardo, Kane Springs and Vaughn in 
the black concentrates. Granular masses occur in the San Emidio 
mining district. Deposit of some size occurs at contact with mica. 
schist, 1-| miles south of Woody. 

Los Angeles County : Black sands at Ocean Park. Solid masses near 
Russ Station in Soledad Canyon. Small deposit in canyon about ten 
miles northeast of Acton : with garnet in the black sands of Santa 
Monica Bay. 

Madera County : Large deposits of magnetite-hematite occur in the 
Minaret Mountains. Deposits occur on the west slope of Mount Ray- 

Mariposa County: Classes occur at the base of Mt. Hoffman. 
Modoc County : In the drift and black sands of the Feather River. 
Mono County : Found massive in the Benton, Bodie and Lundy dis- 
tricts, Whiting^i). 

Nevada County: A deposit occurs about one mile west of Newto-^oi 
and also about four miles south of Indian Springs at the contact 
between granodiorite and diabase. Common in the concentrates at 
Nevada City, Grass Valley, North Bloomfield, Relief Hill, and Rough 
and Ready. A small deposit in place at Diamond Creek, about one 
mile east of Omaha mine. 

Orange County: In the sands at Fullerton. 

Placer County: A deposit which was worked in 1881-1886 by blast 
furnace occurs at Ilotaling, five miles west of Clipper Gap, on the 


fontact between diabase and (luartzite. Oetahedrous are eoininun at 
Forest Hill. Common in the black sands and concentrates at Butcher 
Ranch. ^Michi^ran Bluff. Gold Knn. Kast Auburn, in Blue Canyon, and 
on the North Fork of the American Kivci-. Masses of magnetite are 
found near Fallen Leaf Lake. 

Plumas County: Common at Spanish Kauch, Genessee, La Porte, 
Nelson Point. Crescent :\Iilis, and on Kock Island Hill, but only in 
small amounts. A larye l)ody of the ore occurs close to west shore of 
Wade's Lnke. Found associated with hematite at ^Moonliuht. Common 
in the rocks at P^n^els. sometimes intero-rown witli ilnuiiite. 

Riverside County: One of the largest deposits of iron in the State 
occurs on Eagle j\Iountain. It is magnetite-hematite or martite ore. 

Sacramento County : In the black sands at j\Iichigan Bar. 

San Benito County : A large deposit is said to be near Ilollister. 

San Bernardino County : Important deposits of magnetite occur in 
several localities in tiiis county but are as yet not utilized. Good 
deposits on Iron Mountain, near Dale, at Owl Holes, on the Kingston 
Range, at Cave Canyon, Garlic Springs, Newberry, and on Providence 
^lountain. The Dale deposit has been described by Harder ^-\ ^Massive 
lodestone exhibiting strong polarity has come from a deposit thirty 
miles southeast of Daggett. 

San Francisco County : A constituent of the beach sands. 

San Luis Obispo County: Common at La Panza. 

Santa Barbara County : Common in the beach sands at Point Sal. 

Santa Cruz County : On the Leonard Ranch, about one-half mile 
from the coast, magnetite occurs int(M'stratifiod with boach sand which 
carries some gold. 

Shasta County: Large ilei)osit at Ileroult on contact ])etweeu dia- 
])ase and slate was worked by electric smelter. Deposit near Baird. 
Occurs with hematite at Iron Mountain and at most of the copper 
mines. In the sands at French (iulcli. Redding and Round ^Mountain. 
On contact between dia])ase and carboniferous limestone at Gray Rock 
and on McCloud River. A large deposit between cjuartz diorite and 
limestone about five miles east of Pit on the Sacramento and Eastern 
Railroad. Occurs as contact mineral with pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite 
at the Black Diamond mine. 

Sierra Count}^: Large beds said to occur in this county, "W. P. 
Blake' '^'. Fine perfect octahedrons have come from Forest City. A 
massive deposit occurs south of Lake Hawley in the Calaveras forma- 
tion, and also southeast of Spencer Lakes. 

Siskiyou County : In the black sands it is common at Happy Camp, 
Seiad. Cecilville. Forks of the Salmon. Sawyer's Bar, Scott River. 


Oro Fino, Castella, Shasta River, Beaver Creek, Heuley and Klamath 
River. A lodestone variety occurs near AVeed. 

Tehama County: Magnetite occurs in the Bee»um district and is 

Trinity County : In the black sands at Trinity Center, Douglas City, 
Junction City, Carrville, Minersville and along the Trinity River. 
Massive at Douglas Citj', and on the northwest side of Chauckelulla 

Tulare County: Massive at New Pass, \V. P. Blake*^'. Massive near 
Three Rivers and on Greenhorn Mountain. 

Tuolumne County : In the black concentrates at all of the mines. 

Yuba County : Common at Marysville, Brownsville, Strawberry Val- 
ley, Indian Hill, Oregon House. Camptonville and on Yuba River. 
Occurs massive with hematite four miles from Clipper Alills. 

112. CH ROM ITE— Chromic Iron. 
Oxide of chromivim and iron, FeCr^O^. 

Isometric. Generally massive. Color black. Streak grayish brown. 
Metallic luster. H = 5.5; G = 4.32 — 4.57. 

Kefraetive index: h=2.16. 

Infusible and insoluble. Gives an emerald jji'een l)ea(l of chromium with 
borax. Iron Ijeads with borax are \ellow to bottle j;reen. Man.iianese 
l)eads are wine to violet. 

In much of the chromite of the State magnesium replaces the iron, 
forming magnesium chromite. The mineral is formed in serpentine 
rocks, often as large boulder-like masses and irregular shaped masses. 
It is abundant in the serpentine areas of the State, and some tons of it 
are produced annually. It is also abundant in the black sands. 

Alameda County : Pockets of massive chromite occur at the ]\Ien- 
denliall mine and other mines about si.xteen miles southeast of Liver- 
more in the Cedar ^Mountain district, sometimes coated with zaratite. 

Amador County : Found near Jackson. Deposits near lone ; about 
eight miles northeast of Carbondale : five miles southwest of Plymouth, 
near Willow Creek. 

Butte County: A constituent of the black sands at Magalia, Oro- 
ville, Cherokee, Buchanan Hill, Lovelock and Pentz. Massive near 
ForbestoA\ni. Deposits about one mile southwest of Big Bar; one mile 
east of Yankee Hill ; five miles southwest of Magalia : one mile north of 
Woodleaf ; east of Brush Creek ; near Twin Cedars six miles east of 
Paradise ; 2| miles northeast of Forbestown. Small bodies occur at the 
Powell manganese mine, one mile north of Clipper Mills, and at Pentz. 

Calaveras County : In the serpentine about five miles east of Valley 
Springs. In the concentrates at Forest Gulch. Deposits near Copper- 


opolis; about seven miles west of Augels; four miles west of Fostoria; 
five miles southwest of A'alley 8prin<rs; 1<> mih's northeast of Angels; 
fourteen miles east n\' Miltmi. Deposits oceui- on the Tower Kam-li. 
nine miles east of ^lilton. ami on lln' Wright Raneh. in Salt Spring 
Valley, ten miles nortlu'ast of Milton. A deposit at tlie Uig Pine mine 
has been used for furnaee lining at Campo Seeo. 

Colusa County: Massive at Xewville. Oeeurs near Stnnyforfl, near 
Wilbui- Springs; H miles northwest of Cook Si)rings. 

Del Norte County: In the blaek sands of Smith River, on Gilbert 
Creek and at Crescent City. Good deposits on Rattlesnake ]\Iountain, 
twenty miles east of Crescent City. Deposits at h'n'iich Hill, near Smitli 
River, in lens(\s eight feet thick; of ronsich-rahlc si/e on Copper Ci'cek. 
Low l)ivi(h' and .Monkey Creek. 

El Dorado Count.x' : Near Latrobe, near Coloma and at Shingle 
Springs. Three miles northeast of Georgetown near Latrobe; two miles 
south of Georgetown; in IMarble Valley near Clarksville; analysis of 
chromite from the Donnelly deposit, ten miles northeast of Folsom. 
gave : 

Cr„0,. SiO,. FeO A1.,0, MgO CaO Ign. 

-Hj'.r.ii (;.(;('► i7.(« n".r><> ir,.s() i.-j;; o.r»o-(«».;>4 

Large deposits id FlagstalT Hill, eight miles south of Auburn as 
ui-ainUar masses in s;M-i)entine. Tons have been mined at the Pilliken 
( 'hioiiie mine, ten miles northeast of Folsom. Large deposit on the Wil- 
liamson property, six mile:? east of Shingle Springs. 

Fresno County: Deposits occur in the southwest part of the county 
in the Blount Dial)lo Range, and in the serpentine iiills east of F'resno, 
from Letcher to Piedra. Deposits in Watt Valley, on Hog ^fountain, 
and at Pine Flat. 

Glenn County: Deposits occur near ^lillsaps; at Bedford, five miles 
east of Chrome; about six miles east of Xewville; near Orland. 

Humboldt County : Constituent of the beach sands at Gold Bluflf, and 
of the concentrates at Orleans ami Trinidad. jMassive occurs near 
lilocksburg. Small nuisses on Horse ^lountains; in the serpentine east 
of Orleans. Small bodies on the Hoopa reservation. 

Keni County: Some small deposits on the Kern River. 

Kings County : Some masses have been found in southwest corner 
of county near Parktield. 

Lake County : Pockets of chromite occur on the Pardee Ranch, near 
^[iddletown. AEasses have been found in the mountains near Adams and 
Siegler Springs. Large body three miles northeast of llullville; reported 
from Jerusalem Valley. 

Los Angeles County: Deposit rei)orted near Acton and near Harold 


Madera County : Found near Madera in masses eoated with zaratite. 

^Nlarin County: Occurs on the ^laiUard Kaucli near San Geronimo, 
about eight miles northwest of San Kafael. 

Mendocino County: Found coated with green uvarovite garnet about 
ten miles north of Willits. Specimens have come from near Ukiah. 
Has been found at several points in hills west of Russian River. Occurs 
about twelve miles north of Willitts coated with uvarovite garnet. 
Deposits occur about H miles west of Ukiali, on Red ^Mountain and in 
Potter Valley. 

Monterey County : Common in small masses in the serpentine of this 
county, and specimens have been analysed, Goldsmith' ■'. Masses occur 
about three miles east of I'arkfield. on Tal)h' ^lountain. 

CrnOr. AI0O3 Fe,Os MgO CaO SiO- 

52.12 2.1s 15.24 12.20 5.65 ]2.12 =99.60 por cent 

Xapa County: Some small bodies have been found near Knoxville. 
Deposit occurs eight miles northwest of ^Monticello. 

Nevada County: Fine octahedrons occur in the serpentine near 
Indian Springs. In the concentrates at Rough and Ready. North 
Hloomfield, and Relief Hill. At the Red Ledge mine, two miles south- 
west of Washington, the mineral occurs as a large liody in serpentine 
near contact with mariposite schists. Has much uvarovite garnet and 
chrome chlorites coating the specimens. Classes occur in the vicinity of 
Grass A'alley. 

Placer County : A deposit occurs in serpentine near Green Valley 
below Towle. and also near Auburn. In the black sands of the North 
Fork of American River, of Blue Canyon, at Loomis, and at Micliigan 
Bluff. Small deposits occur about 2^ miles from Dutch Flat ; near 
Weimar; four miles from Colfa.x ; in the Iowa Hill district and on 
Forest Hill Divide. Large deposits seven miles south of Newcastle as 
nodular masses coated with good crystals of uvarovite and micaceous 
rhodochrome and kjimmererite. Ijenticular masses occur in serpentine 
on the Scott property two miles east of Towle. and in Green Valley, 
nine miles southeast of Towle. 

Plumas County: Common at Rock Island Hill, La Porte, and in 
Meadow Valley as concentrates. Bodies occur six miles south of Quiney, 
also three miles southwest of Crescent Hill, two miles north of Spanish 
Ranch and three-fourths mile southwest of ^leadow Valley. 

Sacramento County: A prominent constituent of the black sands at 
3Iiehigan Bar. ^Massive occurs at Nigger Hill near Folsom. 

San Benito County: Massive specimens eoated with zaratite have 
come from near Hollister. Occasionnl massi's iwo found in the serpen- 
tine near New Idria. 


Sau Luis Ohispo County: IMiued in mountains southeast of San 
Luis \'alley on the slope of the San Lucia Range. Occurs at the London 
mine, 4| miles northeast of San Luis Obispo. Found at the head of 
Carpojero Creek and at La Panza. The ehromite from the Pick and 
Shovel mine on Chorro Creek, six miles northeast of San Luis Ohispo, 
has been analysed, Pemberton*". 

OroO., AloO., FeoO;, MgO FeO MnO SiOs H,.0 

56.6S 11.40 3.52 16.23 11.77 0.15 3.40 0.94 =100.09% 

San ]Mateo County : Conunon in the beach sands. A few scattered 
masses occur near C'rystal Springs Lake, west of San Mateo. 

Santa Barbara County: Small deposit in hills southwest of Point 
Sal and one in the San Kafael Mountains soutli of Santa Ynez. 

Santa Clara County: Found in small masses in the serpentine near 
Los Gatos and near New Almaden. Small amounts have been found 
in the hills east of Alum Rock Park. Small deposit on Righetti Ranch, 
three miles east of Coyote Station. 

Shasta County: At French Gulch and in the black sands of the 
Sacramento River. Deposits of massive ehromite occur near Castella. 
A series of lenses in a shear zone in serpentine occur north of Shotgun 
(/reek. Large body in the northern i)art of the county on Little Castle 
Creek. Several bodies occur three miles east of Simon.s Station. 

Sierra County : Occur.s as pebbles in gravels at Tlowland Flat ; also 
in Goodyear Creek near D(Avnieville, " 

Siskiyou County: A good deposit near Dunsmuir coated with kiim- 
mererite. Massive near (Jallahan coated with uvarovite and zaratite. 
Very common as grains in the concentrates at Callahan, Grouse Creek, 
Happy Camp, on Scott River, Beaver Creek and in Seiad Valley. 
Deposits near Gazelle and on toji of Forest ^Mountains. Massive near 

Solano County : Small amounts have been found near Fairfield. 

Sononui County : Found at Litton Springs and near Cloverdale and 
Cazadero. hi the hills near Cam]) ^Meeker ; twelve miles east of Stew- 
art's Point; small deposits bacJc of Stewart's Point; small deposits back 
of the Geysers and on the Madera property, eight miles north of 

Tehama County : Large deposits at Lowry mine and Kleinsorge mine 
on north fork of Elder Creek about twenty-eight miles west of Red 
Blutl'. Large deposit ten miles east of Paskenta on Toms Creek. 

Trinity County: Tn the sands at Trinity Center. Massas found at 
Island ]\Iountain; reported from Carrville and near Weaverville; a 
small deposit ten miles south of AVildwood. 

Tulare County: Some occurs near Three River.s on the Nicola prop- 


Tuolunme County: Masses liavc Ix'cii loiiiid U miles west of Chinese 

Yuba County : Jn the black sands at Caniptonville, on the Yuba 
River, and on Indian Hill. 

113. CASSITERITE— Tin Stone. 
Oxide of tin, SnO.. 

Tetragonal. Twinned crystals and massive. Color brown and black. 
Streak gray or pale brown. Adamantine to dnll luster. H = G — 7; 
G = 6.S — 7.1. 

Refractive indices: g = 2.(>!);5; „j=l.;i!lT. 

Infusible and ins()hibl(\ 'W'itli sodium carhonate on charcoal can bo 
retlufcd to globules of metallic tin. These globules, intensely heated with 
cobalt nitrate, will give a bluish green coating. 

This valuable oxide, from which practically all of the metallic tin is 
obtained, is rare in California. A few specimens of stream tin and a 
small deposit quickly exhausted, are all that have been found. 

Placer County: Stream tin has been found near Michitjan Blulf. 

Plumas County : Stream tin was found in the bed of the middle fork 
of the Feather River, three miles above Big Bar, Hanks^^\ 

Riverside County: The Temescal tin mine was situated a few miles 
southeast of South Riverside in the Santa Ana Mountains. The oxide 
occurred in a rudely semicircular area of granite about two miles in 
diameter, as brownish masses and reddish brown crystals in a vein of 
tourmaline and quartz. Some layers of wood tin also occurred. An 
analysis of a fairly pure specimen of the ore was made by Genth, Fair- 

SiO- WO3 SnOo CuO Alo03Fe..0,i MnO CaO 

9.82 0.22 76.15 0.27 13.54 

San Diego County : Small crystals were found associated with gem 
tourmaline, beryl and stibiotantalite, at Mesa Grande, Penfield and 
Ford'". Reported from the placer gravels on the east slope of Laguna 
^[oiintain ; also from Pine Valley and from the south end of Viejos 
Mountain east of Alpine. Said to occur in the Detiance Copper district 
and on Aguanza Mountain. Crystals associated with topaz at the Little 
Three mine, Ramoiia. Occurs in a pegmatite dike about ten miles east 
of Oak Grove in the Chihuahua Valley, two miles south of the Riverside- 
San Diego coiiiity line, associated with (piartz, feldspar, lepidolite, blue 
tourmaline, columbite and all)ite. Schaller""". 

Siskiyou County : Stream tin is not uncommon in the gravels at 
Sawyer's Bar and on Hungary Creek, a tributary of Klamath Ki^er. 

Trinitv Countv: Found as stream tin neai- Weaverville, Hanks^^\ 


114. RUTILE. 
Oxide of titanium, TiOj. 

Tetragoual. Loug prisms and grains ; crj-stals often twinned. Color red- 
dish brown to brownish blaclc. Adamantine to metallic luster. Streak pale 
brown to colorless. 11 = — 6.5; G = 4.1S — 4.25. 

Refractive iudlce.s : £ = 2.903; ,„=L'.i'>l(;. 

Infusibli-. SoUibli" siiniriontly in hydrochloric acid to yield a blue-violet 
solution on reduction by metallic tin. With phosphorous salt (sodium am- 
monium phosphate) yields a delicate violet bead. 

Rutile, as a rock constituent in microscopic crystals, is common in 
many of the metamorpliic rocks of the State. Large crystals have not 
been found. 

Amador County : Reported as needles in quartz, forming sagenite, at 
Tyler's ranch near Oleta. 

Butte County: A constituent of the gold washings at Cherokee, 

Fresno County : Brownish red rutile crystals occur witli ilmenite 
near Friant. 

Humboldt County: First noticed in the State in the granite at 

iVlono County: It occurs in small reddish l)ruwn ciystals in white 
(luartzite with bands of blue lazulite near Mono Lake. 

Placer County : Has been observed at jMichigan Bluft'. 

San Diego County : One of the constituents of the dumortierite schist 
at Dehesa, Schaller^^^ 

Santa Clara County: Found in the schists of Calaveras Valley and 
in much of the metamorphics of the Coast Range, Murgoci^^^ 

115. ANATASE— Octahedrlte. 

Oxide of titanium, TiO^. 

Tetragonal. Small pyramidal crystals. Cleavage perfect basal and 
prismatic. Color brown. Adamantine* to metallic luster. H = 5.5 — 6; 
G= 3.82 — 3.95. 

Refractive indices: £ = 2.49^: „^ = 2.554. 

Same reactions as rutile. Distinguished by form. 

This dimorphic form of the oxide is much rarer than rutile, and is 
alwaj'S found in minute crystals. 

El Dorado County: Minute crystals with brookite were found 
implanted on quartz crystals near Placerville. Kunz^^^- ^-\ 



Oxide of titanium, TiOo. 

Orthorhombic. Crystals tabular or pyramidal. C'olor dark brown to 
black. Adamautiue luster. II=:r>.5 — G; G = 3.87 — 4.01. 

Kefractivo indices: a:=2..')8o; y3 = 2..jS(!; y = 2.741. 
Same reactions as rutili'. Distinjiuislic^d by form. 

This trimorphic form of the oxide is also much rarer than rutile, and 
only the one locality is known in the State for its occurrence. 

El Dorado County : Found in tabular reddish brown crystals, with 
anatase on quartz crystals at Placerville. Forms by Peufield: (100), 
(001), (110), (210), (102), (104), (021), (121), (122), (134), (234), 


Oxide of beryllium aud aluminium, BeALO.,. 
Orthorhombic. Usually twinned crystals. Striated faces. Color 
grass-green, yellowish green and yellowish brown. Vitreous. H = 8.5; 
G = 3.5 — 3.84. 

Refractive indices: cc =1.747; ^ = 1.74S; y = 1.7.57. 

Infusible and insoluble. Fine powder, when intensely heated on char- 
coal, moistened with cobalt nitrate and re-heated, assumes a sky-blue coloi*. 

This is a very rare mineral and when of good color is important as a 
gem stone. 

Butte Comity : Supposed green specimens of chrysoberjd have been 
found near Stanwood and at Big Bar. They are probably californite, 
which occurs in that vicinity. 

Oxide of manganese, MnjOj. 

Tetragonal. Small pyramidal crystals, massive, granular. Color 
brownish black. Streak chestnut-brown. Submetallic luster. H=:5 — 5.5; 
0=4.72 — 4.85. 

Uefractive indices: £ = 2.1."); (,j = l.'.4(l. 

Infu.siblo. Dissolves in hydrochloric acid, yielding chlorine gas. llorax 
bead is amethystine or wine-colored. Fused on platinum with sodium car- 
bonate, gives deep blue-green fusion. 

Manganese is abundant in the State, and it is quite possible that this 
rarer oxide may occur in many of the localities and remain unidentified. 

Plumas County: Specimens of hausmannite have come from Meadow 

Santa Clara County : Very abundant as crystals with the terms : 
(001), (113), (111) and (221) in the manganese boulder occurring near 
Alum Rock T*ark, five miles east of San Jo-:e, Rogers''". 


119. MINIUM— Red Lead. 
Oxide of load, Pb^iO,. 
Powder. Color bright rod mixed with yellow. Streak orange-yellow. 
G=:4.6. Dull luster. 

Refractive index : ii—'2.'H). 

Gives a yellow coating of load uxide on chairoal .iiid is n-duced by sodium 
carbonate to metallic lead. 

The red oxide of load rarely is found native. It is an oxidation 
product of galena and other lead minerals, occurring as a powder. 

Kern County : Specimens have come from near Fort Tejon. 
Tulare County: A small amount of red lead was found in the 
northern part of the count}'. 

Oxide of manganese and copper, CuoMujO,. 

Monoclinic. Foliated masses. Cleavage perfect basal. Color iron-black to 
steel-gray. Streak brownish black. Metallic luster. H = 4 — 5; G=4.9."i. 

Gives the manganese reactions like liausnmnnito and in addition a blue 
copper chloride flame when dipped in hydioclilorie acid and heated in bun- 
sen flame. 

This is a very rare mineral and its occurrence in tlie State is limited 
to one locality. 

Xapa County : Found massive near Calistoga. 

Silico-oxide of manganese, SMn^Os.MnSiOs. 
Tetragonal. Small pyramids and massive. Color brownish black. 
Streak brownish black. Submetallic luster. H — G — 6.5; G = 4.75. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid and leaves a residue of silica. Gives all the 
reactions for manganese similar to hausmanuite. 

Silicious manganese ores are very common in California, and it is 
probable that the rather common l)rowu manganese exists in many of 
the localities, but it has never been reported. 

Plumas County: Specimens of braunite have come from Meadow 

Oxide of manganese, MnO^.. 

Orthorhombic. Generally librous or as a powder. Color black. Streak 
dull-black. Metallic to dull luster. H=:2 — 2.5; G = 4.82. 

Keactions like those for hausmanuite and distinguished by crystallization 
and structure. Distinguished from manganite and psilomelane by not yield- 
ing water in a closed tube. 

Pyrolusite is a very common mineral generally associated with other 
ores of manganese. It is usually found as tibrous seams and coatings 


in masses of psilouiclane, and often grad'3S toward mangauite. Com- 
mon as dendritic coatings. 

Alameda County: It occurs -with psilomelane in the Diablo Range, 
southeast of Livermore in tlic Corral Hollow district. Occurs with 
psilomelane and sometimes rhodochrosite in deposits a few miles south 
of Tesla and along the Arroyo Mocha, southeast of Livermore. 

Amador County : Found in the Seaton mine and on volcanic ash at 
Volcano. Pyrolusite occur's with psilomelane H miles south of Vol- 

Calaveras County : Occurred at Wild Ro.'-:e Flat near ]\Turphy. Good 
specimens have come from Hfin Andreas; also near Angels with psilo- 
melane, and three miles northeast of ]\lilton. 

Colusa Count}': Found at Stonyford in association with cinnabar, 
and at the Manzanita mine. 

Contra Costa County: Occurred with psilomelane on Red Rock, San 
Francisco Bay. 

El Dorado County : In dendritic coatings near Plaeerville and fibrous 
at Greenwood. Masses occur at (rreenwood and at Cool. 

Humboldt County: Occurs witli psilomelane at Alder Point; also on 
the Porter Ranch, Fort Bakei-. 

Kern County: Fine specimens of pyrolusite with some psilomelane 
occur five miles west of Atolia. 

Lake County: At the Phillips mine, near Laurel Dell with psilo- 

Los Angeles County : Associated with psilomelane in small amounts 
at Banning. 

Madera County : Occurs associated with limonite fourteen miles from 
Fresno Flat. Also near Coarse Gold with psilomelane, manganite, 
rhodochrosite and rhodonite. 

Marin County : Small amounts found in the rock at Sausalito. 

Mariposa County: Occurs with psilomelane at Jasper Point. Small 
masses oicur in Hunters Valley. 

Mendocino County : At Red Mountain. Occurs with the psilomelane 
at the Independence Manganese mine. Potter Valley. Near Covello; 
four miles west of Ilopland with psilomelane; in the Potter Valley and 
Redwood Valley ; near AVillitts ; at the Long mine, near Woodman 
Station; in chert at Westport; at the Cleveland mine, Ukiah. 

Mono County: Some ]iyrolusite and psilomelane occur in the Bodie 

Napa County : Pyrolusite occurred as radiate concentric masses with 
cinnaliar at the old Redington and ^lanhattan mines. Knoxville. Small 
amounts oiicur with psilomelane on ]\lt. St. Helena, and Ihi'ee un'les 
west of Oakville. 


Nevada County: Found in the Grass Valley district, Lindgren^^^ 
Also at Sweetland, and as dendrite on rocks of Sugar Loaf Hill. 

Placer County : Occurs twelve miles from Auburn on Wolf Creole 

Plumas County: Common in the Diadem lode, Meadow Valley dis- 

Riverside County : Occurs near Elsinore. 

San Bernardino County : One of the minerals in the Calico and 
]>arstovv districts. Associated with psilomelane in the Emma and Owi,> 
Hole mines, in the Owl Mountains. 

San Francisco County : It has been found in small amounts associ- 
ated with .psilomelane at Hunters Point. 

San Joa(iuin Countj^ : In the manganese deposits of the Diablo Range. 

San Liii.s Obispo County : The manganese deposits in the Pref umo 
Canyon on Staneuch Ranch are pyrolnsite and psilomelane. 

San Mateo County : At Baden. 

Santa Clara County : Found at the Washington mine and in mines 
of the Diablo Range. 

Shasta County: Small amounts about sixteen miles northwest of 

Sierra County : Common as dendrite at Alleghany. 

Siskiyou County: Occurs with rhodonite at Sawyer's Bar. 

Sonoma County : At the Shaw mine. 

Stanislaus County: Psilomelane and soft botryoidal pyrolnsite form 
the ore of the Seagrave mine; also at the Buckeye mine, Hospital Creek, 
with rhodochrosite. 

Tehama County : Pyrolnsite and psilomelane on the Luce prospect. 

Tuolumne County : Common with psilomelane at Knapp 's ranch, 
near Columbia. 


Hydrous oxide of manganese, MnoOa.HoO. 

Orthorhomblc. Crystals long prisms. Structnre usually columnar. 
Perfect brachypinacoidal cleavage. Color iron-black. Metallic luster. 
Streak dark reddish brown. H = 4; G = 4.3. 

Kofractivo indices: oc=2.24; « = 2.24; y=:2..j3. 

Yields the manganese reactions as given under hausmannite and a slight 
amount of water in a closed tub?. 

There are numerous small deposits of manganese in the State, and 
much of tlifi ore appears to be manganite mixed with a more or less 
silicious psilomelane. The deposits consist generally of black porous ore 
in masses and lenses of red and brown jasper in the metamorphics of 
the Coast ranges, and to some extent in the Sierras. Reports on the 
deposits of the State have been made by Penrose^^^ and by Harder^^^ 


Alameda Comity : Deposits occur in the Livermore-Tesla district 
southeast of Livennore in the Diabh) Range. The ore is in jasper 
lenses, and much of the manganese produced in the State has come from 
tliis district along the Arroyo ]\Iocha Creek. 

Calaveras County : Some manganite with psilomelane occurs two 
miles northeast of San Andreas in mica schist. 

Colusa County : Small deposits on the east flank of St. John Moun- 
tain, near Little Stony. 

Contra Costa County : The deposits on Red Rock Island in San 
Francisco Bay contain some manganite with the psilomelane. 

Kern County : The hydrous oxide manganite occurs vritli psilomelane 
in the Rand mining district near Randsburg. 

Marin County : Some manganite is found in the red rock near 

Mendocino County : At the Cave mine, ten miles northeast of Ukiah. 

Placer County: Small pieces have been found near Colfax. 

Plumas County : Considerable manganese occurs in this county in the 
Meadow Valley and other districts, and manganite is probably common. 

Riverside Comity : Psilomelane and manganite occur in a network of 
veins in schist six miles northeast of Elsinore, in the Maria Mountains. 

San Joaquin County: Some small deposits in jasper in the Diablo 
Range. The Ladd or Corral Hollow mine, southeast of Livermore, is 
the best known manganese mine in the State. 

San Luis Obispo County : Small deposits occur live miles west of San 
Luis Obispo. 

Santa Clara County: In the Black AVonder and other mines of the 
Diablo Range. 

Sonoma County : At the Shaw mine eight miles northwest of Clover- 

Tuolumne County : Occurs with rhodonite two miles north of Sonora. 

124. TURGITE. 

Hydrous oxido of iron, 2Feo03.H20. 

Compact Hbrous, botrj'oidal or earthy. Color red lo reddish blattk. 
Streak red. Hardness of compact varieties = 5—6 ; G = 4.29- — 1.41). 

Ilefractive indices: oc=2.45; Q = 2.'m\ y^'IXi-*. 

Flies to pieces when heated in a closed tube, which serves to distinguish 
it from hematite or limonite. Gives water in closed tul)e. Other reactions 
similar to hematite or limonite. 

Turgite is a very common mineral in the State, since it is a hydrous 
hematite and may occur in hard masses or as ocher. It has seldom 
been ditt'erentiated from hematite, so our knowledge of distinct ioeali- 
ties is deficient. 

Inyo County : Reported to occur near Shoshone. 


125. G6THITE. 
Hydrous oxide of iron, Fe^^O^.H^O. 

Orthovhorubic. Slender prisms, vertically striated. Cleavage perfect 
brachypiuacoidal. Color yellowish brown. Streak yellowish brown. Ada- 
mantine to submetallic luster. H = 5 — 5.5; G = 4.37. 

Refractive indices: ex =2.26; ^ = 2.39; y = 2.40. 

Distinguished from the more common limonite iiy its crystalline-fibrous 
and columnar structure and cleavage. 

Gothitc is usually found as slender prismatic crystals in masses of 
limonite or hematite, and resembles limonite so closely that it would 
be usually classed as such. 

Inyo County : Found with chrysocolla and limonite at the St. Ignacio 

Mariposa County : Observed at Burns Creek in masses of limonite. 

Riverside County: Cothite is associated with the other iron minerals 
of Eagle Mountains. 

San Bernardino County: An associate with limonite at the mag- 
netite-hematite deposit, near Dale. 

126— LIMONITE— Brown Hematite. 
Hydrous oxide of iron, 2Fe„03.3HoO. 

Massive. Compact, stalactitic, botryoidal, columnar, fibrous, earthy. Color 
yellow, brown to black. Streak yellowish brown. Submetallic to dull 
luster. H = 5 — 5.5; G = 3.6 — 4. 

Refractive index : « = 2.05. 

Distinguished from hematite by its streak and by its yielding water in a 
closed tube. Becomes magnetic on heating. Soluble in hydrochloric acid 
and brown ferric hydrate is precipitated by ammonia. 

Limonite is the most common of the iron minerals, and is quite uni- 
versal in its occurrence as a staining material. It is found varying 
from soft yellow and brown ocher to hard compact masses. As the 
common alteration product of pyrite and of most minerals containing 
iron, it is prevalent in most mineral districts and forms the gossan and 
brown capping of ore deposits. Cubes of limonite as pseudomorphs 
after pyrite are common in mining regions. As an ore of iron it is not 
so valuable as hematite or magnetite. It is present in every county in 
some form and only a few of its occurrences can consequently be cited. 

Alameda County: Earthy limonite mixed with hematite is common 
as a gossan capping of the pyrite deposit at Leona Heights. 

Amador County : Found in concretions and earthy masses at Pine 
Grove. With hematite and magnetite at Volcano. 

Butte County: Large blocks at Burns Creek, W. P. Blake^^^. Thick 
masses at the Monarch mine ; cubes at Red Hill and at Magalia. 

120 STATE :mixixg bureau. 

Calaveras County : Forms capping of hill about one mile and a half 
north of Murphy. The Detert deposit near Valley Springs was form- 
erly worked. Massive and yellow ocher at the Eureka mine, near 
Valley Springs. A depo.sit occurs 1^ miles jiortheast of iMurphy, and 
also one seven miles southeast of ]\Iokelumne Hill. Yellow and red 
ochcr occurs at Campo Soco. A deposit occurs on Bonanza Creek, seven 
miles of ]Mokclinnne Hill. ^Massive limonite has come from 
the Diett'enbach Ranch, twenty-five miles northeast of Valley Spring. 
It is common in the vicinity of Campo Seco as ocher. 

Colusa County: Yellow ocher occurs in a large outcrop 4|- miles 
west of Stonyford. Yellow and red oclicr suitable for mineral paint 
occurs four miles south of Lodoga. 

El Dorado County : Ma.ssive near Diamond Springs. 

Inyo County : Pseudomorphs after long prisms of stibnite have been 
found at the Cerro Gordo mine. 

Lake County : Ocliers of yellow and brown shades occur two miles 
north of Hough Springs suitable for paint. ^Massive specimens have 
come from the hills near Glenbrook. 

Mariposa County: Fine large cubes have come from the Chowchilla 

Xapa County : An ocher deposit occurs 1^ miles east of Calistoga. 

Placer County : At Gold Run. Massive limonite occurs at the Clip- 
per Gap mine. 

Plumas County: ]Vrassive in Light's Canyon and at Nelson Point. 
Red and yellow ocher occurs near Quincy. 

Riverside County: Yellow and brown limonite is common in the 
pisolitic cavities formed by the ])rucite, at Crestmore. !Mas.sive limonite 
occurs on the Eagle ^Mountains with some goethite. 

Sacramento County : Yellow ocher occurs at ^Michigan Bar. 

San Luis Obispo County : Brown banded masses have come from the 
Prefumo Ranch. This deposit lies in the Los Osos .^Fountains inter- 
bedded with Franciscan shales and sandstones and occurring with hema- 
tite. Dark brown massive limonite is found at the Harrington mine, 
four miles southwest of San Luis Oliispo. 

Shasta County: Common as cappings of the pyrite deposits of the 
county. Pseudomorphs after hedenbergite have been found at Ydalpan. 
Highly iridescent specimens have come from Copper City. Excellent 
bronze colored stalactites occurred at the Lost Confidence mine. Iron 

Sonoma County : Yellow ocher at the Occidental mine. Yellow ocher 
occurs on the Lancaster Ranch, of Fisk's Mills. 

Stanislaus County : A deposit of yellow ocher used for paint occurs 
at Knight's Ferry on the Stanislaus River. 

Tulare County: Common in the Mineral King district. 

Yolo County : In the sands at Capay. 

:minerai,r of California. 121 

127. BAUXITE. 
Hydrous oxide of aluminium, AI2O3.2II0O. 

Massive, eartliv, pisolitic. Color \\hiie, yellow, red or brown. II — l..'*: 
G = 2.55. 

Kefraetive index: R^^ IJu. 

Infusible and insoluble. Moistened by a few drops of cobalt nitiat<' ami 
intensely heated, the powdiu" assumes a sky-blue color. Fused with sodium 
earbonatt^ and the mass dissohed in hydroehlorie acid, leaves no silica resi- 
due. Ammonia precipitates tiocculent alumina hydrate from I In- soliitiim. 
The absence of silica differentiates it from clay. 

Bauxite has hct'ii ropoi'tcd from scvi-fal localities in the State, but 
they are not authentic aiul a.s yet only one deposit is known. The min- 
eral closely resembles clay and is only distin«iuislied at sight from elay 
V<y its eharaeteristie pea-shaped, or pi.solitic structure; that is. a struc- 
ture having small round coucretions of the mineral about the size of 
peas imbedded in the clay-like masses. Its color when pure is white, 
but the masses frequently are yellow, red and brown by impurities of 
the iron oxides. 

Rivei-side County: Red and gray pisolitic bauxite occurs in a deposit 
between Corona and Alberhill. 

Dark Red Gray Reddish 

SiO.. 13..JG 39.82 '\.2?, 

Al.O, 45.42 36.43 ".8.10 

Fc'o, 14.87 7.14 12.82 

MnO 0.O.J 0.04 

TiO, 2.34 2.37 1.65 

H..O'atlOr>° 1.9<) 1.26 0.9.> 

11,0 above 105° 23.23 13.06 29.08 

101.46 101.02 100.83 

128. BRUCITE. 

Ilydnius oxide of magnesium, MgCIIoO. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Foliated plates and fibrous masses. Cleav- 
age perfect basal. Color white, .gray, pink. Pearly luster. H=:2.5; 
(} = 2.38 — 2.4. 

Refractive indices: £ = 1.5S0: t,j = 1.559. 

Yields a small an'ount of water in a closed tube. Easily soluble in dilute 
h.vdrochloric acid and maanesia is prfcipitated by sodium phosphate, (lives 
a j)ink color characteristic of magnesia when intensely heated with cobalt 

Brucite occurs as thin veins in serpentine, but very little has been 
observed in the State as an alteration of serpentine. It also occurs as 
a metamorphic mineral in crystalline magnesian limestone. 


Riverside County: Brucite is abundant in small globular masses in 
the white crystalline limestone at Crestmore, formed probably as a 
hydration product of original perielase. An analysis by Eakle gave: 

MgO FeoOg HoO 

C.7.48 0.55 31.73 99.76 per cent 

;San Francisco County : A small amount of brucite has been observed 
as thin seams in the serpentines of San Francisco. 


Hydrous oxide of manganese, Mn(0H)2. 

Rhombohedral. In hexagonal plates. Color white, but alters to brown 
and black. Pearly luster. H = 2.5; G=3.258. 

llefractive indices: g^l.GSl; ^^ = 1.723. 

Heated in a closed tube, it becomes green, then black, and yields water. 
Gives green bead with sodium carbonate. 

A rare manganese mineral only previously known to occur in this 
country at Franklin, New Jersey. 

Santa Clara County : Occurred as a prominent constituent of a man- 
ganese boulder (supposed meteorite) near Alum Rock Park, five miles 
east of San Jose, Rogers^°\ 

130. SASSOLITE— Boracic Acid. 
Hydrous oxide of boron, B^Os.SHoO. 

Triclinic. Usually in small scales. Cleavage perfect basal. Color white. 
Pearly luster. H = l; G = 1.4S. 

Refractive indices: cc =1-340; ^ = 1.456; y = 1.459. 

Solnlilc' in water. Yellow turmeric paper when immersed in a hydro- 
chloric acid solution and then dried, will assume a carmine red color. 
Fused in a colorless flame the mineral gives a momentary yellowish green 
flame. This flame and the turmeric paper reaction are characteristic of al! 

The waters of some of the springs and lakes of the State contain 
traces of boracic acid, but the scaly white crystals of the solid sassolite 
have not been fomid. 

Lake County: Occurs in the waters of Clear Lake, W. P. Blake^^^ 
San Bernardino County : Some of the borate waters of this county 
yield the oxide upon evaporation. 


Hydrous oxide of manganese, usually inipuie. 

Massive, bolryoidal, stalaelitic. Prominent conchoidal fracture. Color 
bhuk. Streak brownish black. 11 = 5 — G; G = 3.7 — 4.7. 

Yields till' manganese rcuetions as jnvt'u un<ler Imusmannite, as wi'll ;is 
water in a closed tube and precipitations of impurities, especially barium. 

This is the most common manganese mineral and is the chief ore of 
manganese in the State. It is ahuost always associated with manga- 
nite or pyrolnsite, and often with limonite. The mineral is found in 
many localities, hut the chai-acleristie occurrence of the more important 
deposits is in scams and ii'rcgular masses in jasper. All of the 
localities citcil J'or i)yrolusil(' and maiiganite contain psilomclane as well. 

Wad is an impure soft ])lack oxide, often with the harder psilomelane. 

Asholitc is a wad containing cobalt. 

Reports on the manganese deposits of the State have been made by 
Penrose^^^ and by Harder^ ^\ 

Alameda County : The Corral Hollow deposit is largely silicious 
psilomelane. Tlie manganese deposits lie a few miles southeast of Liv- 
ermore along the Arroyo ]\Iocho and south of Tesla, in what is known 
as the Corral IToll(>\\' district, which extendi into San Joaciuin County. 
Psilomelane is the ciiiel" mineral, associated with ]>yrolusite and occa- 
sionally rhodochrosite. 

Anuidor County: A deposit of |)silomelane mi.xed with pyrolnsite 
occurs 1.! miles south of Volcano. Also one four miles east of Pine 
drove and another about one-lialf mile southeast of Defender. 

Butte Count\' : Psilomelane occuj-.s in several localities in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Clipper IMills. 

Calaveras County: Deposits of psilomelane occur three miles iiortli- 
east of Milton, assm-ijited with pyrolnsite; two miles northeast oi San 
Andreas: six nn'les southeast of Valley Springs. 

Colusa ( 'ountx' : I'silomehnie in small amounts occurs on eastei ti s]o[)e 
of St. Johns ^Mountain, west of Stonyford. 

Contra Costa County: The deposit of manganese on Red Rock, San 
Francisco Baj', whicli was formerly mined, is psilomelane. 

Fi-esno County : Some psilomelane occur.s near Piedra on Pine Flat. 

Clenn County: Associated with pyi'olusite at the Black Diamond 
and Rattlesnake mines, about thirty miles soutliwest of Fruto. Some 
•silicious psilomelane is reported from ]\Iill.saps. 

Humboldt County: Occurs with pyrolnsite on the Porter Ranch, 
Foi't Baker, in good massive ore. 

Imperial County : Psilomelane deposits have been reported in the 
Chocolate Mountains. 

Inyo County: Fine specimens found at southeast end of Panamint 
Range, twenty-five miles south of Bennett's wells on Death Valley slope. 


Lake County : Small amounts of good ore come from the vicinity of 
Glenbrook. Psilomelane occurs on the Phillips Ranch about 1^ miles 
south of Laurel Dell, and on Dry Creek about three miles west of Mid- 
dletown. A large deposit occurs about ten miles north of Upper Lake 
and thirty-eight miles northeast of Ukiah on the soutliwest slope of 
Horse Mountains. The manganese ore of the Smythe manganese pro.s- 
pect is mainly psilomelane with some pyrolusite. 

Los Angeles County : Asbolite occurred in the K mine, San Gabriel 
Canyon. Deposits occur about five miles west of Palmdale, of silicious 

]\LTrin County: Small streaks and pockets of psilomelane occur near 
Sausalito and Fort Baker and in masses on tlie Mallard Ranch, about 
eight miles northwast of San Rafael. 

J\Iariposa County : Small masses occur in Hunters Valley. 

Mendocino County : Large deposits in Potter Valley. Reported on 
the Pieta Creek near Pieta in large amounts. Deposits occur at the 
Cleveland mine three miles east of Calpella ; and at the Independent 
mine fourteen miles east of Willits. Occurs in the hills east of Middle 
Fork of the Eel River. Associated with rhodochrosite on Mount San- 
hedrin. A deposit of high grade occurs on Shaw Ranch, seven miles 
northwest of Cloverdale. The Thomas and Wild Devil mines, about six 
miles northeast of Redwood Station, contain psilomelane in jasper. 

Merced County: ^Manganese deposits occur in the southwestern cor- 
ner of the county, about twenty-six miles east of Tres Pinos. 

Monterey County : Deposit occurs about tliree miles north of the 
mouth of San Carpojaro Creek and one mile inland. Occurs in the 
Chalone district near Soledad. 

Napa County: Deposit five miles west of Oakville and another six 
miles northeast of St. Helena. Small amounts of manganese minerals 
occur on Mt. St. Helena and on Moore Creek. Also three miles west of 

Nevada County : "Wad occurs near the North Banner mine. Psilo- 
melane occurs near west bank of Bear River, seven miles from Colfax. 
A large body occurs in the Limekiln district, northwest part of county. 

Placer County: ]\lasses at INIiehigan Bluff. Deposits occur about 
nine miles north of Colfax near Yankee Jim. 

Plumas County : Large masses on ]\rumford Hill. Psilomelane, man- 
ganite and rhodonite occur in the Diadem and Penrose Lodes, near 
Edmanton, in the Meadow Vallev district. Deposits occur near Crescent 

Riverside County: Deposits occur in the McCoy ^Mountains about 
twelve miles northAvest of Mineral Station. Occurs about seven miles 
southwest of Perris interbedded with .jasper. Black massive psilo- 


inelaue occurs iii tin* Paleu Mountains about tvveuty-two miles northwest 
of Mineral. Some occurs about six miles northeast of P^lsinol'e asso- 
ciated with rhodonite. At the base of the Santa INIaria ^Mountains. 
Some occurs al)out eight miles northwest of Palo Verde. 

San Benito County : Stringers and coatings occur with the benitoite 
of this county, Louderback'-*. Occurs in cherts about eighteen miles 
east of Tres Pinos on Paries and Lewis ranches. 

San Bernardino County : Occurs on the north slope of Avawatz 
Mountains ; at tiie Owls Hole mine. Owl ^Mountain ; on the Lavie ^louu- 
tains, five miles northwest of Ludlow, associated with pyrolusite. Good 
specimens have come from "Wagner, Mojave Desert. 

San Diego County : Fine specimens have come from Winchester and 
from Campo. 

San Joaquin County : Li the manganese deposits of the Diablo Range, 
notably at the Ladd mine in Corral Hollow. 

Santa Clara County : Tlie outer crust of the manganese boulder near 
Alum Rock Park, five miles east of San Jose, was the black oxide, psilo- 
melane, Rogers**^'. 

Shasta County: A deposit of psilomelane occurs on Pitt River, one 
mile soutli of Heroult. Occurs with jasper in Arbuckle JMountain. 

Siskiyou County : Occurs in small amounts with pyrolusite near Fort 

Sonoma County : Deposit near Freestone. 

Stanislaus County: Occurs on Porter Creek west of Patter.son. In 
the manganese deposits of the Diablo Range, notably at the Buckeye 
mine, west of Vemalis. 

Tehama County: Deposits occur with jasper on Beauty View Butte, 
ten miles west of Paskenta. 

Tuolumne County: Massive with pyrolusite near Columbia. 









Gay Lussite 




Hyd romagnesite 





132. CALCITE — Calc Spar — Limestone. 

Carbonate of calcium, CaCOs. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Crystals common, rhombohedrons and scale- 
nohedrons. Also massive, granular, stalaetitic, chalky. Cleavage perfect 
rhombohedral. Colorless, white, yellow, brown, blue, red, pink, green, black, 
etc. Vitreous luster. 11 = 3; G:^2.71. 

Refi'active indices: £ = 1.4SG; (,j = ].658. 

The carbonates are all characterized by their effervescence with hydro- 
chloric or nitric acids. Calcite eff( rvesces freely in very dilute acid and 
gives a flame test that is bright red at tirst. fading into a yellow red. The 
calcium can be precipitated by ammonium oxalate as a white granular cal- 
cium oxalati". 

Calcite is one of the exceedingly common minerals and occnrs in 
many colors and in many varieties l)ased on color and structure. Some 
of these varietal names are: iccland spar, dofjlooth spar, stalactite, 
stalagmite, marhh, onyx marhlc, travertine, calc-tufa, chalk and com- 
mon limestone. Extensive beds of limestone are common in the State, 
and are (quarried for the manufacture of cement. Fine quality marble 
is also known, but much of it is quarried for cement. 

Manganocahite is a variety containing manganese. It weathers blael-:. 

Alameda County: Crystals are common in the chalcedony geodes on 
the Berkeley Hills. A fine grade of lithograpliie limestone on the 
Crocker-AVinship properties, soutli (if Danville. Crystals of calcite anfl 
'iiassive limestone near Snnol. 

Alpine County : Fine groups of rhombohedrons have come from the 
Pennsylvania mine. 

Amador County : Liglit gray and bluish marble occurs 2| miles east 
of Plymoutli in Dry Creek Canyon. 

Butte Couuty: A black mottled marble is found at Pent/. On We^t 
Feather River, a few miles west of Yankef Hill : white and liluisb 


crystallized limestone at the Big Bend of North Foik Kctiihfr liivci- 
near Intake Station. 

Calaveras County: Crystals oeeiir near Natural Bridge. Fine stalac- 
tites occur in Mercer's Cave, 1] miles northwest of jNIurpliy. Good 
marble occurs near ^Murphy and near San Andreas. White and \arie- 
gated marble occurs about 1] miles east of San Andreas, also aboui fonr 
miles southeast of Valley Springs. 

El Dorado County: Fine stalactites occur at the Alabaster Cave. 
Good crystals found at the Cosumnes copper mine. Large cleavage 
rhombohedrons occur in the Starlight mine, three miles south of ^lud 

Fresno County: Good marble in various colors, white, blue, black. 
•dud variegated occurs on th& south .side of Big Creek, five miles ])(>low 

Glenn County: Banded marble on the Nye Ranch and (m east side 
of Stony Creek. 

Imperial County: Large deposit of crystalline limestone or inai-blc on 

the south side of Coyote ^Mountain : 

Analysis : 

CaCOs !^r,.(; 

MgCO, 1. 

SiO, tr. 

ALO,. Fe-Os 0.0 

CaS04 0.5 


Good variegated marble occurs at the Fowler Quarry, Coyote Moun- 

Inyo County : Thick deposits of beautiful variegated marble occur at 
the foot of the Inyo Mountains, between Keeler and Lone Pine. The 
marble is dolomitic. Fine crystal specimens and stalactites have been 
found at the Cerro Gordo and Unica mines. Gray, greenish and yel- 
low marble found at tlu^ Lindsay quarries, Walker River; fine crystals 
at the Lane mine. 

Kern County : Large deposit of crystalline limestone occurs three 
miles south of Tehachapi, near Neenach. Blue rhombohedrons in 
Grizzly Canyon, three miles southwest of Tehachapi. 

Lake County : Small body of crystalline limestone near Hullville. 

Los Angeles County : Calcite crystals occur with the colemanite at 
Lang with the forms : (lOTO), (01T2), (0995), (0221), (0001). White 
marble occurs in Antelope Valley ; also in Paeorina Canyon near San 

^Marin County : Low thin-edged rhombohedrons of manganocalcite 
occur in a trachite on the Burdell Ranch. They turn black when 
heated and also l>y weathering. 


Mariposa County : Good crystals have come from the mines near 
i\[ Large deposit of white marble eontaiuiug dark streaks 
occurs ou South Fork of INTorced River, ('alcite crystals occur with 
(juartz and arseiio]\yrite at the Smilli mine, Bear Valley. 

Merced County : A strontian-liearing ealcite is said to occur at 

Modoc CouiitN': Small stalactites occur on South Fork of Pitt River. 

Mono County : A large deposit of 1 rayertine occurs near Bridge- 
port, (lood crystals have come from the Bodie district. A mass of 
white uuirble occurs in canyon southeast of Topaz. 

Monterey County: Large perfect crystals occur near Soledad. 
Deposit of linu'stone near Natividad, i)-^ miles from Salinas. 

Napa County: Onyx mai'l)lc has come .from a plac(> called Zem Zem 
near Knoxville. 

Nevada County : Common in the Grass Valley and Nevada City 
mines. Fine scalenohedrons have come from the Pittsburg mine. Found 
northeast of Nevada City on banks of South Yuba River. Caleite crys- 
tals occur with kannnererite at the Red Ledge mine, near Washington. 

Orange County : Greenish and white marble occur in Cool Canyon 
on west side of iNFt. Downey, Santa Ana Range. Fossiliferous beds 
occur near El Toro. 

Placer County : One of the minerals of the Ophir district, Lind- 
gren^^^ A verd-anti(iue variety was found about sixteen miles north- 
east of Auburn. Verd-autiqne marble reported near Butcher Ranch; 
white nuirble near llotaling. 

Plumas County : Large divergent masses of caleite in the (Tencssee 
Valley. ]\larble occurs on sides of Middle Feather River. 

Riverside County : Blue caleite occurs at Crestmore, which is quar- 
ried for cement manufacture. Ophicalcite is foiuid on the P]agle IMoun 

San Benito County : Found in the rocks adjoining the benitoite veins 
near the headwaters of the San Benito River, Louderback'^-\ 

San Bernardino County: A large deposit of beautiful variegated 
marble occurs at the Geni INIarble quarries in the Silver Mountain 
district about five miles south of Oro Grande which is now quarried for 
cement. Also on Slover ]\Iountain, near Colton, gray limestone is 
((uarried for cement. Large caleite cleavage masses with black carbo- 
naceous matter arranged zonally, and twinned on the-iR face, occur six 
miles northwest of Ludlow. Verd-antique marble <>n ]Mo,jave Desert 
about sixteen miles from Victorville. Tjarge deposit of white, pink and 
blue near Baxter. Iceland spar occurs in Cave Canyon district, near 


San Die^ro County: AVliilc and ^i*ay banded marble on Los Penas- 
quitas Creek. Dark jLirax marble near Jacumba ; larj^e bed of wliite 
speckled marble 4^ miles northeast of Dos Cabezas Springs. 

San Franeisco County : Sealenohedrons of ealcite occur at Fort Point. 
They have the forms: (5382), (23o8), (, (, Schal- 

San Luis Obispo County : Beautiful onyx iiuirble with moss-like 
inclusions of greenish chlorite imparting a landscape effect to the trans- 
lucent thin slabs occurs at the Kesseler deposit, about seventeen miles 
northeast of Arroyo Grande. 

San Mateo County : Crystals have come from near S{ui Pedro. Ocrtiis 
as ei-ystalline veins in limestone at ^lontara. 

Santa Barbara County: Pink rhoml)ohedrons found on Santa Cata- 
'jna Island. 

Santa Clara County: Yellow, white and brown marble five miles 
southeast of New Almaden. 

Santa Cruz County: Large masses on Ben Lomond, west of Felton. 
Coar.^ely crystalline limestone on northwest side of San Felipe Canyon, 
northwest of Santa Cruz ; also one mile from Santa Cruz. 

Shasta County : Large stalactites and tubular shapes occur in Pot- 
ter's Cave, neiw l>aird, Eakle'"'. Marble deposit reported five miles 
cast o^ Kennett. 

Siskiyou County: Large deposits of white and variegated marble 
occur on Marble Mountain. 

Solano County: Onyx marble and massive limestone occurs near 
Tolenas. A brown banded onyx marble occurred near Suisun, 

Sonoma County : Ijow rhom])ohedrons of ealcite occur in geodes near 

Trinity Comity: CMlcite oi-ciirs with garnet and epidote at Red 

Tuhii-e County : Dju-k giviy iniirl)lo on James Ranch, efght, miles soutli- 
east of Porterville. 

Tuolumne County: White and blue-veined marble occurs in an 
extensive deposit on the Stcinislaus River a few miles north of Columbia. 
Fine crystals with the forms (lOTO), (OlTl), and (3121) were found at 
the Keltz mine. Large stalactites at the Crystal Palace Cave near 
Columbia. The mai'ble (luai-ries three miles northwest of Columbia on 
Staui'laiLs River are well known in the State. 

Yuba County: Marble on north and .south side of Yuba River, and 
on Oregon Creek. 



133. DOLOMITE — Magnesium Limestone. 

Carbonate of magnesium and calcium (Ca,Mg) CO3. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Crystals usually with curved faces and mas- 
sive. Cleavage perfect rhombohedral. Color white, gray, brown, pink. 
11 = 3.5 — 4; G = 2.S8. 

Refractive indices: £ = 1.500; (^ = l.(iSl. 

Effervesces feebly in cold dilute acids. Best distinguished from calcite 
in the wet way. After removal of the calcium by its precii)itatiou with 
ammonium oxalate, the magnesium is obtained from the filtered solution by 
precipitating with sodium phosphate. 

Dolomite is a common mineral, but is not so abundant as calcite. 
Much of the limestone and marble of the State is dolomitic, and some 
is doubtless pure dolomite, but the amount and localities are unknown 
since the two carbonates are only chemicall.y differentiated. The min- 
eral is commonly associated with magnesian silicates, especially the 
serpentine rocks, in which it is often found as white veins. 

Alameda County : Some dolomite occurs in the manganese district 
about fiften miles southeast of Livermore. 

Calaveras County: "White crystals of dolomite occurred in the gold- 
bearing schist of Carson Hill. 

El Dorado County : A large vein occurs at the Laskin mine, one-half 
mile east of Diamond Springs. 

Inyo County : The variegated and white marbles of the Inyo ]Moun- 
tains are dolomitic. Good crystals were found in the San Felipe mine. 
A commercial body occurs at the Bodgley quarrA-.' four miles north of 

^Monterey County: Occurs at Natividad. Large deposit of dolomite 
occurs lying along the foothills six mile.s east of Salinas. 

Nevada County: Dolomite occurs as veins in the serpentine at 
Nevada City. 

Orange County : A mass of dolomite with gypsum occuts in Gyp- 
• sum Canyon, west slope of Santa Ana Range. 

Plumas County : Silicious dolomite is common in the Diadem Lode. 
Riverside County : Dolomite in a variety of colors occurs on the 
Eagle Mountains. 

San Benito County: Pure white dolomite is found in a large body 
about ten miles southwesj; of IloUister. ]\lassive dolomite occurs wast 
and southwest of llollister. Crystals occur at Sa'iip.son ^lagnesito mine 
near New Idria. 

San Bernardino County : ^Fassive near Victorville, associated with 
bodies of calcite. 

San Luis Obispo County : A vein of white dolomite occurs in Little 
Falls Canyon. 


Santa Clara County: Large specimens of drusy crystal lizations and 
low rhombohedrons of snow-white dolomite occurred in the New Al- 
inaden and Guadalu])e (luicksilvcr mines. 

Tnoluifine County : Dolomite is a common associate of the mariposite 
schists of the mines n«'ar Jamestown. Part of the limestone nOiir Sonora 
is dolomite. 

Carbonate of calcium, magnesium and iron, CaCOa.MfiCOs.FeCOj. 

Hexagonal, rliombohedral. Generally massive. Cleavage like calcite. 
Color white to brown. H = 3:5 — 4; G = 2.95 — 3.1. 

Uffrac-tivi- iiulifi's : £=1.520; (^ = 1.716. 

Becomes magnetic on heating. The presence of the three bases, iron, 
talcium and magnesium, is determined by their precipitation from the acid 
solution with iimmonin. aniuiiiiim oxalate and sodium phosphate in the 
order given. 

Ankerite is sometimes classed as an iron-bearing dolomite. It is a 
very common form of carbonate associated with the gold-bearing schists 
of the Mother Lode region, especially with the green mica, mariposite. 

Calaveras ( 'oniity : Occurs in the schists at the Golden Gate mine. 

Mariposa County: The miiieral was first reported by Silliman^^) as 
an associate of mariposite on the Mariposa Estate. It was prominent in 
mariposite schists at the Josephine mine. 

Tuolumne County : Common on Quartz Mountain and at the Raw- 
hide ranch mine, near Tuttletown. Reported from the Eagle Shaw- 
mut mine on Woods Creek. 


Carbonate of magnesia, MgCOj. 

He-xagonal, rliombohedral. Ci*ystals are rare. Generally compact mas- 
sive; sometimes earthy. Color snow-white to brown. Prominent con- 
choidal fracture, of massive mineral. ri = 3..5 — 4.5; G = 3.0 — 3.12. 

Kefrartivo indices: £=].."09; ,,, = 1.700. 

Cold dilute iiydnx-hloric ncid hiis little effect, but wln'ii IicmI'mI it efTer- 
\-('sces frei'ly. The solution, wlien trcjited by ainuiouia. anuuoniuni oxnlat<» 
and sodium i)bosi)bate. will give an important precipitate only wlicn the 
last K^agent is used. Magnesite moistem-d with cobalt nitrate and intensely 
heuted. will tui-n ])ink. 

Magnesite is a very common mineral in California because of the 
great areas of serpentine from which it is an alteration product. It is 
characteristic of the serpentinized rock to be intersected by veins and 
patches of the snow-white to light bufip carbonate, some of these veins 
forming important deposits of the mineral. The main deposits lie in 
the serpentine belts of the Coast Ranges, but minor deposits also occur 
in the serpentines of the Sierras. The mineral is almost uniformly in 


cryptocrystalliue masses with prominent couchoidal fracture, and the 
silieious varieties are very hard. A bulletin on the maguesite deposits 
of the State has been issued by Hess^^^ who gives the analyses cited 
below. • 

Alameda County: Small veins occur in the serpentine on Cedar 
Mountain, about twentj'-two miles southeast of Livermore. Stray boul- 
der* found on Hoyle's Ranch, eleven miles southeast of Livermore. 

Calaveras County : Veins occur near San Andreas. 

Fresno County: A very pure magnesite occurs in veins on Kings 
River at Piedra, nine miles east of Sanger. Deposits at Piedra and 
Watt Valley, latter showing peculiar surface jointage cracks. 

Kern County : Some veins are found near Walker 's Pass, east of 
Bakersfield. A sedimentary bedded deposit interstratified Avith clay 
and clay shales occurs about three-quarters mile north of Bissell Station, 
eleven miles east of Mojave, Gale.*"' 

Kings County : Occurs in southwest corner of county near Parkfield. 

Los Angeles County: A small deposit occurs in serpentine on a 
branch of San Franeisquito Canyon. 

]\Iendocino County : Pure white veins on Hixon ranch, about twelve 
miles north of Cloverdale. 

SiOa AI2O3 FeaOs CaO MgrO CO2 

0.41 0.28 0.12 0.03 47.16 51.88 =99.88 per cent 

Deposit six miles north of Ilealdsburg. A deposit fifteen miles north- 
west of Cloverdale. 

^lodoc County : Specimens have come from near Adiu. 

^Monterey County : Found three miles east of Parkfield. 

Napa County : A large number of veins occur in the serpentine of 
the county. Very prominent in Chiles Valley, about thirteen miles 
from Rutherford. Analyses of the mineral from this locality gave : 

Si02 AI0O3 FeoOs CaO MgO CO- H^O 

2.1.T 1.22 1.16 5.28 41.01 48.72 "__ = 99.54 per cent 

1.81 0.08 tr. 46.55 51.25 0.32 =100.01 

6.6S 15.10 — __ 37.20 40.98 __ = 99.96 

Veins also occur on the east side of Pope Valley, in Soda Creek 
Canyon, and in the serpentine of Beryessa Valley. ]\Iag-nesite is one of 
the important minerals of the county. The deposits are mainly 
in Pope and Chiles Valleys. Large deposit of yellowish brown limon- 
itic miignesite in the White Rock deposit. 

Nevada County: Narrow veins occur in the serpentine at Nevada 

Placer County : Veins occur near Damascus and Michigan Bluff and 
at Gold Run. Deposits occur about five miles northeast of Iowa Hill, 
and near Towle. 


Riverside County : Veins are found in a hill of serpentine, about 
three miles south of Winehester, which are worked for cement purposes. 

SiO; AUO3 I'-e^O, CaO :Mg:0 CO- 

4.73 0.12 O.OS' 0.43 44.77 49.40 =99.53 per cent 

San Benito County : Large deposits on west .^lope of Sampson Peak, 
three miles southwest of New Idrin. Some of the magnesite at Sampson 
mine is coated with dolomite. 

San Bernardino County: Occurs in the Quaker (iroup, four miles 
south of Cima. The mineral has been observed near Needles. 

San Francisco County: Small veins occur in the serpentine at Fort 

San Luis Obispo County : Small veins on the Kiser ranch about nine 
miles northwest of Cambria. 

Santa Barbara County : Some veins exist in the mountains back of 
Santa Barbara. 

Santa Clara County: Large veins exist in the Diablo Kangc in the 
northeast corner of the county. An analysis of quite pure magnesite 
from the Alameda claim gave : 

SiO; AI2O3 FesOs CaO MgO CO2 

0.73 0.14 0.21 0.40 4G.61 51.52 =99.61 per cent 

An analysis of butf-colored silieious magnesite from the Cochrane 
ranch, about four miles from Morgan Hill Station, gave: 

SiO" AlcC-, FeoQ:, CaO MgO CO2 

49.85 3.45 0.18 0.48 21.53 23.96 =99.45 per cent 

Analysis of the mineral from veins in serpentine near Coyote gave: 

siOo AL-O-, Fe-jOs CaO JIgO CO- 

0.30 0.16 0.38 1.34 45.86 51.80 =99.74 per cent 

The mineral oecui-s prominently at the ^ladrone ^Magnesite mine, near 

Sonoma County: There are luiiuerous veins in the serpentine of the 
countA\ and IIcss gives several analyses. 1. Veins near Preston called 
the Kelling deposit contain an isomorphous mixture of siderite; 
2. Verdi Ranch, near Cloverdale ; 3. Gillam Creek deposit on steep 
west side of creek, about seven miles northwest of Guerneville ; 4. Red 
Slide deposit in valley of East Austin Creek, about eight miles north of 







3. 1.60 






=99.61 per cent 

of 0.51 
- 1 0.23 






= 99.88 






= 99.11 

3. 3.51 






= 99.68 

4. 7.67 






= 99.76 


Stanislaus County : The veins of the American Magnesite Company 
extend across the line from Santa Clara County. Occurs in the south- 
west corner of this county. High grade from the Quinto mining claim. 

Tulare County: A large amount of magnesite has been mined from 
veins on hills about four miles northeast of Porterville. Hess gives 
several analyses of the mineral from this county. 1. From the serpen- 
tine hills near the chi-ysoprase locality, about eight miles southeast of 
Porterville; 2. On range of hills about four miles northeast of Porter- 
ville; 3. From veins on South Fork of Tule River. 


AloOs FeoOa 






0.11 0.08 




= 99.60 per cent 


\ 2.2.S 

0.03 0.26 




=99.80 / 

1 0.00 







0.42 0.20 




= 99.68 

Small veins also occur in Round Valley, about four miles east of 
Lindsay ; on Rocky Hill, about two miles east of Exeter, with call- 
fornite; near Naranjo with white opal; and near Auckland. Deposit 
at the Alpha claim 3^ miles east of Strathmore of high grade. White 
River deposits five miles west of Tailholt. 

136. SIDERITE— Spathic Ore. 
Carbonate of iron, FeCOj 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Crystals with curved faces, also massive. 
Cleavage pei'fect rhombohedral. Color ash-gray to dark brown. Vitreous to 
pearly luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 3.8. 

Refractive indices: £ = 1.633; 4^ = 1.875. 

Effen'esces only in hot hydrochloric acid. Becomes magnetic on heating. 

The iron carbonate is occasionally found in the mining regions in 
drusy crystallizations associated with pyrite and galena, but the mineral 
does not appear to be very common in the State. 

Calaveras County : Occurs with albite, caleite and quartz at Campo 

El Dorado County : Occurs with ealcite and albite at the Red Hill 
mine, Kelsey mining district. 

Imperial County: Occurs with spectdai; hematite in ([uartz, near 

Inyo County : Small masses have been found at the Custer mine, 
Coso district. 

Los Angeles County : Some massive siderite occurs in the Tejunga 

]Maripc)sa County: Found with caleite at Devils Gulch. 

Mono County: Occurs with limonite and hematite near Benton. 

Plumas County: A common carlionate associated with the copper 
nunerals of the Engels mine. 


Santa Clara County: A deposit occurs on the Weber Kancli. in Los 
Animos Hills, three miles northeast of ]\Iadrone ; large masses on Red 
Mountain: on Coyoti' Creek 4^ miles east of ^Nladrone; small irregular 
bunches three miles east of Coyote on west slope of ]\Ietcalf Canyon. 

Shasta County: According to Fairbanks'^^) siderite occurs in large 
masses in this county east of the Stillwater region. 


Carbonate of maugaueso, MnCO;. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. SmaH crystals and massive. Cleavage per- 
fect rhomholiedral. Color rose-red •r gray. Vitreous luster. 11 = 3.5 — 4.5; 
G = 3.45— 3.()0. 

Refractive indices: £ = 1.597: (,j = 1.n17. 

Its efferve.«couces and wine or amethystine bead with borax serve to 
distinguish it. 

Few good specimens of the rose-red carbonate have been found in the 
State. The mineral is generally found in gold-silver regions where 
manganese is associated with the veins. 

In many of the manganese deposits of the State the gray carbonate 
is quite abundant as tlie primary mineral. 

Alameda CouTity : Rhodochrosite, both gray and pink, occurs com- 
monly in the pdlomelane mines of the Tesla district, southeast of Liv- 
ermore. Occurs on the Arroyo ]Mocho road southeast of Livermore, 
with the black oxide of manganese. Found at the ^Ferehant mine nine 
miles southeast of Livermore. 

Amador County: Occurs with black manganese oxides two miles 
east of Pine Grove. 

Butte County : The mineral has been found on the North Fork of the 
Feather River. 

^ladera County : Occurs near Coarse Gold with manganese minerals. 

Mariposa County : In Indian Gulch gray and red rhodochrosite is 
associated with psilomelane. 

^lendocino County : In Mt. Sanhedron Group at Impassable Rock. 

Placer County : Small druses of the mineral have been found in some 
of the mines of the county. 

San Bernardino County : Good specimens occur at the New York 
mine near ]\ranvel. Rt'i)orted as a vein mineral in quartz at the Saga- 
more mine. New York ^Mountains. 

San Joaquin County : In the Ladd mine of Corral Hollow. 

Santa Clara County: Oeciirred as pink crvstals showing steep nega- 
tive rhombohedron (0221) with occasionally the. unit rhombohedron 
(lOTl). in the manganese boulder near Alum Rock Park, five miles 
east of San Jose, Rogers'^'. 

Stanislaus County : With caJcite and pyrolusite in tlie Buckeye Man- 
ganese mine, Hospital Creek. 


138. SMITHSONITE— Dry Bone. 
Carbonate of zinc, ZnCOa. 
Hexagonal, ihombobedral. Drusy crystals and massive; often bone-like. 
Color grayisb, bluish, greenish. Vitreous luster. H = 5; G = 4.45. 
Refractive iudici's : £ = 1.G1S; ^.^^ 1.818. 

Effervesces i-eadily iu hydrochloric acid. Fused with sodium carbonate 
on charcoal, liecomes yellow while hot and white when cold. Moistened 
with cobalt nitrate and intensely hciited, assumes the yellowish-gi-een color, 
characteristic of zinc minerals. 

Smithsonite is a secondary mineral more often found iu silver-lead 
districts. It is usually associated with lead carbonate and the silicates 
of zinc. 

Inyo County : Found with cerussite at the ]\Iodoc mine, Cerro Gordo, 
Hanks^*'*. Present also at the Ignacio mine with calamine and willemite. 
An unu.sual stalactite form of the zinc carbonate occurs at Cerro Gordc. 
Occurs with calamine at Camp Burgess. Found in the limestone foot- 
wall of Cerro Gordo mine. With cerussite and galena in limestone a: 
Redwing and Noonday mines. Resting Springs district. Common at 
the ]\Iiuneatta mine. Occurs with galena and cerussite in limestone at 
the Ophir mine. 

Kern County : Occurred in drusy veins at the Jewett mine on Cot- 
tonwood Creek. 

San Bernardino County : With calamine at the Cuticura mine, near 
Daggett. Occurs witli cerussite, angiesite, linarite and galena in dolo- 
mite at the Ibex mine. Black ^Mountains, six miles north of Saratoga 
Springs. Found at tli(> Ophir mine. Slate Range. 

Carbonate of calcium, CaCO^. 

Orthorhombic. Slender prisms, acicular, fibrous, stalactitic, massive. 
Colorless, white, yellow, brown. Vitreous luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G--2.93 — 

Refractive indices: oc=l.")31: ^ = 1.«382; ^ = 1.086. 

Distinguished from calcite by its action with cobalt nitrate. Th? powder 
boiled in a solution of cobalt nitrate, turns violet and the solution also as- 
sumes this color. Whereas calcite has no effect on the solution. Other 
reactions the same as for calcite. 

The distinction between calcite and aragonite has seldom been made, 
and much of the })anded onyx marble of the State has been erroneously 
called aragonite. The fine snow-white branching stalactitic form of 
aragonite, calk'd ^'fios fcrri," is exceptional in its occurrence in the 

Calaveras County: Fine stalactites of "flos ferri" have come from a 
cave near ^lurpli\'. Fine nia.sscs have been found in tlie ^Morgan mine. 
Carson Hill. 


{'oliisa County: Found with sulpliui- ;it Sulphur Creek. A l)eautirul 
liaiuled ilarU brown onyx niarl)le occurs near Sulpluii- Creek. Masses 
liave eome from the ('andaee mine. 

i'hicer County: Said to occur at Gold Run. 

River.^ido County: Small amoi;nt.s of fibrous ara^onite weie found at 

San Benito County : Occurs in tlie rocks adjoining the benitoite veins 
as radiate bunches and stringei's near the headwaters of the San Benito 
River. TjOuderback^-\ 

San Bernardino County : Said to have occurred with priceite, Silli- 
man'^\ l)robably from Calico. Occurs with calcite in the limestone of 
Slover Mountains near Colton. 

San Francisco County: Found as thin veins in the serpentine of Fort 
Point. Kakle(i>. 

Solano County: Some aragonite is formed at the Tolenas Springs. 

Tuolumne County: Occurs as bunches in the basaltic rock of Table 


Carbonate of stroutium, SrCO^. 

Orthorhombic. Columnar, fibrous, granular. Cleavage pris- 
matic. Color white, pale green, yellowish. Vitreous luster. H = 3.5 — 4; 
G = 3.68 — 3.71. 

Refractive indices: oc =: 1 ••"»-*' : 0~l.i\^u: -y^l.t'diT. 

Effervesces like calcite. Distinguished from calcitf hy its peniiancni 
dci'l) crimson flame obtained b.v taking a little of the i>o\vder on a platinum 
wire miiist(Mied with hydrochloric acid and holding it in a colorless B'unsen 
HauK'. .\ls() b.v its suliihate being more insohible than calcium sulphate. 

The sli'ontia eoin()))Uii(ls are of recent ilisrovei-y in the State, and the 
carbonate has been found in several localities. 

Inyo County: A deposit of brown massive strontian cai'bonatc occurs 
three miles west of Shoshone. 

Plumas County: Large masses of divergent columnar strontianite 
were found in the Genessee Valley. 

San Bernardino County : Large deposits occur as brown fibrous dnOi 
gray granular masses in limestone on ]\Iud Hills, or Strontium Hills, 
ten miles north of Barstow. Some eelestite and gypsum are associated. 
The deposit has been described by Knopf'^'. 


Carbonate of barium, DaCOj. 

Orthorhombic. Soldom iu sood crystals. Usually columnar or iiranular. 
Poor cloavagi'. Color white or gray. II = ."> — 3.75; G = 4.2T. 

Refractive indices: oc=l-'^^; /J = 1.C76; y = l.G77. 

Infusible. Cives alkaline reaction on turmeric paper. Easily soluble with 
offervesceuce in hydrochloric acid. On adding sulphuric acid, barium sul- 
phate is precipitated. Gives green flame of barium. 

Sometimes found associated with barite, but it is very rare in this 

] County : Massive witherite occurs with barite in the deposit 
near El Portal. This is the only commercial deposit known in the 
United States. 

Shasta County : On BecLium Creek, near Platina. ]\Iassive. 


Carbonate of lead, PbCOa. 

Orthorhombic. Platy crystals. Generally massive. Color gray, cream- 
white, brown. Adamantine to vitreous luster. H = 3 — 3.5; G = 6.46 — 6.57. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.S(U: y5 = l>.(>7G: y = 2.078. 

Soluble in nitric acid with effervescenc". P'asily fusible. Fused on char- 
coal with sodium carbonate, reduces to metallic globules of lead and gives 
yellow coating. 

The carbonate of lead is a common alteration product of galena, and 
in all mines carrying much lead sulphide it is to be found in the 
oxidized portion of the veins. It generally occurs as heavy gray or 
brown masses, but is occasionally found in cream-white platy crystals 
in the porous ore and galena cavities. In silver districts it is frequently 
rich in silver and forms the chief ore. 

Imperial County : Occurs in small veins and pockets five miles east of 

Inyo County: Large crystals were found in the Russ district, W. P. 
Blake"''. A common mineral in the Cerro Gordo and other silver dis- 
tricts of the county. With galena at the ^Montezuma mine, ten miles 
southeast of Big Pine ; with galena and smithsonite in limestone at the 
Ophir mine. Slate Range ; at the Redwing mine with smithsonite ; at 
the Santa Rosa mine. Lee district ; with smithsonite in limestone at the 
Ventura mine ; common in the Carbonate mine ; with galena and smith- 
sonite at the Noonday mine ; large crystals with anglesite at the Ube- 
hebe mine ; occurs with galena, ehalcopyrite and native copper in lime- 
stone at Chloride Cliff, Grapevine Range. 

Kern Count}' : With galena seven miles northwest of Randsburg. 

Mono County: Common in the Blind Springs district, Goodyear^^^ 

Riverside County : Occurs with galena in gold-bearing quartz at the 
Free Coinage and Steel mines, Hodges district, in southeast corner of 


county. The load oarljonate oecMif.s in vci-v small amounts as an altera- 
tion of galena at Crestniore. 

San Bernardino County : In the hornsilver districts of Calico and 
Barstow the lead carbonate was a very prominent mineral, Lindgren^^^ 
Storms'^'. Very jirominent in the Silver Reef disti'ict near Oro Crande. 
Oeeui-s with smithsonite at the Silver Rule mine, one-quarter mile south 
of Inyo county line. Occurs with siuithsonite, anglesite, linarite and 
galena in dolomite at the Ibe.x mine, si.x miles north of Saratoga Springs. 
Platinum has been identitied in a lead carbonate ore from the Piute 
mine, near Cima. 


Carbonate of bisinutli, BiiiCOj. 

Concentric globular with radiating fibers. Color bright yellow to brown. 
H=3 — 3.5; G=:7.30. 

Refractive indices: £ = 1.04; t^ = 2.13. 

Effervesces in acid. Mixed with ])otassium iodide and sulphur and fused 
on charcoal, it gives a bright red coating on the outer edge of a yellow 

This very rare mineral is formed by the alteration of bismuth 
minerals, and is always secondary. 

San Diego County : Occurs in grayish black masses and as a yellow 
powder from the alteration of native bismuth at Pala, Schaller^*^ 


Chlorocarbonate of lead (PbCl),COa. 

Tetragonal. I'rismatic ci-ystals. Color white to yellow. Adamantine 
luster. H = 2.5 — 3; G = G. 

Kofractivo indices: ^ = 2.140; (,^ = 2.1 14. 

Effervesces with dilute nitric acid. Easily fusible to yellow l)rad. Kr- 
duced with sodium carbonate to metallic lead. Fused with copper oxide, 
it gives blue flame of copper chloride. 

Tliis is a very rare lead compound, and but one locality in the State 
is known for its occurrence. 

Inyo County : A specimen was found of acicular, straw-yellow 
crystals in cjuartz at the Silver Sprout mine, Hanks^^\ 


Double carbonate of sodium and magnesium with sodium chloride, 


Isometric. Octahedral crystals. Colorless to brownish. Vitreous luster. 
11 = 3.5 — 4; G = 2.38. 

llefractive index: « = 1.514. 

Easily fusible, coloring the flame intensely yellow. SolubU' in dilute acid, 
frum whieli magnesia can be prccipitatt^d. 

Northupite is a new mineral, only known to occur in this State. 


San Bernardino Conntj^ : Some small dirty Avhite and dark brown 
octahedrons of the combined carbonates and chloride were discovered 
in 1895 at Searles Borax Lake and named by Foote^^\ An analysis 
was made by Pratt^^^. 

CO" Cl SOa MgO Na.>0 H-O Insol. O for CI 

35.12 14.10 0.08 16.08 36.99 0.72 0.22 =100.31 — 3.16 = 100.15 per cent 

146. TYCHITE. 

Double carbonate of sodium and magnesium with sodium sulphate, 


Isometric. Small octahedral cry.stals. Color white. Vitreous luster. 
H = 3.5 — 4; G = 2.5S. 

Refractive index: /i = 1.508. 

Similar to northupite in its reactions. 

This new mineral was found with northupite, and likewise is only 
known from the one locality. 

San Bernardino County : A few small octahedrons of the combined 
carbonates and sulphate were mixed with the northupite crystals and 
discovered in 1905 and named bv Penfield and Jamieson^^^ 









= 99.95 per cent 





= 99.93 


147. MALACHITE— Green Copper 

Basic carbonate of copper, CuC03.Cu(0H);. 

Alonoclinic. Fibrous, radiating tufts, botryoidal. stalactitic. Color green. 
Streak green. Vitreous luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 4. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.655; ^= 1.875; ,, = 1.009. 
BflFervesces in nitric acid. Ammonia turns solution deep hlu(\ 

Malachite is to he found practically in every locality where there is 
the least trace of copper, as it is the common alteration mineral of 
copper compounds. As an iiulieation of the presence of copper, it 
occurs in green coatings and stains, and in the oxidized portion of 
copper veins it often forms beautiful drusy and velvety crystallizations. 
Azurite is often associated. 

Amador County : Fine reniform masses have come from Volcano. 

Calaveras County : Frequently seen at Campo Seco and Copperopolis, 
but more as stains than as good specimens. Fine specimens came from 
the old Hughes mine. W. P. Blake^^\ 

Del Norte County: Occurs with magnetite and chalcocite at French 
Hill ; with chalcopyrite and bornite at the Diamond mine. Low Divide ; 
at the Morning Star mine. Rockland district, associated with magnetite. 


Humboldt Coiuity : Excellent specimens have come from Horse 
Mountain, also from the Mattole district. 

Inyo County : Good drusy uuilachite occurred in the Cerro Gordo 
district. Found associated witli clirysocoUa ten miles east of Death 
Valley Junction. 

Kern County: Found in the San Emidio Canyon a.ssociated with 

Kings County : Observed at Anshall Creek. 

Lake County: Occurs on the Langtry Ranch, seven miles south of 

La-ssen County: Associated with azurite at Copper King mine, near 

Los Angeles County: Occurs with azurite on Upper San Gabriel 

Mariposa County: Fine drusy coatings and excellent specimens of 
crystallized malachite occur at the White Rock mine. Good specimens 
with azurite at the Peter.son and Cornet mines. 

^lendocino County: AVith native copper in serpentine at Red ^loun- 
tain, ten miles southeast -of Ukiah. In the Anderson Valley as altera- 
tion of chalcopyrite. 

Mono County : Common alteration mineral in the Blind Springs 
district. Good specimens of malachite with cuprite and melaconite 
occur at the Detroit mine. 

Monterey County: Some malachite has been observed in the serpen- 
tine east of Parkfield. 

Napa County : Occurred with some covellite and chalcocite in the 
Jumper group of mines. 

Placer County : Large amounts witli native copper at the Algol mine, 
nine miles northeast of Lincoln. 

Plumas County : Good specimens associated with bornite and chalco- 
cite occur in Ijight's Canyon. Large masses in limestone at the Bluebell 
mine, Genessee district. With azurite as a vein in the Pettinger mine, 
near Taylorville. Excellent specimens with chalcocite at Green Ledge, 
Genessee Valley. As an alteration of chalcocite and bornite at the 
Oregon, Olympia, Polar Star and Engel mines. Occurs in a bante 
gangue with hematite and yellow limonite, in Cook's Canyon. 

Riverside County : Observed in the ^lonte Negro district as an altera- 
tion of chalcopyrite. Occurs with azurite and cuprite in Ironwood, 
Palen and Santa Maria ^Mountains. Green copper carbonate occurs as 
an alteration of copper sulphides at Crestmore. 

San Benito County : Associated with azurite at the Towle Copper 
mine near Elkhorn. 


Sail Bernardino County: One of the minerals found in the Calico 
district; also (piite common in the oxidized copper ores of the eastern 
part of the county. Occurs witli cluilcocite and bornite four miles east 
of Judson. 

San Diego County : Excellent specimens have come from three miles 
south of Julian. 

San Luis Obispo County : Occurs on Santa Lucia Mountains and on 
Chorro Creek. 

Trinity County : Observed on Uobbyn Creek. Sparingly at the Cop- 
])er Queen Lode, Carrville. Occurs as a secondary mineral at Island 

Tuolumne County : Occurs with chalcopyrite at the Green.stone mine. 

148. AZU RITE— Blue Malachite. 
Basic carbonate of copper, 2CuCOo.Cu(OH);. 

Monocliuic. Good crystals, massive, cartliy. Color deep azure-blue. 
Streak light blue. Vitroous to adamantine luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 3.77 
— 3.83. 

Refractive indices: oc =1-730; ^ = 1.754; y:=l.S36. 

Similar to uialacliitc in reactions, but easily distinguished by color. 

The blue azurite is not so common as the green malachite with which 
it is usually found. It occurs generally in aggregates of distinct 
crystals, often lining cavities in liuionitic and malachitic masses. Most 
copper districts may have some azurite formed as an oxidation mineral. 

Butte County : Observed with malachite near Bangor. 

Calaveras County: Fine crystals occurred with malachite at the old 
Hughes mine, W. P. Blake''". Some azurite with malachite has been 
found in the Santa Cruz niiiio near Kobinsnn's Ferry. Also at the 
Telegraph mine, Hog Hill. 

El Dorado County: Good specimens of the two carbonates have been 
found at the Alabastei- Cave mine. Cave City. 

Inyo County: Occui'.s with melaconite, malachite, and chry.socolla in 
the Creenwater district. Black ^Mountains; at the ^Mountain View mine, 
Panamint; at the Half Dollar mine it occurred with pink and white 

Kern County : In the Cinco district it is associated with malachite, 
galena, anglesite and ceritssite. Fine specimens have been found in 
San Emidio Canyon. 

Lassen County : With malachite near Westwood. 

Madera County : Occurs with malachite in the old Buchanan mine. 

Mariposa County : Fine crystals occur in the Hawlington district. 
Observed in the White Rock mine. 


Modoc County: Occurs seveu miles south of Fort Bitlwell with iiiahi- 
I'hite, cuj)rite and uative copper. 

Mono County : Crystals on limonite front tiie Diana mine had the 
forms: (001), (T02), (012), (Oil), (110), (111), Jackson^^). 

Napa County : Some azurite and malachite have been found near 

Placer County : Small amounts observed in copper mines seven miles 
north of Auburn. 

Plumas County : Occurs with malachite near Taylor.sville at the 
Pettinger and Polar Star mines. 

Riverside County: Occurs in the Ironwood and Palen Mountains 
with malachite and cuprite. Blue azurite is associated with malachite 
at Crestmore. 

San Benito County : Small crystals occur at the Towle Copper mine 
near Elkhorn. 

San Bernardino County : Occurs with malachite and copper sul- 
phides in the Signal mining district. Specimens have come from the 
Bumper claims near Needles. 

Siskiyou County : With malachite near Gazelle and in the Bonanza 
mine near Honolulu. 

Sonoma County : Small perfect crj'stals w^ith malachite occur eight 
miles of Cazadero. 

Trinity County: Oecur.s with malachite as a secondary mineral at 
Island ^Mountain. 

Tuolumne County : 01)served at Whiske}' Hill, and in various mines 
of the county in small amounts. 


Basic carbonate of zinc aucl copper, 2(Zn,Cu)C03.3(Zu,Cu I (Oil).. 

Monoclinic. Plumose, tabular, laminated. Color pale green, bluish green. 
Streak like color. Pearly luster. H = 2 ; G=3.54 — 3.64. 

Refractive indict^s: a:=l-C>54j; «=:1.740; y = 1.743. 

Easily solublo witli flforvescciu'c. In a closed tube, bla<'k(>ns and gives 
water. On charcoal, wiien mixed with sodium carbonate, it gives yelhiw 
coating of zinc and globules of c'opiier. 

This is a very rare .secondary mineral, and has only been found in 
Iwo localities in the State. 

Inyo County : Plumose aggregates and long prismatic crystals 
associated with calamine and chrysocolla occurred in specimens from 
the Cerro Gordo mine. Has been mentioned from this locality by 

^lono County : Occurs as pale green fissure fillings in magnetite con- 
taining sphalerite, from near Topaz. 



Basic carbonate of zinc, ZuCOs, Zu(OH)j. 

Massive and cartlu'. (Icncralh as inci-ustaiions. Snow-white color. 
Dull luster. H = 2 — 2.5; G = 3.58 — 3.8. 

Refractive indices: a: =1.040; ^=1.7:'.0: ,, = 1.750. 

Soluble with effervescence in dilute acid. Gives water in closed tube. 
Intensely heated on charcoal with cobalt nitrate, will assume green color of 
zinc and give globules of copper. 

Hydrozincite is formed as a secondary mineral from the alteration 
of sphalerite. It is rare in the State. 

Inyo County : Thick layers of the white carbonate occur at the Cerro 
Gordo mine with si)haltn'ite, willemito and calamine; has been men- 
tioned from this locality by Rogers'-''^ 

Basic carbonate of aluminium and sodium, Na3Al(C03)3.2Al(OH)3. 
Monoclinic. Incrustations. Color white. Vitreous luster. H = 3;G = 2.4. 
Refractive indices : ex = 1 .4<^>n : ^ = 1 .542 : y = 1 ■•">i'<''- 

Effervesces easily.. Swells and fuses, coloring flame deej) yellow and fused 
mass gives an alkaline reaction. With cobalt nitrate gives a line 1)lue color. 
Gives water in closed tube. 

Dawsonite is a very rare mineral, and occurs in arid regions as white 

Inyo County : Reported to occur as a soft incrustation in a dike in 
Amargosa Canj^on, Bailey ^^\ 

Hydrous carbonate of sodium, Na-CO^.HnO. 

Orthorhombic. Usually as efflorescences. Color white, yellowish. Vit- 
reous luster. H = l — 1.5; G = 1.5 — l.G. Taste alkaline. 

Refractive indices: ex =1.120; aj=1.."iO0; ,, = !.. 524. 

Soluble in watei- and liiis alkaline l:iste. Stroncr yellow flume of sodium 
and .gives an alkaline reaction, on heating. 

This is a very rare mineral which forms as efflorescences in arid 

Inyo County : Forms white efflorescent coatings in Death Valley, 
.lecording to Bailey ^^\ 



Hydrous carbonate of calcium and sodium, CaCOs.NaoCOa.SH-O. 

Monoclinic. Flat wodftc-shaptHl crystals. Cleavatre perfect prisnintic. Color 
white. Vitreous luster. 11 = 2 — 3; G = 1.93 — 1.95. 

Ilcfractive indices: ex =: 1-444; ^ = l.r)lG; y = 1.523. 

Easily fusible to a white enamel with strong yellow flame. Gives alkaline 
reaction on turmeric paper. Easily effervesces. Gives water in closed tube. 
Calcium shown by precipitation with ammonium oxalate. 

This double carbonate is frequently formed on the shores of soda 
lakes in flat wedge-shaped crystals. Found only in dry regions. 

Mono Count}' : Found in crystals on the shore of ]Mono Lake. 

San Bernardino County : One of the minerals of the Searles Borax 
Lake, Hanks^^'^^ The forms on the crystals from this lake as determined 
by Pratt d) are: (010), (001), (110), (Oil), (TOl), (112). Bailey<i> 
mentions it as occurring at the Owl Springs niter beds. 

154. NATRON. 
Hydrous carbonate of sodium, NajCOa.lOHjO. 

Monoclinic. Exists only in solution or mixed with trona. Tabular 
crystals obtained by the evaporation of waters from soda lakes. Color white. 
Vitreous luster. H = 1 — 1.5; G = 1.42 — 1.46. Taste alkaline. 

Refractive indices: a: =1.405; ^ = 1.425; y = 1.440. 

Soluble in water and effervesces in acids. Gives intensely yellow flame 
and reacts alkaline. 

The normal carbonate of soda has not been found in native state, but 
it exists in solution in some of the lakes and springs of the State. 
Crystals of the carbonate, mixed with the bicarbonate, are obtained by 
evaporating the water of Owens Lake and other soda lakes of Death 
Valley and San Bernardino County. The solid contents of Owens Lake 
have been analysed by Foster^^^ and Chatard^^\ 

155. TRONA— Urao— Soda. 
Hydrous bicarbonate of sodium, Na2CO3.HNaCO3.2H2O. 

Monoclinic. Slender crystals and fibrous masses. Cleavage perfect ortho- 
pinacoidal. Color white. Vitreous luster. H = 2.5 — 3; G = 2.11 — 2.14. 
Taste alkaline. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.412; ^ = 1.492; y = 1.540. 

L/ike natron in reactions. Much water in a closed tube. 

The bicarbonate is the common form of soda found in lakes and 
springs. In dry protected localities it exists as crystals and finely 
fibrous coatings. 

Mono County: The solid contents of the waters of Owens Lake are 
mainly trona, and the mineral occurs along the shores in white layers. 

10— S2182 


Chatard^^^ analyses of the solid iiiattcr of this lake show it to be over 
90 per cent pure soda. 

San Bernardino County : Soda is (juite eouimon in this county at the 
various sinks and borate lakes. At Searles Borax Lake it is the material 
mined, and large amounts of it have been accumulated. Thick layers 
of solid trona occur with the borax, hanksite, thenardite, glauberite and 
other salts. Crystals are very common. They are elongated right and 
left, and have the forms: (100), (001), (101), (302), (111), (Til), 
(211), Ayers<2). 


Hydrous double carbonate of calcium and sodium, CaCO3.Na2CO3.2HoO. 

Orthorhombic. Hemimorphic crystals. Colorless to white. Vitreous 
luster. H = 3 — 3.5; G = 2.352. 

Refractive indices: cc =1-504; Q=l.r>10; y = 1.575. 

Similar tt) .i;ay lussite in its reactions. Boiled in water the sodium car- 
bonate is leached out and causes the solution to l)efome stron,i;ly alkalim'. 

Pirssonite is a mineral discovered in California in 1896 and only 
known from the one locality. 

San Bernardino County : Good hemimorphic crystals of this salt were 
found with nortliupite and borax at the New Well, Searles Borax Lake, 
and the mineral was described and named by Pratt^^\ Forms: (010), 
(110), (111), (111), (131), (311). 

CO2 CaO NaaO K2O H2O AI0O3 SiOo 

36.07 23.38 25.70 0.15 14.73 0.13 0.29 = 100.45 per cent 

157. HYDROMAGNESITE— Hydrodolomite. 
Hydrous carbonate and hydrate of magnesium, 3MgC03.Mg(OH);.3H20. 

Monoclinic. Generally massive chalky. Color white. Vitreous, silky to 
dull luster. H = 3.5, crystallized ; G = 2.14 — 2.18. 

Refractive indices: a: =1.527; «= 1.530; y = 1..540. 

Easily effervesces in dilute acids and the solution made alkaline with am- 
monia and sodium iihosi)hate addinl. the masiiesia is jirecipitated. 

Soft white veins of a hydrated magnesite have been found in the 
serpentine, but most of these veins are classed as magnesite. 

Alameda County: A specimen of hydromagnesite from Livermore 
was analysed by Gutzkow^^^ 













Massive white hydromagnesite has been found near Pleasanton. 

Inyo County : Said to occur in chalky and mealy crusts in spots along 
the Amargosa River, Bailey^^\ 

Riverside County : Crystals of hydromagnesite occur in the calcite 
at Crestmore as an alteration product of brucite. 


Sau Benito County: llydroinagnrsitt' ot'ciirs witli ma^nesite in pow- 
dery white balls, on Larious Creek, on slope of Sampson Peak, and was 
analysed by W. li. Hicks. Deposit described by Gale*^*. 

SiO.. AI.O; I'V.t):, Ca(» MkO CO, ILO? 

2.r>0 0.13 0.44 0.34 41.(W 'M.^k) 10.2] =n!).ll% 

San Francisco County : Small white veins are found in the serpentine 
of San Francisco. Kadiatinii; rosettes of hydroma^nesite occur on the 
serpentine at Fort Point. The white veins in the serpentine of San 
Francisco are in jiart hydrolomite and in part hydroma^nesite. 

San Luis Obispo County : Small veins found in the rocks near Port 

Hydrous magnesium carbonate, 2MgO.C02.."}IInO. 
Spherulitic iiKTustations. Light gray color. H = 3 — 4; = 2.152. Effer- 
vesces with hydrochloric acid. 

Napa County: Found in Chiles A'alley near Philips Sprinf2:s and 

analysed by Wells'^'. 

MgO co„ H„o 

4,(>.n4 23.ft4 21.42 

45.80 28.00 26.20 

Larsen has shown by a microscopic and optical examination that it 
is a mi.xture of two fibrous minerals and is probably hydi'omag'nesite. 

Hydrous carbonate of nickel, NiC03.2Ni(OH)j.4H„0. 

Incni.stations. Massive. Color emerald-green. Streak green. \'iti'eous 
luster. H = 3; = 2.57 — 2.69. 

Refractive index: « = 1.57 — 1.61. 

Effervesces in hot acid. Gives water in closed tube. Imparts to the 
bora.x bead a brown color whicli. when reduced, becomes gray and cloudy. 

The emerald-green nickel carbonate is always accompanied by chro- 
mite, occurring as an incrustation on massive ehromite. Most of the 
green coatings on the ehromite of the State consist of small uvarovite 
garnet crystals or green chlorite. 

Alameda County : Green coatings of zaratite occur on the ehromite 
at Mendenhall mine on Cedar IMountain. 

Madera County : Found as coating on ehromite near Madera. 

Monterey County: Found on ehromite in this county, W. P. Blake^^^ 

San Benito County: Found on ehromite near Hollister and near 

Shasta Count}' : Observed on the ehromite at Castella. 

Siskiyou County : Green coatings occur on the ehromite near Cal- 



Hydrous carlionatc of bismuth, BiX'Oj.HjO. 

Incrustations and earthy. Color white and dirty green. Streak greenish 
gray. Vitreous to dull luster. H=:4 — 4.5; G = 6.9. 

Kefractivo indices: £ = 2.20; ^ = 2.0. 

Effervesces in acid. Ftised on charcoal with ixjtassium iodide and sul- 
phur, it gives a red coating. A small amount of water is obtained by 
heating in a closed tube. 

The carbonate of bismuth is a secondary mineral formed by the altera- 
tion of ores containing bismuth. 

Fresno County : Occurred at the Second Sierra and Lot One mines, 
Kings River. 

Inyo County : Found at Big Pine Creek, Hanks^^^ ; also at Antelope 
Springs, Deep Spring Valley. Fibrous and crypto-crystalline speci- 
mens have been found near Lone Pine. 

Los Angeles County : White earthy bismutite has been found in this 

Mono County: Found at Oasis, Hanks^^\ 

San Bernardino County: Occurs as an alteration of associated bis- 
muthinite at the United Tungsten Copper mine, Morongo district. 

San Diego County : Occurs as an alteration of bismuth at Pala, 






Pyroxene Group. 












A inphibole Group. 






Not Grouped. 



























The name feldspar is given to a group of alumina silicates with 
potash, soda and lime, whose members have the general properties of 
hardness, cleavage, gravity and twinning similar. They include: two 
potash feldspars, orthoclase and microcline; a potash-soda feldspar, 
anortlioclase: a soda feldspar, albite; a lime feldspar, anorthite; and 
four soda-lime to lime-soda feldspars intermediate between albite and 
anorthite, namely oligoclase, andesine, labradorite and bytoivnite. The 
feldspars are the most abundant and most important of the rock-form- 
ing silicates, and the classification of a volcanic rock is in general based 
upon the prevailing feldspar. The potash feldspars are characteristic 
of the acid volcanics, while the albite-anorthite feldspars belong to the 
basic volcanics, the terms "acid and basic" meaning whether high or 
low in silica percentage. The albite-anorthite feldspars are commonly 


called the "plagioelase feldspars," and in many petrographic descrip- 
tions this name is used, so that the particular kind of feldspar is not 
designated. As rock-forming minerals the feldspars are too universally 
distributed to give many localities. 

161. ORTHOCLASE— Potash Feldspar. 
Silicate of potassium and aluminium. KAlSijOg. 

Mouocliuic. Crystals very common. Often as Carlsbad twins. Perfect 
basal and clinopinacoidal cleavage. Colorless, white, flesh-red. Vitreous 
luster. H = 6 — 6..5; G = 2.57. 

Refractive indices: a:=l.."tlS; ^ = 1.524,: y = 1.5'2CK 

Fused at 5 in the scale of fusibility, therefore can only be rounded on 
edgi^s of splinter. Insoluble in acids. The powder mixed with gypsum, 
taken on the loop of a platinum wire and held in the colorless flame of a 
Bunsen burner, will give the violet flame of potassium, best seen through 
blue glass or the Merwin color screen. 

Orthoclase is an essential constituent of the acid igneous rocks, 
granites, syenites, quartz-porphyries, rhyolites and trachytes, and an 
occasional constituent of other more basic rocks. Large crystals often 
form the phenocrysts of porphyritic rocks, and these crystals are often 
"Carlsbad twins." The color of granites is mainly due to the color of 
the orthoclase, red granites having orthoclase colored by ferric oxide. 
Granites, syenites and diorites are often intersected by "pegmatite 
veins" consisting of coarse crystals and massive orthoclase, with quartz 
and mica, and these veins vary greatly in width, and some can be 
quarried for the feldspar. The principal commercial localities in 
California are in ^loiiterpy. Riverside. San Diego, and Tulare counties. 

Adularia is a glassy, transparent variety, sometimes found in large 

Sanidine is a glassy potash feldspar, common to rhyolites and 

Valcncianite is a variety name given to vein orthoclase. 

162. MICROCLINE— Potash Feldspar. 
Silicate of potassium and aluminium, KAlSijOg. 

Triclinic. Crystals very common. Bases often show rectangular grat- 
ing structure. Cleavage like orthoclase. Color white, green. H = 6 — 6.5; 
G = 2.54 — 2.57. 

Refractive indices: cx=1.522; ^ = 1.526; y = l..j30. 
Same reactions as for orthoclase. 

Microcline has the same composition as orthoclase, but differs from 
it in its twinning structure and crystallization. It is a constituent of 
granites, syenites, and granodiorites and some of the pegmatitic veins. 

Amazo7i stone is a green variety. 



163. ANORTHOCLASE— Potash-Soda Feldspar. 

Silicate of potassium, sodium aud alumiuium. KAiSiaOj with NaAlSijO^ in varying 


Triclinic. Crystals observed in rock sections. Like orthoclase in its 
physical properties. H=:6 — 0.5; = 2.57 — 2.60. 
Kofractivo indices: oc =1.52.3; ^=1..T2n: ^ = 1. .■..!]. 
Sanio reactions as for orthoclase. 

Anorthoclase is a constituent of granites and granodiorites of the 
State, but has seldom been mentioned in the petrographical descriptions. 

164. ALBITE— Soda Feldspar. 
Silicate of sodium and aluminium, NaAlSisO.,. 

Triclinic. Crystals common aud usually as repeated twins. Often mas- 
sive. Cleavage perfect basal and brachypiuacoidal. Colorless and white. 
Vitreous luster often very glassy. H = 6 — 6.5; G = 2.02 — 2.65. 

Refractive indices : oc = 1 "'25 ;^= 1.52!) : y = 1 .536. 

Fused at 4 and imparts a bright yellow color to flame. Unacted on by 

The soda feldspar is a common constituent of acid granites, acid 
rhyolites, granodiorites and diorites and metamorphic gneisses and 
schists. It forms very prominent white veins in the crystalline schists 
of the Coast Ranges and the Sierras. Albite is frequent as pegmatitic 
veins in diorites and basic igneous rocks. 

165 OLIGOCLASE— Soda-lime Feldspar. 

Silicate of sodium, calcium and alumiuium, juXaAlSiaOs with nCaAKSijOs, nearer 

albite in composition. 

Triclinic. Crystals, usually twinned like albite. Cleavage perfect basal 
and brachypiuacoidal. Colorless to white. H = 6 — 6.5; G = 2.65 — 2.67. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.539; Q = 'i.^yii^; y = 1..547. 

Same reactions as albite. The calcium can be dctcrmuu'd in the wet way, 
by precipitation as calcium oxalate. All insoluble silicates need to be fused 
with sodium carbonate to render them soluble. 

A constituent of diorites, porphy rites, andesites, etc., and to some 
extent in granites, syenites and granodiorites. Occasionally found in 
large white masses as veins in diorite and other basic rocks. 

Moonstone is a soda-lime feldspar with milky chatoyancy. Much of 
the so-called moonstone is chalcedony. 


166. ANDESINE— Soda-lime Feldspar. 
Silicate of sodium, calcium and aluminium, intermediate between albite and anorthite. 
Triclinic. Crystals similar to albite. H = 5 — 6; G = 2.68 — 2.60. 
Refractive indices: a:=l."».W; ^=1..153; y = l.^T)7. 
Samo roactlons as for olis;oclase. 

A constituent of diorite, gabbro, porphyrite, audesite and other basic 
rocks. Only observed as a mierosoopieal constituent. 

167. LABRADORITE — Lime-soda Feldspar. 

Silicate of calcium, sodium and aluminium, CaALSijOj with NaAlSijOs, nearer 

anorthite in composition. 

Triclinic. Small twinned crystals in rocks ; sometimes massive with twin- 
ning striations. I'roperties like oligoclase. 11 = 5 — (5; G = 2.70 — 2.72. 

Refractive indices: ex = 3 -"'i) : ^=1.563; y = 1..568. 

Same reactions as for oligoclase. The minei-al is slightly acted on by 
hydrochloric acid. 

An essential constituent of most basic eruptive rocks such as diorites, 
gabbros, diabases, andesites and basalts. Sometimes it occurs as veins 
of large cleavable masses. 

168. BYTOWNITE— Lime-soda Feldspar. 
Silicate of calcium, sodium and aluminium, near anorthite in composition. 

Triclinic. Properties like oligoclase. H = 5 — 6;G = 2.72. 

Refractive indices: oc =l-i'>C(5 : i3 = ]..")72; y — l.r>lCi. 

Sonii'whaf more suhihlc than lahradorite. (ii\es the red flamo of calcium. 

A common constituent of very basic rocks like gabbros, diabases and 
basalts, associated with labradorite and anorthite. 

169. ANORTHITE— Lime Feldspar. 
Silicate of calcium and aluminium, CaALSijOg. 

Triclinic. Generally in small crystals as a rock constituent. Properties 
like oligoclase and labradorite. H = 6 — 6.5; G = 2.74 — 2.76. 
Refractive indices: oc =1.576; «=1.584; y3:1..5SS. 

Soluble slowly and yields gelatinous silica. Gives the red flame of cal- 
cium. Fused at 4. 

Anorthite is the most basic of the feldspars, and is a constituent of 
the very basic rocks, especially gabbros, diabases and basalts. 

A few of the localities where feldspars have been noticed may be 

Alameda Count>- : Good crystals of glassy albite occur at the New- 
man mine. Cedar ^loiuitain, associated with yellow euliedral quartz. 

Calaveras County : Large crystals of orthoclase occur at Mokelumne 
Hill. Albite is a common constituent of the schists of the Mother Lode. 


Crystals of albite from the old Stanislaus mine, Carson Hill, had the 
forms: (010), (001), (Til), (lOl) (1T0\ (130), (_021), Jackson^^). 
Crystals from Angels had tho forms : (010), (110), (ITO), (111), (TTl), 
(001), Geuth(2). 
The mineral from Angels was analysed by Genth. 

SiOo AI2O3 Fe.03 CaO Na^O K,.0 H2O 
68.39 19.0", 0.41 0.47 10.97 tr. 0.21 100.10 per cent 

Valencianite occnrs five miles east of Milton in small prismatic crystals. 
Forms: (160), (lOT), (001) and (010), Rogers^^). 

Contra Costa County : Albite is a common constituent of the chlorite 
and actinolite-schists of the county. Numerous white veins of the 
mineral intersect these schists. Prominent as veins in the actinolite 
schist near San Pablo and analysed by Blasdale^^^ 






at 100° ab 100° 





0.27 0.59 

99.62 per cent 

El Dorado County : Large white crystals of orthoclase occurred at 
the old Cosumues copper mine near Fairplay with bornite, molybdenite, 
epidote and axinite. Massive red orthoclase occurs with tourmaline at 
Buck's Bar, Cosumnes River. Small colorless crystals of adularia have 
been found on the south side of Fallen Leaf Lake with forms (110), 
(101), (001), and (010). They are associated with pale green diopside, 
Rogers'"'*. Albite with siderite and calfite occurs at the Red Hill mine, 
Kelsey district. 

Fi"esno County: Bodies of f('lds|)atlii(' rock, mainly orthoclase, as 
pegmatites, occur live miles northeast of Trimiuei', and beryl and topaz 
are said to be associated. 

Humboldt Count\' : Classy ci-ystals of albite are common as vein.s in 

the schist of Horse Mountain. 

Inyo County : "White argentiferous orthoclase occurred at the White 

Lime mine. Deep Spring district. Glassy adularia was found in good 

crystals at Rialto in the Funeral Mountains. Pink ]ierthite oi-curs six 

mile.s east of Tecopa. 

Kern County : "White orthoclase was reported from the Long Tom 
mine. Albite in schists occurs near Randsburg and Johannesburg. A 
massive flesh-red orthoclase occurs near Rosamond. 

Los Angeles County : White veins of labradorite occur near Lang.^ 
Labradorite is a constituent of the rocks on Mount Gleason. 

Madera County: Massive white orllioclase is found near Hildreth. 

Marin County : Albite veins are common in the schists of the county. 
Crystals from the lawsonite schist at Reed Station have the forms: 
(001), (010), (021), (021), (TOl), (201), (150), (180), (Til), (111), 
(112), (131), (221), (120), (350), (110)'. (110), (130), (112), (221), 
(241), (312), Schaller(io). 


Mariposa County : Orthoclase occurs with black tourmaline and 
molyl)(lenite in the granites of the Yosemite Valley. Labradorite occurs 
in tlie rocks of Yosemite Park. 

Modoc County. Pink orthoclase occurs in a pegmatite near Susan- 
ville. Pebbles of labradorite from this county were found containing 
small opaque inclusions of native copper, making tliom aventuriuc lal)- 

Mono County : Ortlioclase is found in pegmatitic veins in the Blind 
Spring district. 

Monterey County : Large phenocrysts of orthoclase occur in the 
porphyritic rock at Pacific Grove and Cypress Point. The potash 
feldspar is quarried four miles east of Chualar for pottery. Massive 
cream-colored orthoclase from Jem Quarry, four miles east of Chualar, 
occurs on contact between limestone and granite, and was analysed by 
E. W. Rice: 

.SiO:; AL.Oj Fe.,03 CaO MgO K,,0 Loss 

(55.60 2l'.34 0.40 1.00 tr. 11.85 0.48 = 101.23% 

Nevada County : Anorthoclase and microcline are constituents of the 
diorite and granodiorite, and labrodorite, bytownite and anorthite of the 
diorite and gabbro of Nevada City and Grass Valley, Lindgren"^'. Good 
cystals of albite occur at Gra-s Valley. 

Plumas County : Albite is a constituent of the syenite of Spanish 
Creek, Murgoci^^^ Oligoclase was described by LaAvson^^^ as a con- 
stituent of plumasite from Spanish Peak and the mineral was analysed 
by J. Newfield. 

SiO» AI2O3 CaO NaoO HoO 

61.36 22.97 5.38 8.08 1.72 - 99.51 per cent 

Labradorite, andesite, oligoclase and albite occur as constituents of 
the noritic rocks at En gels. 

Riverside County : An outcrop of orthoclase and quartz occurs in the 
granite hills, four miles south of Lakeview. Also on Warren Ranch 
three miles east of Lakeview. ^Massive cpiartz and feldspar occur 3^ 
miles northeast of Murrietta. Orthoclase feldspar occurs near Nuevo. 

San Benito County: Albite occurs in grayish and greenish, minute 
twinned crystals in the rock surrounding the veins of benitoite and 
neptunite near the headwaters of the San Benito River. Forms : (001), 
(010), (110), (110), (120), (130), (130), (101), (iTl), (Ul), (n2), 
(T31), (221), Louderback<2). 

San Bernardino County : Veins of orthoclase occur in the mountains 
in the northeastern part of the county. Massive red orthoclase occurs 
near ^lanvel. Giant crystals of orthot'lase are abundant in granite-por- 
phyry dikes H miles southwest of Twenty-nine Palms, some of them 


Carlsl):id Twins. Orthoelase as a constituent of pegmatite dikes inter- 
sect iii": granite occurs 1^ miles south of Oro Grande. Some occurs 3^ 
miles north of Hinkley Station. Orthoelase and albite occur as pegma- 
tite veins containing col\iiii])itt', cassiterite and l)hie tourmaline, in tiic 
Chihuahua Valley. 

San Diego County : Albite was mentioned as a constituent of some of 
the rocks of the county by Kroustcholf*^^ and analysed by him. 

SiO" TiOo AI2O3 FeoOa CaO MgO KoO Na^O Ign 

65.17 tr. 21.14 0.74 1.20 0.04 1.70 0.20 0.80 =99.89 per cent 

Large veins of acid pegmatite consisting of albite, orthoelase and 
microcline intersect dark gray diorite at Pala, Mesa Grande, Rincon and 
Ramona, as well as northward into Riverside County, and these veins 
carry large crystals of gem tourmaline and associated minerals. Large 
crystals of the feldspars occur in these veins showing Carlsbad, Baveno 
and albite twinning structure. Crystals of albite at the Victor mine, 
Rincon, occur tabular to (010) with forms (010), (001), (110), (ITO), 
(130), (TOl), (201), (Til), (nl), Rogers<2). 

Anorthite is a constituent of the orbicular gabbro at Dehesa and was 
analysed by Schaller, Lawson^^) 

SiO- AI2O3 CaO NaiO 

44.39 36.55 18.55 0.83 rr 100.32 per cent 

A large outcrop of feldspar aiul (|uai-l/ occurs near Marina Dam, 
about five miles north of Campo. Outcrops of orthoelase and q'uartz 
occur five miles west of Alpine. Good massive orthoelase near Mesa 
Grande, Campo and Lakeside. 

Santa Barbara County : Labradorite is a constituent of the teschen- 
ites at Point Sal and Avas analysed by Fairbanks'^\ 

SiO" AUO3 CaO Na..O KnQ ]gn 

52.72 30.46 11.01 3.70 0.42 1.44 = 99.75 per cout 

Santa Clara County: Oligoclase is a constituent of the glaucophane 
rocks of this county, Murgoci^^\ 

Shasta County : Veins of orthoelase occur on Tom Neal Mountain. 
Good crystals of andesine occur in dikes of andesite porphyry in Jones 
Valley, fifteen miles northeast of Redding. Good crystals of orthoelase 
occur in dikes of soda granite-porphyry on Salt Creek along the high- 
way ])etween Baird and Antler. 

Tulare County : AVhite crystals of orthoelase occur at Three Rivers. 
Outcrops occur at Three Rivers and Lemon Cove. Near Exeter it occurs 
as microcline. ^Massive perthite occurs near Exeter, Lindsay and at 
Lemon Cove. 

Tuolumne County : Large crystals of orthoelase are found (ui Sul- 
livan Creek. Graphic granite is common at Soulsbyville. 



Silicate of magnesium, MgSlOa. 

Ortliorhombio. Generally massive, lamellar. Cleavage perfect prismatic. 
Color greenish or brownish gray to brown. Pearly to vitreous luster. 
H = 5.5; G = 3.1 — 3.3. 

Refractive indices: a:=]M~j(J: «;^1.(>j3; y = i. {>'>(>. 

Practically infusible and insoluble. Its constituents can be determined 
only in the wet way as in the treatment of a silicate. 

Enstatite is n roek-fonning niiueral which is characteristic of gab- 
broitic rocks and rocks that have been derived from gabbros, like much 
of the serpentinized rocks of the Coast Range and of the Sierras. It is a 
rather common mineral but has seldom been mentioned. 

Bronzite is a variety in Avhich part of the magnesia is replaced by 
iron. It occurs in bronze-brown reticulated masses. 

Alameda County : Bronzite occurs in some of the rocks of the Berke- 
ley Hills, Hanks(6). 

Contra Costa County : Massive enstatite is found in the Diablo Range 
in this and other counties to the south. 

Del Norte County: Specimens of enstatite have come from this 

Fresno County : Has been observed in rock near Lindsay. 

Kern County : Bronzite Avas one of the constituents of the San 
Emidio meteorite and was analysed by Whitfield^^^ 

SiO" FeO MgO CaO 

54.42 14.03 29.11 9.46 =100.02 per cent 

Mariposa County : Massive In-onzite occurs in the gabbroitic rock of 
the old Mariposa estate. 

Nevada County : Enstatite is a constituent of the gabbros of Nevada 
City, Lindgren^^^ 

Plumas County : Enstatite and bronzite are constituents of the noritic 
rock at Engels. 

San Francisco County : Enstatite or bronzite occurs abundantly in 
the serpentine of San Francisco, Lawson^^^, Palache^^)^ Eakle^^^ 

San Luis Obispo County : Found in the serpentine at San Simeon. 

Sonoma County : Large bladed masses of bronzite associated with 
glaucophane and garnet have come from this county. 

Stanislaus County : En.statite witli actinolite have come from near 

Trinity County: Observed in the rock near Trinity Center. Bronzite 
occurs near Hyampom. 

Tuolumne County : Light green enstatite occurs in the gabbro between 
Jamestown and Montezuma and also near Jacksonville. 

Yuba County : Green enstatite occurs near Rackerby. 


Silicate of iron and magnesium (Fe,Mg)Si03. 

Orthorliombic. Generally massive, foliated. Cleavage perfect brachy- 
pinacoidal. Color brownish green to brown. I'early to vitreous luster. 
H = 5 — 6; = 3.4 — 3.5. 

Refractive indices: ex =1-^39-; f^^^.lO^; ,.= 1.705. 

Infusible and insoluble. Somi- iron can be dissolved by boiling in hydro- 
chloric acid. 

The dark brown liyperslliene is a constituent of basic eruptive rocks, 
especially gabbros and andesites. 

Plumas County: A constituent of the hypersthene andesite at La 
Porte. Turner*^'. TTyixTsthcne is one of the constituents of tlio norite 
rock at Engels. 

San Diego County : One of the minerals in the orbicular gabbro at 
Dehesa, Lawson^*^. 

San Francisco County : A constituent of the dikes cutting the serpen- 
tine of San Francisco, Palache^^^. 

Siskiyou County : Mentioned by J. D. Dana^^^ as a constituent of the 
hypersthene andesite of Mount Shasta. 


Silicate of calcium and magnesium, CaMg(Si03)o with or without mixtures of 

Fe,Al,Na and K. 

Monoclinic. Prismatic crystals, granular. Cleavage perfect prismatic. 
Color generally some shade of green, often nearly white, brown, black. 
Vitreous luster. H = 5 — 6; G =3.2 — 3.6. 

The i\vroxenes are insoluble in hydi'ochloric acid. Diopside fuses to a 
colorless glass. Angite fuses to a shiny black glass. 

The pyroxenes are very important rock-forming minerals, the alumina 
variety augite being an essential constituent of most of the basic erup- 
tives and is occasionally found in syenites and granites. The light 
colored non-aluminous varieties are tnore characteristic of metamorphic 
limestones and schists. 

Malacolitc. Lime-magnesia pyroxene, CaMg(Si03)2. A white py- 
roxene often found in crystalline limestone near contact with eruptives. 

Diopside. Lime-magnesia pyroxene, CaMg( 8103)2 with ferrous iron. 
A light to deep grass-green pyroxene, characteristic of crystalline lime- 
stones, metamorphosed eruptives and some schists. 

Refractive indic«es : oc =1.664; ^ = 1.671; y = 1.094. 

Diallage. Lamellar or fibrous pyroxene near diopside in composition. 
Characteristic of gabbros. 

Omphacite. A granular non-aluminous pyroxene. Characteristic of 
eclogites in association with garnet. 


Aiigitc. Iron-alumina pyroxene. Dark green to black and com- 
monest of all the pyroxenes. An essential constituent of diorites, 
gabbros, diabases, basalts, andesites, pyroxenites and other basic 
eruptives. JNIentioned in all petrographic descriptions of basic igneous 

Hcfraclive indices: oc =1-608; ^=1.704; y = 1.72.3. 

Violan. A variety name for a violet-colored augite. 
Hedenbergite. An iron-rich pyroxene. 

Refractive indiceg : oc =1.732; « = 1.737; ^ = 1.751. 

Contra Costa County : Diopside is common in the schists with albite 
near San Pablo and has been described and analysed by Blasdale^^^ 

SiOz AI..O3 FeoOa FeO MgO CaO 

Fiosh 51.91 3.55 1.30 2.65 16.15 22.85 

Altered 49.62 2.97 2.49 2.99 19.72 19.14 


NaaO at 100° ab. 100° TiOo MnO 

Fresh 0.56 0.21 0.S6 0.10 0.33 =100.47% 

Altered 0.60 __ 2.71 — — =100.24 

El Dorado County: Diallage is a constituent of gabbro on Mount 
Diablo. Fine dark green crystals of diopside occur near JNIud Spring.s. 
Occurs in good crystals at the Cosumnes Copper mine. 

Inyo County: Masses of malacolite have come from the Panamint 
Mountains. A constituent of calc-hornfelses at Deep Canyon near 
Bishop, with diopside. garnet and epidote. 

Lake County: Violan occurs in Big Canyon. 

Los Angeles County : Large light green crystals of diopside are found 
near San Pedro. 

Nevada County: Diallage is a constituent of the gabbro at Nevada 
City and Grass Valley, Lindgren^^). 

Plumas County: Diallage occurs in gabbro near Grizzly Peak, Tur- 

Riverside County : Crj-stals of pale green diopside occur in the lime- 
stone at Crestmore, and were described by Eakle'^"'. Forms observed 
were: (001), (010). (100), (110). (Oil). (021), (111), (221), (112), 
(111), (22_1), (331), (131), (121), (231), (211), (121), (352), (753), 
(836), (14.3.10) and (10.12.7). A deep green pyroxene resembling 
omphacite occurs associated with cinnamon-garnet at the Crestmore 
Quarry. Augite is a constituent of the quartz-monzonite porphyry of 
the quarry. A white pyroxene occurs in the dolomitic limestone of 
Ea^le Mountains. 

San Francisco County : Crystals of diallage occur in the serpentine of 
San Francisco, Erman^^^ Lawson^^)^ Palache^^) 

San Mateo County : Diallage occurs in gabbro near Crystal Springs. 


Sauta Barbara County : Augite as a constituent of teschenite at Point 
Sal was analysed by Fairbanks^''^ 

SiOo AI2O, Fe-Oa FeO CaO MgO KaoOKjO Igii 

4r,..-n n.on ^.^y^ 4.7.". L' i3.S9 1.23 1.22 =99.78% g= 2.33s 

Santa Clara County: Diallage occurs at Los Gatos Creek. Ompha- 
cite is a constituent of eclogite in the Calaveras Valley, Murgoci^^\ 

Shasta County : Iledenbergite occurs associated with ilvaite at Pot- 
ter's Creek, Prescott^^\ 

Tulare County : Specimens of white malacolite have come from this 

Tuolumne County: Diallage occurs in tlie gabbro of Kawhitlc Ranch. 

Silicate of sodium and Iron, essentially NaFeCSlOa);. 

Monoclinic. Prismatic crystals. Color brown or dark green. Vitreous 
luster. H = G — G.5; G = 3.50 — 3.55. 

Acmite: Refractive indices: cc =1-765; « = 1.S05; y=r 1.820. 
Aegyrite : Refractive indices: oc =1-708; i3 = 1.734: y = 1.758. 

. Insoluhlo. hut fuses quietly to a globule which is slightly magnetic and 
gives a yellow sodium flame. 

Acmite and aegyrite are rock-forming minerals more prominent in 
syenites. Their occurrence in California has not been mentioned in 
petrographical literature. 

San Benito County : A specimen of rock containing prisms of acmite 
has come from some locality near HoUister. Aegyrite occurs in stellate 
groups in the albite associated with benitoite and natrolite, at the 
benitoite locality near the headwaters of the San Benito River, Louder- 

Silicate of lithium and aluminium, LiAl(Si03)j. 

Monoclinic. Crystals sometimes very large. Cleavage perfect prismatic. 
Color grayish white, emerald-green, lilac, amethystine. Vitreous luster. 
H = 6.5 — 7; G = 3.13 — 3.20. 

Refractive indices: oc=l-OGO; ^ = 1.6GG; y = l.G70. 

Fuses to a clear glass and gives a red lithium flame, best seen through 
blue glass or through a Mer^vin color screen. Insoluble. 

Spoduraene is found in large crystals and cleavage masses in peg- 
matitie veins where lithia is present. It is commonly associated with 
the lithia mica, lepidolite, and with lithia tourmaline. 

Kunzite is a beautiful transparent variety, lilac or amethystine in 
color. Sometimes called California iris. 

Hiddenite is an emerald green spodumene. 


Riverside Coimty : Some kunzite occurs iu the San Jacinto Moun- 
tains, near Coahuila, Sehaller^^)^ 

San Diego County: The trlinsparent lilac variety discovered in 
1903 and named kunzite by Baskerville^^^ and which is used as a gem, 
occurs in the pegmatite veins of the Pala Chief mine at Pala with the 
gem tourmaline, altliough not very almndant nor in large pieces. Most 
of it is in flat cleavage pieces but fair crystals have been found with 
the forms: (010), (100), (110), (130), (350), (32.0), (121), (T12), 
Schaller*-'. The mineral has been further described by Baskerville and 
Kunz''' and analysed by Schaller*-' and by Davis' ^\ 

SiO.. AI0O3 MnoOs Li:0 NaoO KoO CaO MgO NiO MnO ZnO Ign. 
Schaller 64.42 27.32 0.15 7.20 0.39 0.03 __ — __ __ __ none = 99.61 

Davis __G4.05 27.30 __ 6.88 0.30 0.06 0.80 none 0.06 0.11 0.44 0.15 =100.15 

A few crystals of hiddenite and some masses of white spodumene have 
also been found at Pala, Math tlie kunzite, Schaller^-^ 

Kunzite also occurs sparingly at the Victor mine, Rincon, in tabular 
crystals, some of them twinned as seen by the natural etch-figures. 
Forms: (100), (110), (010), (320), (130), (021), (111), (Til), 


Silicate of calcium, CaSiOj. 

Monoclinic. Generally in fibrous masses. Cleavage perfect ortho- 
pinacoidal. Color white, grav, rose. Vitreous luster. H — 4.5 — 5.0; 
G = 2.8— 2.9. 

Refractive indices: cc =1-616; =^1.629: y = l.f»:n. 

Fuses easily and quietly to a clear glass. Soluble iu hydrochloric acid 
without usually gelatinizing. 

Wollastonite is formed as a contact metamorphic mineral especially 
near the contact of eruptives with limestone. Usually found as com- 
pact fibrous masses either white or pink. 

Alameda County : Some wollastonite has been found in the Berkeley 
Del Norte County : White divergent masses found near Crescent 

City. . 

Lake County : White drusy wollastonite has come from Dry Creek, 
near ]Middletown. Speeimens have come from near Clenbrook. 

Napa County : Massive white occurs in Hunting Creek Canyon, near 

Nevada County: White and pink are found as contact minerals at 
Grass Valley. 

Riverside County : Fibrous, columnar and fine granular wollastonite 
occurs in the crvstalline limestone at Crestmore as one of the contact 


metaniorphie minerals. An analysis of the fine granular by Eakle 

SiO^ FesO.i CaO H«0 

51.77 2.12 44.85 1.02 - 99.76 per cent 

An analysis of the crystals l)y Eakle gave: 

SiO.. CaO MgO Pe.O^ Ign 

5(1.42 4S;.2!> O.i'A) O..!! 0.07 = 9i).S0% 

Forms observed on the cry.stals were: (001), (100), (740), (540), 
(340). (140), (101), (104). (T04), (T08), (102), (TOl), (Oil), (744), 
(844). (144). (744). (344). (T44), (122), (T22). (142), (T42). 

San Diego County : Large masses of divergent eolunniar woUaston- 
ite, ]Mire white, occui" near Boulevard and at Cai'rizo Gorge, near 

Santa Barbara County : Divergent fibrous masses having a pale rose 
color have been found at Santa Ynez. 

Siskiyou County: Fine divergent .si)eeimens occur in limestone on 
Salmon River, three miles above Sonnnes Bar. 

Tehama Count j- : Found at Glenbrook Lake. 

'I'rinity County: Wliite fibrous occur near llyampoin. 

Tulare County : Specimens have come from Ujiper Tule River. 

Tuolumne County: Found on North Mokelumne River near Bear 
Creek and analysed by Hillebrand, Turner^^^ 

SiOi TiOi AI0O3 FeaOa FeO CaO MgO K:;0 NaoO 

50.G7 0.20 6.77 0.31 0.50 40.34 0.58 0.22 0.14 

at 110° ab. 110° CO2 
0.08 0.31 0.52 =100.24% 


Basic silicate of calcium and sodium, HNaCa2(Si03)o. 

Mouocliiiic. Generally fibrous massive. Cleavage perfect orthopinacoidal. 
Color white. Luster silky to vitreous. H=:5; G = 2.68 — 2.78. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.595: « = 1.00(j; y = l.f>34. 

Kasily fusil)le to a clear slass and easily .«olul)le. sometimes yielding 
sclatinous silica. A small amount of water is obtained in a closed tube. 

White fibrous pectolite occurs as veins and patches in altered basic 
dikes and flows, and in serpentinized rocks. 

San Francisco County : Fibrous pectolite occurs as veins in an altered 
dike which intersected the serpentine at Fort Point. Described and 
analysed by Eakle'^'. Forms: (001), (100), (540), (140). 

SiOs AloOjFe-Oa CaO NajO HoO 

53.40 3.87 30.56 7.61 4.46 = 99.90 per cent 

Tehama County : Large mass occurred in serpentine on Elder Creek 
and was analysed by Eitel, Preston*^ 

Si02 AUO3 FeaO. CaO NaaG KoO 

56.84 1.27 33.4t 3 45 3.97 = 99.63 per cent 



Silicate of manganese, MnSiO«. 

Triclinic. Crystals often large. Generally massive or in grains. Cleav- 
age perfect prismatic. Color rose- red. Vitreous luster. H=:5.5' — 6.5; 
= 3.4 — 3.68. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.7-6; i3=1.730; y = l.ToT. 

Gives a violet or wine-colored bead with borax. Insoluble, but fusible to 
a l)lack glas.s. 

Tlie manganese silicate is often present in copper and silver veins 
where oxide of manganese is abundant and it is usually associated with 
pyrolusite or psilomelane. It is generally developed as a contact min- 
eral in veins. 

Alameda County: Some rhodonite occurs at the Corral Hollow 

Butte County : Found on the north fork of the Feather River with 
j'hodochrosite. Occurs with p.silomelane and pyrolusite one mile north 
of forks of Butte. 

Fresno County : Pink rhodonite occurs with hlack o.^ides near Dun- 

Glenn County : Occurs with psilomelane on Elk Creek. 

Humboldt County : . Observed near Orleans. 

]Madera County: Occurs near Coarse Gold with rhodochrosite and 
black oxides of manganese. 

Placer County: Occurs with rhodochrosite near Forest Hill. 

Plumas County: Considerable manganese occurs in the Genessee, 
]MeadoM', and other valleys and canyons of the county, and some good 
red rhodonite has come from them. Occurred Avitli copper at the 
Diadem Lode, Meadow Valley, Hanks^'", Turner'^'. Good gem quality 
occurs near Taylorsville. 

Riverside County : Specimens associated with pyrolusite and psilome- 
lane near Elsinore. 

Siskiyou County : Fine specimens of rhodonite occur at Sawyer's Bar. 
Rhodonite partly altered to the black manganese oxides occurs near 
Gazelle and on south fork of Salmon River. Specimens have come from 
Empire Creek, also Dutch Creek near Goltville. ^lassive and of good 
red color suitable for gem purposes occurs on Indian Creek near Happy 

Tulare County: Some good gem rhodonite occurs about three miles 
north of Lemon Cove. 

Tuolumne County: Found with pyrolusite on Rose Creek, near 
Columbia. Occurs as veins altering to the black oxides two miles north 
of Sonora. 




Silicate of raaguesium and irou, (Mg,Fe)Si03. 

Orthorhombic. Commonly lamellar or fibrous. Cleavage perfect pris- 
matic. Color brownisb sray, brownish e;reon. Vitreous luster. H--:=5.5 — 
6; = 3.1 — 3.2. 

Refractive indico.s: (x=l.(^i3: « = l.(i42: y = l.(>."i7. 

Infusible, but blackens on heating. Insoluble in acids. 

Anthopliyllite is a inetamorphie mineral occurring in schists and 
gneisses. It is usually found in fibrous and bladed masses, and is not 
uncommon, but has seldom been mentioned. 

Contra Costa County: P""i))rous masses of anthopliyllite occur in the 
schists near San Pablo andihe mineral has been analysed by Blasdale^^\ 
The analysis shows the mineral to be somewhat serpentinized. 

SiC AI0O3 FeaOs FeO MgO CaO Na;0 at 100° ab. 100° 

33.66 1.36 0.34 4.80 3.S.70 0.48 0.98 0.24 19.79 

tr. =100.26 per cent 

Riverside County: Occurs associated with tremolite and ai^tinolite 
on Kaoie ^Mountains. 

San Bernardino County: Occurs in the Slate Range, Hanks^^^. 


Silicate of calcium and magnesium, CaMg;(SiO|)4 with or without isomorphous 

mixtures of Fe.Al and Na. 

Monoclinic crystals, columnar, fibrous, granular. Cleavage perfect pris- 
matic. Color white, gray, green, brown, black. Vitreous luster. H = 5 — 6 ; 
G = 2.9 — 3.4. 

Insolubh' in hydrochloric acid. Tremolite fuses quietly at 4 to practi- 
cally a colorless glass. Actinolite fuses to a greenish or brownish glol^ule. 
Ilorublondi^ fuses to a l)lack mass and gives a slight yellowish flame. 

The amphiboles are similar to the pyroxenes, and, like them, are very 
important rock-forming minerals. They occur in metamorphic and 
igneous rocks, and the common varieties are to be found in every 
county. There are numerous varieties and those found in the State 
will be briefly mentioned. 

Tremolite. Lime-magnesia amphibole, CaMg2(SiO.()4. Common as 
a metamorphic mineral in schists and crystalline limestones in white 
or gray long prismatic and fibrous aggregates. 

Refractive indices: a:=1.60!»: /j = l.B23: y = l.t>3,i. 

Asbestos is a soft fibrous form of amphibole having the composition of 
tremolite or actiuolite. ]Much of the asbestos of the State is, however, 
serpentine-asbestos, which is a hydrous form of magnesium silicate. 


Mountain cork and Mountain IcatJier are cork-like and leathery- 
masses of tremolite. 

Actinolite. Lime-magnesia-iron amphibole, Ca(Mg,Fe)3Si40io. Very- 
abundant in the schists of the Coast Kanges and Sierras. Generally 
found in reticulated long prismatic crystals, sometimes fibrous. Color 
is bright grass green to dark green. 

Kefrac'Hve indices: ex =1.'>11 : Q—lA\'2~: y=l.lioti. 

Smaragditc is an emerald-green foliated variety of actinolite. 

Cum)ningtonitc is an iron-magnesia ampliiljole similar to anthophyl- 

Uralite is an amphibole derived by the alteration of pyroxene. The 
process of change from pyroxene to amphibole is called "uralitization. " 

Asheferrite is a variety of tremolite. 

Edcnite is a light green aluminous variety of amphibole. 

Hornblende. A lime-magnesia-iron-alumina amphibole similar to 
augite in its general composition. 

Kefraftive indices: oc =1-629; ^=1.(J42: y = 1.0.j:i. 

Hornblende is the commonest of tlie amphiboles and is found in large 
cleavage ma'-ses to fibrous. Common color is black to very dark green, 
sometimes brown. Hornblende is characteristic of the acid and inter- 
mediate eruptive rocks while augite is characteristic of the basic. Horn- 
blende forms large areas of schists or amphibolites and is also a con- 
stituent of granite, syenite, diorite, rhyolite and trachyte. Less common 
in gabbro. diabase and basalt. 

Soretite is an amphibole showing some optical differences from 

Pargasite is an amphibole between hornblende and glaucophane in 
composition, but is generallj' classed as hornblende. 

Carinihine is an amphibole between hornblende and glaucophane in 

Amador County: Sheets of mountain leather with mountain cork 
have been found at the Little Grass Valley mine. Pine Grove. Some 
a-sbestos occurs near Oleta. 

Butte County : Hornblende is the most abundant constituent of a 
quartz-amphibole diorite on ridge between this and Plumas counties 
and has been analysed by Valentine, Turner^'*)'^^). 

SiOi' TiO« AI0O3 Cr^Oa Fe^Os FeO MnO CaO MgO Na^O 

oO.OS 0.7G 7.97 0.16 2.G9 (5.71 0.49 11.31 10.31 1.22 

K2O HoO P^Or, 

0.46 1.40 ir. 99.40 per cent 

Tremolite asbestos occurs in limestone on Berry Creek. Reported 
from near Blinzig. 


Calaveras County: ^Massive hlai-k hornl)lendo in large crystals occur 
in the country rock of the Shenandoah mine, ten miles northeast of 
San Andreas. .Vctinolite is common near Val^'y Springs. 

Contra Costa County: Tremolite and actinolite are common in the 

schists north of Berkeley and near San Pablo, and have been analysed 

by Blasdale(i\ 


SiOs Al;;03 Fe^Os FeO MrO CaO Ka.O K^O at 100° ab. 100 » 
Tremolite 56.68 1.79 1.70 2.23 19.35 15.80 __ __ 0.10 2.25 =99.90% 

_ 7.49 18.97 10..10 2.45 __ __ 1.75 =99.86 
_ 5.97 19.45 12.13 1.94 0.30 -_ 2.58 =99.98 

, . ,. r55.21 3.45 
Actinolite-j ^ ^ n- 

Del Norte County : Tremolite is found near Diamond ('reek. 

El Dorado County : Large cleavage masses of black hornblende occur 
with orthoclase, bornite, molybdenite, epidote and axinite at the old 
Cosumnes Copper mine near Fairplay. Bladed crystals of green actino- 
lite occur in the schists near Latrobe. Short white fibers as asbestos 
occur neai' Georgetown. 

F'resno County: Large crystals of hornblende in massive hornblende 
rock occur at the Cinnamon Bear mine near l*ine Flat. Asbestos is 
reported to occur thirty miles east of Sanger. 

ILnnboldt County: Massive homl)lende occurs west of Three Creeks 
near Horse Mountain. Actinolite schist with chlorite occurs at Brice- 

Inyo County : JNIasses of mountain cork are found in the Swansea 
district and in Craig's Canyon on the east slope of the Inyo Mountains. 

Kern County: ^Mountain leather occurs near Keefte. Actinolite and 
tremolite occur in schists near Kandsburg. Large columnar, l)rittle 
tremolite occurs at Toll Gate Canyon. IMountain cork occur.s at the Tom 
Reed mine. 

Los Angeles County : Crystalline masses of tremolite occur in calcite 
in Cpper San Gabriel mining district. 

Madera County : Asbestos occurr; at the Savannah mine, Gnib Gulch, 
and at the Baker mine near Coarse Gold. Actinolite schists carrying 
pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite occur at the Heiskell mine. 

Marin County : Actinolite is common in the lawsonite schist of Reed 
Station. IMassive blaclx: hornblende occurs near Reed Station in close 
proximity to the lawsonite. 

Mariposa County : Hornblende is a constituent of : 1, the gabbro 
of Beaver Creek, near Big Trees ; and, 2, of a ciuartz-monzonite on 
Tioga road, southeast of Mount Hoffman, Turner^'*)^'^^ The first has 
been analysed by Valentine and the second by Hillebrand. 





A^sOs Fe203 



NiO CaO 






0.04 4.88 



0.02 11.92 






at 100° ab. 100° 
0.17 1.97 



= 99.99% 







= 100.05 — 0^2 = 

1 100.03 


Some asbestos occurs east of the Mariposa Grant. Large crystals of 
lioniblende as rock masses occur near El Portal. 

Mendocino County : Aetinolite occurs at Calpella. Large masses of 
good aetinolite prisms occur near Potter Valley. 

Mono County : Long prisms of hornblende occur in the cavities of 

lava near Bridgeport, with forms : (001), (010), (100), (110), (201), 

(021), (T31), Sclialler(«). 
^lonterey County: Aetinolite is found in schists near Soledad. 

Napa County : Tremolite occurs in Chiles Valley. 

Nevada County : Hornlileude occurs in large crystals in the granodio- 
rite of Nevada City and Grass Valley, Lindgren^^^ Uralite is common 
in the diorite of this locality. Large cleavage pi-isms of hornblende in 
schist occur in the Bireliville district. 

Placer County : Large masses of asbestos are found at Wisconsin Hill 
and Arizona Flat. Long white fibers of asbestos occur one-quarter 
mile east of Iowa Hill. Ijong silky fibers of light green to white asbes- 
tos are found south of Towle. 

Plumas County : Edenite is a constituent of the plumasite of Spanish 
Peak, Lawson'-^'. Aetinolite and hornblende occur at Engels as rock 
constituents. Good-fibered asbestos occurs at the Fireproof Asbestos 
mine near Sloat. Green asbestos is found near Spring Garden. 

Riverside County: Aetinolite, tremolite and anthopyllite occur in 
llie schist of Eagle Mountains. A good deposit of asbestos is reported 
fifteen miles southeast of Palm Springs. Black hornl)lende is a con- 
stituent of the graiio-diorite at Crestmore. Some tremolite has also been 

San Benito County : Aetinolite occurs in the veins and wall-rock in 
capillary bunches at the benitoite locality, Louderback^^^. Good speci- 
mens at Tres Pinos. 

San Bernardino County : Cummingtonite has been found near Dag- 
gett, with calcite. Asbeferrite occurs at Halleck. Coarse fibered tremo- 
lite occurs in the Oro Grande district. 

San Diego County : Large crystals of black hornblende forming rock 
masses occur four miles of Fallbrook. Also large crystals near 
Mexican line. 

San Francisco County : Aetinolite occurs in the schists on Angel 

Santa Clara County: Aetinolite, sraaragdite, soretite, pargasite and 
earanthine occur in the eclogites of Oak Ridge and Calaveras Valley, 
j\rargoci^i\ J. P. Smith*^'. Specimens twelve miles east of Gilroy. 
Fibrous tremolite is found near Morgan Hill. 

Shasta County : Long fibrous white tremolite or asbestos occurs in the 
Stock Asbestos mine near Sims. 



Sierra County : Lonp: fibers of asbestos occur on Goodyear Bar Creek. 

Siskiyou County : Tremolite asbestos occurs in the Blue Ledge mining 

Sonoma County : Large crystals of actinolite occur in foliated talc, 
near PetaUuua. Mentioned by W. P. Blake<^\ Smaragdite occurs in 
the glaucopliane-gneiss near Santa Rosa, JMurgoci^^'. Actinolite is com- 
mon with glaucophane at Camp Meeker. Coarse actinolite prisms occur 
on Ilasey Ranch, west of Cloverdale. 

Trinity County : Mas-sive hornblende occurs near Wild wood and Otto 
Rest. Large crystals are found near Trinity Center and Douglas City. 

Tulare County: Asbestos occurs near Globe and near Porterville. 
Tremolite and horn])lende occur at the White Chief mine. 

Tuolumne County: White librous tremolite occurs in the marble 
near Columbia; asbestos near Chinese Camp and Monte/uma; mountain 
cork at Sawmill Flat and on Table Mountain. 

Yuba County : Small amounts of tremolite asbestos occur near Chal- 

180, GLAUCOPHANE— Blue Hornblende. 

Silicate of sodium, aluminium, iron and magnesium, essentially NaAl (8103)2 


Monoclinic. Generally fibrous massive. Cleavage perfect prismatic. 
Color deep blue to bluish black. Streak grayish blue. Strongly pleochroic. 
Vitreous luster. H = 6 — 6.5; G = 3.1. 

llefractivo indices : «: = 1 .021 ; ^ = 1 .038 ; y = 1 .088. 
Fuses quietly and yields a strong yellow flame of sodium. Insolublf in 

Glaucophane is a constituent of schists and gneisses which have been 
formed by metamorphism of igneous rocks containing a high percentage 
of sodium. Extensive areas of glaucophane rocks exist in California 
along the Coast Range and they have been described by Becker^^^, 
Ransome(2), Lawson^), Palache^^), J. P. Smith(i>, Murgoci(i>, Hanks^^), 
and others. 

Crossite. This name was given by Palache^^^ to a mineral which 
differed from glaucophane in its optical orientation and with a com- 
position between it and riebeckite. 

Refractive indices: oc=l-0-">7: «=: 1.650; y;=1.6(i3. 

Contra Costa County : The glaucophane from the schists near San 
Pablo was analysed by Blasdale^^^ 

SiOo AI2O3 FeoOs FeO MgO CaO Na^O K«0 HoO TiO" MnO 
54.52 9.25 4.44 9.81 10.33 1.98 7.56 0.16 1.78 0.39 0.46 =100.68% 

52.39 11.29 3.74 9.13 11.37 3.03 6.14 tr. 2.57 0.14 tr. = 99.80 


Crossite was found in a boulder on the hillside north of Berkeley and 
was described by Palaehe^^^ as a new amphibole, with analysis by 
W. S. T. Smith. ' 

SiOs Al .Os FeaOs FeO MnO MgO CaO NaoO K2O H-O 

55.02 4.75 10.91 0.46 tr. 9.30 2.38 7.02 0.27 iindet. =99.70% 

Fresno County : Common in the Coast Range from Coalinga to Liv- 
er more Pass. 

Humboldt County : Occurs above Orleans on Klamath River and on 
east side of Jaeoby Creek above Bayside. 

Lake County: Classes have been found in the mountains near Upper 

Marin County : Common in the schists near Reed Station. 

Mendocino County: Common near Calpella. With hornblende, bio- 
tite and quartz at Long Vale. 

Monterey County: In the schist near Pleyto. 

Napa County. In schi-st near Calistoga. 

San Benito County : A glaucophane resembling crossite occurs in the 
natrolite vein carrying the benitoite near the headwaters of the San 
Benito River, and was analysed by Blasdale, Louderback^^) 


SiOo AI2O3 FeO MnO MgO CaO NaoO K.>0 at 100° ab. 100° 
52.94 3.76 13.40 1.44 11.54 5.45 5.11 0.43 1.31 3.72 =99.10% 

San Francisco Coiuity : In the schist of Angel Island. 

Santa Clara County : Murgoci^^^ mentions glaucophane as a con- 
stituent of eclogite, quartzite, mica schist and greenstone in the Cala- 
veras Valley. 

Sonoma "County: Associated with actinolite, garnet, epidote and 
quartz in schist near Healdsburg. Also at Camp ]Meeker and near 

Stanislaus County: In schist east of Red Mountain. 

Trinitv County: Occurs near Havfork. 

Silicate of sodium and iron, essentially NaFe(Si03);.FeSi03. 

Monocliuic. Usually fibrous. Cleavage perfect prismatic. Color deep 
blue or green. Vitreous luster. 11 = 4; G = 3.2 — 3.3. Pleochroio. 
Refractive index: ^=1.70. 

Fuses with slight intumescence to a black magnetic mass and colors riie 
flame yellow. Insoluble in acid. 

A rock-forming mineral similar to the amphiboles and glaucophanes 
but not so common. 

Cataphorifc is a soda-iron crocidolite between berkevikite and arfved- 
sonite in optical characters. 


Lake County : Fibrous veins of blue erocidolite are said to occur in 
schist near Lakeport. 

Monterey County: Occurs in schist near I'leyto. 

Plumas County : Crocidolite and cataphorite occur in the syenite of 
Spanish Pe/ik, Murgoci^^^. 

Santa Clara County : Cataphorite is a constituent of diorite at Oak 
Ridge, Calaveras Valley, jMurgoci^^\ Crocidolite occurs as bluish 
fibrous seams in metaniorphic rock east of Mount Hamilton, and an 
analysis of it by A. K. Schcllinger is given by Rogers' '^^ 

SiQ.. AloO:i Fe.O;, FoO MgO CaO Na-O (by diff. ) HoO 

00.65 0.90 ]0.21 21.70 0.70 0.39 4.93 1.43 


182. BERYL. 
Silicate of berjilium and alumiuivim, Be^ALSioOis. 

Hexapoual. Prismatic crystals, sometimes very large. Color green, blue, 
rose, yellow, ^'itreous luster. H = 7.5 — 8 ; G = 2.63 — 2.80. 

Ilcfnutivc indices: £=: 1.564; (y = 1.5fiS. 

Whitens and is vei-y difficult to fusi^. yifldiuii ;ni cniuni'l. Insolulil" in 

Beryl is found as crystals varying greatly in size in acid pegmatite 
veins, general]\'. Most of the l)eryl known lo occur in the State is 
limited to the series of feldspathic pegmatite veins of Riverside and San 
Diego counties, in which the beautiful gem tourmalines occur. Trans- 
l^arent a(iuaniarine, golden, deep green and blue crystals, forming 
beautiful gems when cut, occur in thesic pegmatites. 

El Dorado County: Rich green emerald beryl has been found near 
Georgetown. The cry.stals are most too small to cut as gems. 

Fresno Coiintx- : Beryl is said to be associated with the feldspar tive 
miles northeast of Trimmer. 

Riverside County : Fine yellow and green beryls occur at Coahuila 
and rose crystals near Hemet. 

San Bernai'dino County: Blue and green ))ei\vl is found in northern 
]jart of county. 

San Diego County: Yellow, green and blue crystals occur in the 
Palomar Mountains, nine miles southeast of Pala : Some rose, yellow 
and green occur at Pala and Mesa Grande. Green crystals from Rincon 
have the forms : (lOTO), (0001), (lOTl), (1120), (1121), (2130), (1122), 
(13J.14.1) and rose crystals the forms : (lOTO), (ll2Tj, (lOTl), (0001), 
(2131), Eakle(6). Mentioned by Kunz''>, Schaller^*), and Rogers<2). 

Pink beryl occurs at Katrina mine. Pala. Golden beryl one mile 
northwest of Jacumba. Gem beryl at Crystal Gem mine, eight miles 
northwest of Jacumba. Fine, large crystals from Aguanga ^Mountain, 


Golden and aquamarine at the Esmeralda mine. Fine crystals at the 
Surprise, ABC, Hercules and Lookout mines, Ramona. 

Tuolumne County : W. P. Blake^^^ reported beryl from near James- 


183. NEPHELITE— Eleolite. 

Silicate of aluniinium, sodium aud potassium, K.NauAl^SiaO,,. 

Hexagonal. Generally massive, compact as a rock constituent. Color 
greenish gray to brown. H = 5.o — 6; G = 2.55 — 2.(15. Luster greasy. 
Refractive indices: £ = 1.538: (^=1.542. 

Fuses quietly to a colorless glass and colors the fiame yellow on account 
of the large amount of .sodium present. Gelatinizes with hydrochloric acid. 

Nepheline rocks are apparently very rare in California since they 
have never been reported in petrographical literature. 

Tulare County : Found as a constituent of a boulder of fine-^'ained 
gray syenite along the Stratlimore-Lindsay Canal. 


Silicate of sodium aud aluminum with chlorine, 3 XaAlSiOi. XaCl. 

Isometric. Usually massive. Brittle. Color blue to gray. H = 5.5 — 6; 
G = 2.14— 2.30. 

Refractive index: « = 1.483. 

Becomes white on heating and fuses with intumescence to a colorless Soluble in hydrochloric acid, yielding gelatinous silica. Dissolved 
in nitric acid, and adding silver nitrate, silver chloride is precipitated. 

Los Angeles County : The optical properties of the so-called lazurite 
from San Antonio Creek indicate that it is sodalite and not lazurite. 

185. NOSEAN— Noselite. 

Silicate of sodium and aluminium with sodium sulphate, NaiCNaSOi.Al) Al2(Si04)3. 

Isometric. Granular. Color gray, blue, brown. H = 5.5;G = 2.25 — 2.4. 

Refractive index: h = 1.495. 

Easily fusible and is easily soluble, yielding gelatinous silica. Barium 
chloride added to a hydrochloric acid solution will precipitate barium sul- 
phate. Fuses with intense yellow flame. 

A rare rock-forming mineral characteristic of nepheline rocks which 
have not been reported in the State. 

San Bernardino County : There is a specimen of nosean rock from 
Calico exhibited in the museum of the State Mining Bureau. 


186. LAZURITE— Lapis-Lazuli. 
Silicate of sodium aud aluminium with sodium sulphide, Nai(NaS3.Al) Al2(SiOj3. 

Isometric. Massive. Color deep azure-blue or violet-blue. Vitreous 
luster. 11 = 5 — 5.5; G = 2.38 — 2.45. 

Refractive index: )i=:1.50. 

(ielatinous and reacts similar to uoselite. A faint odor of hydrogen siil- 
pliidc may be detected when tre;iti>d with hydi-ochloric acid. 

The blue oriiameiital mineral lapis-lazuli is rare, and is only definitely 
known to occur in one locality. A blue lazulite and a blue dumortierite 
have been erroneously reported as lazurite. 

Los Angeles County: Small boiildei's of limestone containing lapis- 
lazuli with pyrite occur in the bed of San Antonio Creek, near Uplands. 
The boulders come from an old prospect which was thought to be a 
silver deposit. Tt oei-urs on the north sloi)e of south fork of Cascade 
Canyon, H miles east of the "Hogback" in San Antonio Canyon, twelve 
miles from I'plaiid. The occurrence has been described as lapis-lazuli 
by Surr"'. 

IVIadera County : Specimens are said to have been found in the 
Minaret Mountains. 

San Bernardino County: A small boulder of gray limestone con- 
taining lapis-lazuli, pyrite, diopside and an unknown mineral was 
reported as coming from this county by Rogers'^\ It is possibly a 
stray boulder from the Los Angeles deposit. 

187. GARNET. 
Silicate of Ca,Mg,Al,Fe,Cr,Mn, etc., forming several varieties. 

Isometric. Rhombic (hidccahedrons and trapezohedrons very common. 
Also comi)act to granular massive. Color generally some shade of red ; often 
yellow, brown, ^rei'ii, lilack. and while. Vitreous luster. 11=^.5 — 7.5: 
(G- 3. 15 — 4.3. 

Most garnets ai"e fusible at about M to a brownish glass, but are insoluble. 
The iron garnets, almandite aud andradite, become magnetie when fused an<l 
are slightly soluble, yielding a small amount of gelatinous silica. I'varovite 
is infusible, but yields a chromium bead with borax. Spessartile yields a 
manganese bead with borax. The bases of most ganiets <'an best be deter- 
mined by wet methods, that is : i)recipitation of each from solution by 

Garnet is one of the very common minerals of the State and probably 
all of the known varieties occur. It is generally a product of meta- 
morphism and is common in metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist, 
quartzite and crystalline limestone. As a contact mineral formed by 
the intrusion of igneous rock into limestone and other rock it is often 
found in fine large crystals. 'Common constituent of beach sands and 
of the concentrates of mining districts. There are several varieties 
based on composition. 


Grossularite, essonite, hyacinth, cinna^non stone. Lime-alumina gar- 
net, CaALSigOi... Common as a contact mineral in crystalline lime- 
stone. Generally a light shade of red or green, sometimes almost 
white, and when clear forms a valued gem. 
Refractive index: /* = 1.735 — 1.708. 
Pyropc. Magnesia-alumina garnet, MgoALSi^Oio. Occurs usually 
in serpentine and peridotite. Deep blood-red color. 
Refractive index: « = 1.705 — 1.742. 
Almandite. Iron-alumina garnet, Fe.-jAloSigOio- Common garnet of 
gneisses and schists. Brownish red and sometimes of gem value. 
Refractive index: « = 1.778 — 1.83(h 
Andradite. Lime-iron garnet, CasFcoSiyOi^. Common garnet of 
gneisses and schists. Rarely clear enough for gems. 

Refractive index: /( = 1.805— 1.89.5. 

Topmolite. Lime-iron garnet, CasFe^Si-jOj,. Occurs usually in 
crystalline limestone and schist. Yellow garnet. 

Spessartite. Manganese-alumina garnet, Mn^ALSiaOi.;. Occurs usu- 
ally in pegmatite veins. Light rose shade. 

Refractive index: « = 1.800—1 .811. 

Uvarovite. Chrome garnet, Ca3Cr2Si30i2. Generally found as crys- 
tals coating massive chromite. Color emerald-green. 
Refractive index : ?! = 1.838. 

Trautwinite, which was described as a new mineral by Goldsmith^^^, 
appears to be a mixture of uvarovite and chromite. 

Alpine County : The old Rogers copper claim in Hope Valley was 
located in garnet rock. W. P. Blake^^^ reported fine green grossularite 
from this valley. 

Butte County : Red and brown garnet was common in the sands of 
the gold washings at Cherokee, Silliman^''). 

Calaveras County: Found at Bald Point on Mokelumne River; in 
the <>Tavels of San Andreas. Good crystals of andradite in schist at the 
Shenandoah mine. 

Del Norte County : Common in the sands at Crescent City, Gilbert 
Creek, Smith River. 

El Dorado County: Large crystals of grossularite have been found at 
the old Cosumnes copper mine. Good crystals nine miles southeast of 
Placerville. Massive at Pilot Hill, W. P. Blake^^^ Common near 
Georgetown. At the Lilyoma mine. Pilot Hill, crystals occur associated 
with chalcopyrite, galena, calcite and quartz. Grossularite occurs with 
calcite. specular hematite, pyrite and chalcopyrite at the Rodgers mine, 
in eastern part of county. 


Fresno County: Occurs at Grub Gulch and Fort ]\filler. The lime- 
stone near Trimmer contains much garnet. Brown garnet is associated 
with ureen tourmaline on Spanish Peak in a ledge of white fjuartz. 
Near Dunlop in cry.stals. Found near Spanish Mountain. In ealcite at 
San Ramon a white'opaque garnet occurs with the green californite, on 
south side of Watt Valley. Associated with galena and chalcopyrite at 
the Fresno Chief mine. 

Huiiihokit County: Common in llie sands at Gold lUutf and Orleans. 
In chlorite schist at Big Lagoon. 

Inyo County : Crystals and massive garnet are found in the Coso and 
Inyo mountains. Fine large crystals of grossularite occurred associ- 
ated witli white massive datolite and greenish brown vesuvianite at the 
San Carlos mine and the mineral was analysed by J. L. Sraith^i\ 

SiOs AloO.-! Fe.Os MnOo CaO MgO 

42.01 1T.7(; 5.0G 0.20 S.l.Ol 0.13 =100.17% = 3.59 

Andradite oecui's witli epidote and si-heelite in Deep Canyon eight 
miles west of Bishop. This deposit was described by Knopf ^•". Com- 
mon ill limestone at contact with aplite at tlie (jreen Monster mine. 
As a contact metamorphie mineral in limestone in ^Nla.jourka Canyon. 

Kern County: Massive near Hot Springs between Havilah and Kern- 
ville and on sinnmit between Walker's Basin and Ilavilah. Sand gar- 
net is abundant at Soapstone Mountain. 

Lassen County : Common at the Diamond mine. 

Los Angeles County : In sands at Mount Meadows. 

iMadora County. Common in the liildreth district and at Mt. Ray- 
mond. Garnet rock carrying galena occurs at the De Sota mine, North 
P^ork mining district. 

Marin County: Andradite crystals are common in the schist of the 
Tiburon Peninsular. 

Mariposa County : Massive brown almandite occurs on Mount Hoff- 
man. Good crystals are found at the junction of Moore Creek and 
Mokelumne River. 

Mendocino County : Common in the sands at Fort Bragg. The green 
uvarovite coats chromite about twelve miles north of Willets. 

Monterey County : Common in the sands of the Los Burros district. 
Uvarovite has been found coating chromite in the county. Trautwinite, 
which was described as a new mineral by Goldsmith^^^, from this county, 
appears from the analysis to be a mixture of uvarovite and chromite. 

SiOa CroOs FeoO.., AI0O3 CaO MgO Ign. 

21.78 38.39 13.29 0.81 18.58 7.88 0.11 =100.84% G = 3.505 

Pyrope garnet occurs in granitic rock on Xaciemento River. 
Nevada County : In the concentrates of the Rough and Ready district. 
With wollastonite at Grass Valley, Lindgren'"'. Fine green crystals 


coat the chromite at tlie Red Ledge mine, two miles southwest of Wash- 
ington, associated with i-hodochrome and kiimmererite. 

Orange County : A constituent of the schists near Anaheim. Pale 
apple-green pebbles of grossularite were found near El Toro and 
analysed by Steiger, Clarke "^^^ 

SiO: T10> AloO.i FesOs FeO CaO M&O Alk P-.O^ Ign. 

37.54 tr. 22.84 0.79 0.2G 36.6G 0.44 0.13 tr. 1.74 =100.407o G = 3.485 

Placer County : Essouite is found at Deer Park, and on the American 
River near Towle. Uvarovite has l)een found on chromite near Auburn. 
Andraditc with epidote antliopliyllite. augite and chalcopyrite occurs 
in the magnetite deposit at Hotaling. Fine uvarovite crystals have 
been found on chromite, seven miles southeast of Newcastle at P^'armer. 
Swanton mine, with rhodochrome and kammererite. 

Plumas County : In sands at Nelson Point and at the Good Hope 
mine. Oily green grossularite occurs at the Good Hope mine. Found 
with epidote and the copper sulphides at the Duncan mine, Genessee 
district, at contact of limestone and granodiorite. Occurs near Portola 
in ((uartz rock. 

Riverside County : One of the minerals in the concentrates at Hol- 
comb. Occurs massive at the Santa Ana tin district. Hyacinth or 
essonite is found at Hemet. Abundance of grossularite and some 
andradite garnet occurs in the crystalline limestone at Crestmore, 
associated with vesuvianite, diopside and wilkeite. An analysis of the 
grossularite by J. Buford Wright gave : 

SiO-2 AI..O3 FeoOs FeO CuO CaO MgO NaoO H-O 

35.52 21.11 3.95 0.60 0.70 3r>.0(! 0.78 0.20 1.23 = 100.15% G = 3.39 

Essonite or liyacinth garnet occurs with tourmaline in fine cry.stals at 
Coahuila. Near INIecca in considerable ((uantity. 

San Benito County : Fine green crystals were found coating chromite 
and rhodochrome at New Idria, Brush^^\ 

San Bernardino County : Found with epidote and calcite in the iron 
oras at Dale. Red garnet and green epidote in the Cajon Pass. 

San Diego County : Fine crystals of transparent essonite garnet are 
found in the tourmaline districts of Mesa Grande, Pala and Rincon and 
these have been extensively cut into gems under the name ''hyacinth." 
Essonite also occurs about ten miles east of Jacumbe Hot Springs with 
vesuvianite and quartz. Garnet is found in the Julian district and at 
Ballina. Spessartite was reported from Mesa Grande but it may have 
been essonite. Fine granular red at Rincon. Rogers*-^ Essonite or hya- 
cinth in good cry.stals from the Plercules, Surprise. Lookout and 
Prophet mines at Ramona. Occurs also near San Vincente. IMassive 
garnet used for .sandpaper occurs at the ]\IcFall mine, 7^ miles south- 
east of Ramona. Some e.-sonite is found near Bannei". Witli vesuvian- 



ite and calcite at Boulevard. Almandite in mica schist on San ]\Iar- 
garita Ranch. ]\Iassive from the Dos Cabezas district. 

Santa Barbara County : Common in the sands at Point Sal. 

Santa Clara County : A constituent of the eclogites of Calaveras 
Valley. ]\Iurgoci(^\ Analysed from the omphacite-eclogite of Coyote 
Creek by W. 0. Clarke, J. P. Smith^). 

SiO. Al-O;, FeO MgO CaO 

38.69 19.10 26.81 5.07 10.64 =100.38% 

Shasta County : Uvarovite has been found on chromite on Shotgun 
Creek. Red garnet on Round IMountain. Bands of garnet mixed with 
pyroxene occur on ^IcCloud River on contact between diabase and 
carboniferous limestone. Yellow garnet occurs with epidote near 

Siskiyou County: In sands at Cecilville and on Klamath River. Uvar- 
ovite coats chromite near Callahan at the iMartin ]\IcKean mine. 

Sonoma County : Large masses of garnet occur near Petaluma, W. P. 
Blake''". Almandite garnets occur abundantly in a chlorite schist on 
the Cox ranch, three miles west of Healdsburg. (Jrossularite is said to 
occur near Petaluma. Garnets in schist near Gualala. With glauco- 
phane and aetinolite in schists at Camp Meeker and near Healdsburg. 
Almandite garnets occur in chlorite schist wast of Healdsburg. 

Trinity County : Emerald green crystals of uvarovite occur on 
chromite near Carrville. Andradite occurs at Peanut. Found in lime- 
stone with epidote at Red Mountain. Colorless grossularite occurs 
associated with epidote, titanite and zircon in a soda granite-porphyry 
in the Iron Mountain district. 

Tulare County: "White massive grossularite was found in the north- 
west corner of the county, which was analysed by Steiger, Kunz('^>. 










at 100° ab. 100° 








0.31 O.SO 
= 100.02% 


Essonite in good crj^stals occurs at Three Rivers. Topazolite was 
found at the Old Soldier mine. Drum Valley, twelve miles northeast of 
Visalia. Aplome, a manganese andradite. was found near Visalia. 
Occurs with tremolite on North Tule River. With (juartz and epidote 
on Kaweah River, twenty-five miles northwest of Exeter. 

Tuolumne County : With epidote at Mutton ledge ; in schist on Jarvis 
Ranch and at Soulsbyville. Occurs with quartz east of Columbia. 

Ventura County: Abundant in sands in Piru district. Garnets with 
the f orm.s : (110) and (211) occur in the Piru Mountains. 


Silicate of calcium and magnesium, CaMgSiOi. 

Orthorhombic. Usually massive or in grains. Color yellowish gray or 
light brown. H = 5 — 5.5 ; G = 3.03 — 3.25. 

Uefrac-tivf indices: ex =:1.(;."1 : Q--^.m'2■. y = l.»;(>S. 

Almost infusible, but soluble with gelatinizatiou. Magnesium can be pre- 
cipitated from a solution after all silica and calcium have been removed. 

A rare mineral formed by contact metamorphism in a magnesian 


Riverside County : One of the many minerals occurring in the crystal- 
line limestone at Crestmore. It was found massive and in isolated 
grains in the blue calcite, associated with xanthophyllitc. Analysed by 

SiO.. FeO CaO MgO 

37.26 3.35 34.20 24.74 = 99.61% 

189. OLIVINE— Chrysolite— Peridot. 
Silicate of magnesia and iron (Mg,Fe);Si04. 

Orthorhombic. Generally in grains. Color olive-green, grayish green. 
Vitreous luster. H=:6.5 — 7; G = 3.27 — 3.37. 

Uefractive indices: a:=l.<>62: «=rl.t>SO; y = I.r,l»!». 

Usually infusible, but wliitcns when heated and may become magnetic if 
nuicb iron is present. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, yicldin-j: gelatinous 

Olivine is a rock-forming mineral which is practically limited to very 
basic eruptive rocks like diabase, basalt, andesite. gabbro and peridotite. 
Occurs occasionally in clear green crystals large enough to cut into gems. 

Butte County: A constituent of diabase at Mooreville Ridge, Tur- 
ner^i\ Also in the concentrates at Oroville and Cherokee. 

Del Norte County : In the sands at Crescent City, Gilbert Creek and 
Smith River. 

Humboldt Count}' : In the beach sands at Gold Bluff and also in the 
sands at Orleans Bar and Trinidad. 

Los Angeles County : Small amount is found in the sand at Ocean 

Mendocino County : Occurs in the sand at Fort Bragg. 

Modoc County: Olivine is a constituent of the basalt near Cedarville. 
Nevada County : In the gabbro-serpentine series at Grass Valley, 


Plumas County : A constituent of plumasite at Spanish Peak, Law- 

Riverside County : In basalts of Eagle ^lountain.s. 

San Bernardino Cotmty : Large bombs of granular olivine occur in 
the basaltic rocks of the Moronga district. Olivine bombs are common 
in the lavas alone the State Highwav near Ambov. 


San Diego Couuty : A constituent of the gabbro at Dehesa, Lawson^^^ 

San Francisco County : In the serpentine of San Francisco, Law- 
son(2>, Palache(2). 

San Mateo County : In the beach sands of the county. 

Santa Cruz Count}' : Small amount of the crystals in the sands at 

Siskiyou County : At the forks of the Salmon in sand. 

Trinity County : Common constituent of the basic rocks west of 
Trinity River, Weaverville Quadrangle. 

Yuba Count}' : Quite a prominent constituent of the concentrated 
sands at Marysville. 


Silicate of mauganest', MunSiOi. 

Orthorhombic. Usually massive. Brittle. Color grayish-red to smoky- 
gray. Luster vitreous to greasy. H — 5.5 — 6; G = 4.1. 

Refractive indices: oc =1 •">».; ^ = 1.78G: ,, = 1.797. 
Fuses to a black mass. Soluble in hydrochloric acid with gclatinization. 
Gives manganese and usually iron reactions. 

This is one of tlu' rai'cr manganese minerals and only has been 
reported previously in this country from tlic zinc district of New Jer- 
sey, wliere it is I'ather abundant, f'sually of contact iiictamorphic 

Santa Clara County : Grajish red tephroite in small residual masses 
occurred in the manganese boulder found near Alum Rock Park, five 
miles east of San Jose, Rogers''^ 

Silicate of iron, magnesium, calcium and sodium. 

Orthorhombic. Lamellar crystals. Cleavage perfect macropinacoidal. 
Color chestnut-brown to yellowish green. Bronze luster. H = 2.5; G = 2.84. 

Refractive indices: oc=l-70: ^3 = 1. 72; y=:1.74. 
Gelatinizes with acid and becomes magnetic when heated. 

Iddingsite is the name given by Lawson^^^ to a new rock-forming 
mineral similar to olivine, found in basic eruptive rocks. Since its 
discovery the mineral has been observed in many other localities in 
the rock sections. 

Los x\ngeles County : Occurs in basalt in the Santa ^lonica [Moun- 

Monterey County : The mineral was first observed in reddish sections 
in the earmeloite (augite-andesite) at Carraelo Bay. 




Silicate of zinc, ZooSiOi. 

Hexagoual, rhombohedral. Crystals usually prismatic. Also massive am', 
sranular. (Mca\age basal. Color li.uht ^jrocTi. appli'-sioon. Ilcsli v.h]. \\t- 
reous luster. 11 = 5.5; G = 3.89 — 4.18. 

Refractive indices: £=1.723; (^ = 1.G94. 

Fuses to a white enamel. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, yioldins gelatinous 
silica. On charcoal a coating, yellowish white, hot, and white when cold, is 
obtained, which turns yellowish-green when heated with cobalt nitrate. 

Vory little zinc has been found in the State except in the form of the 
sulphide and carbonate. Willemite is sometimes found with the more 
common calamine as a dehydrated product. 

Tnyo County : Found with calamine and hydrozincite at the Ygnacio 
and Cerro Gordo mines. 

193. WERNERITE— Scapolite. 

Tetragonal. Usually massive granular. Color white, gray or pink. 
H = 5 — 6; G = 2.66 — 2.73. 

Refractive indices: g = 1..54.^: (,j = 1.5(;7. 

Fuses easily with slight intumescence to a white blebby Slightly 
atlacki'd liy hydi'ochlorie aci(.\ but the fused Ix'ads are soluble with gela- 
linizalion. .V yellow sodium flame is usually obtained. 

Scapolite is the name given to a group of rock- forming silicates con- 
sisting of isomorphous mixtures of Ca4AlQSi|jOo-, with Na4Al.,SiyOo4Cl. 
Wernerite is the most common member of the group. The scapolites 
are in general formed by contact metamorphism. 

Nevada County : Scapolite occurs in a contact schist at Nevada City 
and Grass Valley, Lindgren^^^. 

Riverside County : Scapolite occurs in association with greeji pyrox- 
ene, quartz, feldspar, wollastonite and gros-sularite garnet, at Crestmore. 
Occurs in .small dikes with augite on P^agle Mountains. 


Silicate of calcium and ahiuiinum, OaaALSi^Cj. 

'rctragonal. (ji-j'stals and massive granular. Color graj' to l)n>\\n. ^'it- 
reous luster. 11 = 5.5—6; = 2.9—3.07. 
Refractive indices: £=1.GG1; <,j= 1.660. 
Practically infusible. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, fonning a thick jelly. 

A lime silicate formed by contact metamorphism of limestone. It 
is not known to occur in many localities. 

Riverside County: Occurs in granular masses intimately associated 
with merwinite and spurrite and with diopside and wollastonite at the 
Crestmore limestone quarry. Its occurrence has been mentioned by 


Silicate of calcium and magnesium, Ca3Mg(Si04):. 

MouocliuicV Compact granular masses. Colorless to pale greenish, 
(ireasy luster. II = G; G =3.150. Polj synthetic twinning. 
Refractive indices: oc =1.708; ^=1.711: ^ = 1.718. 

A new mineral nainetl and desrribed by Larsen and Fosliag'^*. A 
contact metaniorphic mineral formed in limestone. 

Riverside County: Occurs a.s granular masses associated with gchlcn- 
ite, spurrite, wolla.stonite and an unknown mineral in the limestone 
quarries at Crestmore. Analysis of the mineral by Foshag gave : 









at 110° 










= 100.020'^ 

The mineral alters to thanmasite. 

196. VESUVIANITE— Idocrase. 
Basic silicate of calcium and aluminium, HiCai2(Al,Fe)oSiio043. 

Tetragonal. Square prisms, granular, massive. Color brown to green. 
Vitreous luster. H = — 6.5; G = 3.35 — 3.45. 

Refractive indices: £=1.721; (^—1.71i'>. 

Fuses easily to a greenish or brownish glass. Insoluijle, but the fused 
t)cads are soluble with gelatinization when powdei-ed. The various bases can 
only lie determinefl by ijrecipitation from solution. 

Vesuvianite is a characteri.stic mineral formed in limestone near the 
contact with intrusive rocks. It is often associated with grossularite 

Californitc. A very compact massive green vesuvianite, resembling 
jade, named by Kunz^'*^ Occurs as streaks and nodules in serpentine. 

Butte County : Good green californite occurs on the west side of the 
North Fork of Feather River, near Big Bar. It occurs as streaks and 
nodules in serpentine. Rogers^^^ mentions some water-worn pebbles 
from the Feather River. 

El Dorado County : Brown crystals o*f vesuvianite occurred at the 
Siegel Lode, W. P. Blake<^'>. 

Fresno County: Californite occurs on east side of Watts Valley, 
about thirty-two miles east of Fresno. Californite is reported from 
Burro Valley. 

Inyo County : Brownish green crystals were associated with garnet 
and massive white datolite at the San Carlos mine. Analysed by J. L. 

AI2O2 FesOs MnO CaO MeO K,0 Isn. 

= 99.23% 


















One of the minerals of contact nietamorphic origin in the garnet- 
scheelite depasit at Deep Canj^on ; occurs with es.sonite in the min- 
ing district. 

Kern County : Small yellow crystals occur in white crystalline lime- 
stone in Jawbone Canyon. 

Modoc County: Reported from the Willow Ranch with calcite. 

Riverside County : Green and brown vesuvianite masses and crystals 
are common in the crystalline limestone at Crestmore, and were de- 
scribed by Eakle<^°'. Forms observed on the crystals were: (001), 
(010), (110). (Oil), (111), (221), (331), (121). '(m), (132), (154), 
and (285). 

Analysed by J. liuford Wright: G=3.36. 

SiOo AUO3 FeoOs FeO MnO CuO CaO MgO Na^O H^O 

36.88 17.61 3.11 0.46 1.50 1.06 33.27 4.73 0.34 0.61-99.57% 

San Diego County: Brown vesuvianite occurs with essonite garnet 
about ten niile-s east of Jacumba Hot Springs, Kunz''\ Occurs near 
Boulevard associated with garnet. 

Siskiyou County : The apple-green variety, calif ornite, outcrops for 
about 200 feet along the south fork of Indian Creek, twelve miles from 
Happy Camp, and the mineral was analysed by Steiger, Kunz^^\ 










at 100° ab. 100" 
0.29 4.18 


This is the original locality of the variety. Found also near Hawkins- 
ville and in small crystals on east shore of Miller Lake. 

Tulare County : Californite is found in the chrysoprase locality east 
of Porterville. This variety occurs also with white grossularite garnet 
in the northwest corner of the county, about thirty-five miles east of 
Selma. Analysed by Steiger, Kunz^^^ 

SiOs AI2O3 FesOs FeO CaO MgO at 100° ab. 100° CO- 

36.55 18.89 0.74 0.74 35.97 2.33 0.58 3.42 O.Oi 

0.13 =100.26% 

197. ZIRCON. 
Silicate of zirconium, ZrSiO^. 
Tetragonal. Small prisms. Colorless, pink, gi' bi'own. Vitreous 
lu.ster. 11 = 7.5; = 4.68 — 4.7. 

Kefractive indices: £=1.9G8; ,^ = 1.923. 

Infusible and insoluble. Tlie zirconium reaction is obtained by dipping a 
striii of turmiMMC pnpor in a liydroohlorio add .solution, whicli turns it an 

Zircon is an almost constant accessory mineral in the acid eruptive 
I'ocks, especially granites and syenites. The concentrates from the gold 


washings and the black sands generally carry some zircon crystals, but 
there is no locality in the State known for "zircon sands." 

Alameda County : Mentioned as one of the constituents of the soda- 
rliyolite of North Berkeley, Palache^^^ 

Butte County : First mentioned in the State by Silliman<'^> as a con- 
stituent of the gold-washings at Cherokee. Has been observed in the 
sands at Oroville. Stirling City, Little Rock Creek and Hriisli Creek. 

Calaveras County : In the sands at Douglas Flat and Wallace. 

Del Norte County : At Crescent City, Gilbert Creek and Smith River. 
■El Dorado County: Sands of the Brownsville district, near Placer- 
ville and at Grizzly Flat. 

Fresno County : In the sands at Picayune Flat. 

Humboldt County: The beach sands at Gold Bluff and Upper Gold 
Bluff contain a little zircon. Also found at Orleans and Trinidad. 

]\Iarin County: In quartzite near Reed Station, Murgoci^^\ 

Mendocino County: Observed at Fort Bragg, in Anderson Valley, 
and on the Navarro River. 

Nevada County: A constituent of the granodiorite of Nevada City, 
Lindgren^^^ Also in the concentrates at Nevada City, Grass Valley 
and Rough and Ready. 

Placer County : Observed at Butcher Ranch and Gold Run. 

Plumas County: In the Diadem Lode, Meadow Valley, Turner^^. 
In the sands at Spanish Ranch and Rock Island Hill. A constituent 
of the norites at Engels. 

Riverside County : Small amounts in the sands at Holcombe. Minute 
clove-brown crystals .showing the forms: (100). (110), (111), (331), 
are scattered through some of the white pegmatite dikes at Crestmore. 
A con.stituent of the igneous rocks of Eagle Mountain. 

Sacramento County : Common in the sands at Michigan Bar. 

San Diego County : A constituent of the dumortierite schist at De- 
hesa, Schaller(^>. 

San Luis Obispo County : The beach sands at Port Harford and 
Pismo contain some zircon. 

San Mateo County : The beach sands of the county show a little of 
the mineral. 

Santa Barbara County : In the sands at Point Sal. 

Santa Cruz County : At Aptos. 

Shasta County : In the sands from French Gulch and Redding. 

Siskiyou County : In the sands of Jackson Creek, Scott River, Salmon 
River and at Sawyer's Bar. Colorless and pale pink crystals from near 
Fort Jones have the forms: (100), (110), (101), (111), (311), (511), 

Trinity County: At Trinity Center, Burnt Ranch, Junction City, 
Minersville and in the sands of the streams. 

Yuba County : In the sands of Camptonville. 


198. TOPAZ. 

Silicate of aluminium and fluorine, AKCFj) AlSi04. 

Orthorhombic. Prismatic crystals. Cleavage perfect basal. Colorless, 
aquamarine, j'ellow, blue. Vitreous luster. H = 8; G = 3.4 — 3.65. 

Refractive indices : cc = l.«10 ; j^- 1.620 : y = 1 .627. 

Infusible and insoluble. Tlie powdered mineral ground with a few beads 

" of i)hosi)horous salt and heated in a bulb tube, will yield hydrofluoric acid 

which etches the glass and foiTus a white ring or coatikg of silicon fluoride. 

The powdered mineral moistened with cobalt nitrate and intensely heated, 

becomes sky-blue. 

Topaz occurs in veins in metamorphic and eruptive rock where fluorine 
has accompanied the formation of the vein. It is usually associated with 
tourmaline and other minerals whose formation has heen due to the 
action of gases on the constituents of the rock. 

Butte County : Mentioned by Silliman^'^^ as a constituent of the sands 
at Cherokee. Probably mistaken for zircon. 

Fresno County: At the feldspar deposit, tive miles of 
Trinuner it is said to occur, associated with beryl. 

San Diego County: Fine large crystals of colorless and aquamarine 
topaz occurred at the Little Three and Sunrise mines, a few miles from 
Kamona. Some of them resemble the topaz from the Urals. Fine 
ciystals, light green in color, occur in the Aguanga jMountains. Good 
l*)lui.sli topaz resembling the Ural topaz has been found at the Moun- 
tain Lilv mine, near Oak Grove. 

199. ANDALUSITE— Made— Chiastolite. 
Silicate of aluminium, ALSiO^. 
Orthorhombic. Prisms. Color gray, pink, rose-red. Vitreous luster. 
H = 7.5; G = 3.16 — 3.20. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.632: yj^ 1.638; y = 1.643. 
Infusible and insoluble. The powdered mineral moistened with cobalt 
nitrate mid heated, yields the alumina bine color. 

Occurs as a constituent of gneisses and schists, and is usually associ- 
ated with cyanite, sillimanite and staurolite. 

Chiastolite is a variety found in carbonaceous schists, in knott}' and 
long prismatic individuals having black inclusions of carbon arranged 
axially, and thus forming black crosses seen in the transverse sections. 

Fresno County : Chiastolite occurs near Chowchilla Crossing on the 
old Fort Miller Koad. 

Kern County: Chiastolite schists occur on Walker's Creek southeast 
of Bakersfield. 

Mariposa County : Chiastolite schists are abundant along the Chow- 
chilla River and were first reported by W. P. Blake*^^\ This variety 
was mentioned by Turner*^!^ from the Ne Plus Ultra mine, near Barehda, 
from the Daulton ranch near Indian Gulch and from Yaqui Gulch near 


Mariposa. Small crj'.stals occur in slate on ]\Iuller Ranch, near Hor- 
nitos. The chiastolite variety is found on IMoore's Flat. 

Mono County : Occurs as a large coarsely graiuilar mass in the south- 
ern part of tlu' county on the northern part of White ]\Iountains. Deep 
l)lue lazulite and specular hematite are associated, Knopf'"''. 

Nevada County: Andalusite is a constituent of quartzite at Grass 
Valley, Lindgren^^^ 

Riverside County: Large crystals of pink andalusite are found near 
Coahuila, Kunz^^). Schaller(4>. 

200. SILLIMANITE— Fibrolite. 
Silicate of aluminium, Al.SiOj. 

Orthorhombic. Long slender prisms and fibers. Cleavage p;erfect brachy- 
pinacoidal. Color grayish and light brown. Vitreous luster. H = 6 — 7; 
G = 3.23. 

KofractivL- indices: oc =1-638; Q = l.&i2\ y = 1.653. 

Reactions are identical to those for andalusite and tlic iwo minerals ar;- 
generally differentiated by dissimilar structure. 

A constituent of metamorphie gneiss and schist, and usually with 
cyanite, andalusite and staurolite. 

Inyo County : Random fibers of sillimanite in schist are found at the 
scheelite deposit in Deep Canyon, west of Bishop. IMassive, near Laws. 

Mariposa County: Occurs in the schists near Mariposa, Turner^'*^ 

San Bernardino County : Occurs in schist fifteen miles southeast of 
Daggett, at Ord Mountain. 

San Diego County: A constituent of the dninortierite gneiss at 
Dehesa, Schaller<5>. 

201. CYANITE— Disthene. 
Silicate of aluminium, AljSiOj. 
Triclinic. Long slender or blade-like crystals. Cleavage perfect macro- 
pinacoidal. Color sky-blue, green, white. Vitreous to pearly luster. 
H=:5 — 7; G = 3.56 — 3.67. 

Refractive indices: oc =1-712; ^3 = 1.720; y = ].728. 

Infusible and insoluble. Like andalusite in its behavior before the blow- 
pipe. Can be distinguished from andalusite and sillimanite by phy.sical 

A common metamorphie mineral found in schists and gneisses with 
andalusite, sillimanite and dumortierite. 

Imperial County : Large blue boulders of dumortierite rock found in 
the Cargo Muchacho district near Ogilby contain small crystals of 

Los Angeles County : Found in the schists near Los Angeles. 

Tuolumne County : A constituent of the schists on Yankee Kill. 



Carbonato-silicate of calcium. 2 CajSiOj.CaCO,. 

Monocliiiic. (irauular masses. One good cleavage. Pale gray to slightly 
bluish. H=:o. 

Refractive indices: a:=l.<>4t>; ^=J.G72; y = 1.676. 

Infusible. Gives calciuin flame. Soluble with some effervescence and 
separation of silica. 

A minoral formed by coutac-t metaiuorphism in limestone, but very 

Riverside County : Occurs intimately associated with merwinite and 
gehlenite in the limestone at Crestmore, Foshag*-'. 


Basic silicate of boron and calcium, HCaBSiOj. 

Mouoclinic. Small crystals and massive. Colorless to white, often with 
greenish tinge. Vitreous luster. H = 5 — 5.5; G = 2.9 — 3.0. 

Refractive indices;: oc=l.'>2">; ^ = 1.053: ^ = 1.669. 

Fuses easily to a clear i^lass and colors tlame groen. Easily soluhlo in 
hydrochloric acid r.ud .solution boiled down to almost dryness .A-ields gela- 
tinous silica. Gives a little water in closed tube. 

Datolite forms veins of glassy crystals or white massive material in 
dikes and along the contact of igneous intrusions of diabase and diorite. 

Inyo County : White massive datolite was associated with vesuvianite 
and garnet at the San Carlos mine and was analysed by J. L. Smith^^\ 

SiO; BoOa CaO HjO 

38.02 21.62 33.87 5.61 =99.12% G= 2.988 

Riverside County : Ma>isive white glassy datolite, with slight green- 
ish tinge, occurs with the pegmatite at Crestmore. 

San Francisco Count}' : Glassy crystals and white veins of datolite 
occur in an old altered diabase dike in the serpentine at Fort Point. 
Analysed by Schaller. Forms: (001), (100), (110), (120), (Oil), 
(012), (102), (104), (T02), (111), Til), (T12), (T13), (114), (116), 
(312), (121), (231), (1.1.18), Eakle(i>. 

SiOo AI0O3 BsOs CaO H2O 

36.71 0.17 22.11 33.83 6.52 =99.34% 

204. ZOISITE. 

Basic silicate of calcium and aluminium, HCajAlsSiaOia. 

Orthorhombic. Prismatic crystals ; sometimes massive. Cleavage perfect 
brachypinacoidal. Color grayish white to greenish gray. Vitreous luster. 
H = 6 — 6.5; G = 3.25 — 3.37. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.700; ^3=1.702; y = 1.706. 

Insoluble, but fuses rather easily with some intumescence to a light-col- 
ored slaggy mass, which, if pulverized and boiled in hydrochloric acid, will 
yield gelatinous silica. A small amount of moisturp can be obtained in a 
ciosed tube by intense heating. 


Zoisite belongs to the metamorphic class of minerals and is often 
developed by the niotamorphisin of gabbros and diorites. It is not an 
uncommon mineral in the State, but has seldom been mentioned. 

Sfiitssuriti is a mixture of zoisite, caleite and plagioclasc feldspar 
formed in gabbros and plutonie rocks by alteration and pressure, and 
the process of change is called "saussuritization." 

Clinozoisite. Name given to a rock-forming silicate near zoisite in 
composition but monoclinic in crystallization. 

Refractive indices: oc. = 1.714; ^i=1.7ir»; y=: 1.719. 

Lake ('(lunty: Zoisite is mentioned by Becker'^' as common in the 
metamorphic rocks at Suli)lmr Hank and in the Coast Range. Ana- 
lysed from Sulphur Bank. 

SiOz TiO" Al-Os Fe.O:, FeO NiO MnO CaO MgO NasO 

39.80 tr. 22.72 4.85 1.49 __ 0.26 17..55 3.89 4.09 

39.19 1.17 22.70 6.49 1.78 tr. U.09 22.02 1.64 3.38 

K2O H2O P2O3 

0.12 5.25 — =100.02% 

0.58 1.12 tr. =100.22 

Plumas County : Found iji the Diadem Lode, Meadow Valley, Tur- 

Riverside County: Saussurite is eonnnon in the igneous rocks of 
Eagle Mountains. 

Santa Clara County: Mentioned by Murgoci<^^> in the eclogite of 
Oak Ridge. Clinozoisite also occurs as a constituent of the eclogites 
of the Calaveras Valley. 

Shasta County : Saussurite was analysed by Clarke^^) from a gabbro 
found thirty-seven miles north of Pit River Ferry. 

SlOo AI0O3 FeO CaO MgO NaoO HoO 

42.79 29.43 3.65 18.13 1.40 2..51 2.42 =100.33% 

Sonoma County: Found in quartzite at Pine Flat, Murgoci^^). 
Occurs also near llealdsburg. 

205. EPIDOTE. 
Basic silicate of calcium, aluminium and iron. HCa2(Al,Fe)3Si30,3. 

Monoclinic. Crystals, massive, earthy. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 
pistachio-green, dark green, dark brown, yellow. Vitreous luster. H = 6 
— 7; G = 3.25 — 3.5. 

Refractive indices: o:=l.''21>; R=l.lo4r, ,, = 1.768. 
Similar to zoisito in its reactioDs. but fuses to a black slag. 

Epidote is a very common mineral in the State, especially as an 
alteration mineral -in crystalline rocks. It is often found in aggregates 
of large crystals and columnar masses in veins with quartz and feldspar. 

Alpine County ; Occurs in the hills near Loop. 


Butte County : Mentioned by Silliman^'') as a constituent of the gold 
washings at Cherokee. 

Calaveras County : Large crystals found at Bald Point on the Moke- 
lumne River, at Mokelumne Hill, and at Copperopolis. Found with 
quartz, seven miles north of Angels. 

Colusa County : Green epidote is associated with hematite in a 
deposit four miles south of Lodoga. Yellow oeher outcrops on Stony 
Creek, 4.^ miles west of Stonvford. 

Contra Costa County: In the rocks on Mount Diablo and in the 
Diablo Range. 

El Dorado County : Fine large crystals occurred in a coarse vein 
with orthoclase, bornite and molybdenite which were coated with axinite, 
at the old Cosumnes copper mine. ]\Iinute prisms in quartz at Placer- 

Fresno County: Common at Grub Gulch. As contact mineral with 
(luartz and garnet near Trimmer; found near Sanger. 

Humboldt Country : Large prisms with calcite in schists on west side 
of Horse Mountain. Conmion as a rock-forming mineral near Orleans. 

Inyo County : Columnar specimens have come from near Inde- 

Kern County : Associated with scheelite at the Cadillac claims, Green- 
horn mining district. 

Lassen County : Occurs with native copper at the Lummis mine. 

Los Angeles County: Found with bitumen and orthoclase at White 
Point and with labradorite near San Pedro. Disseminated through 
crystalline limestone in Pacoima Canyon, 3| miles from San Fernando. 

Madera County : Common on the Minaret IMountains. Associated 
with (juartz, hematite and magnetite in the Hildreth mining district. 
Specimens have come from Coarse Gold. 

Marin County: Occurs with lawsonite at Reed Station, Ransome^^^. 

Mariposa County: Massive at Hornitos. Also near Coulter^iille and 
at Yosemite Cliff. On the south side of Mount Hoffman. 

Mono County: Massive at Epidote Peak at head of East Fork of 
Green Creek. Occurs in rock near Mono Lake. 

Nevada County : Common near Glen Alpine with violet axinite. At 
Meadow Lake. Lindgren '*"■'", nnd also at Grass Valley. With quartz 
and calcite at the Oustamoh mine. 

Placer County: Near Newcastle. ' 

Plumas County : With garnet and quartz on Mount Herbert. Occurs 
with garnet at contact of limestone and granodiorite at the Cosmopoli- 
tan and Duncan mines, Genessee district. Occurs at' Engels with born- 
ite and chalcop3^rite. 

Riverside County : Deep green epidote occurs in the calcite and long 
prismatic crystals, altered brown, occur in the pegmatite at Crestmore. 


Associated with specular hematite in the Monte Negro mining district. 
Occurs ten miles from Beaumont. In gneiss on Eagle Mountains. 

San Bernardino County: Common in the Monte Negro " district, 
Storms^^\ Coarsely crystalline with calcite at contact of granodiorite 
and limestone in the Morongo district. Occurs with specular hematite 
seventeen miles northwest of Needles. Associated with garnet, mag- 
netite and hematite in the iron ore deposit near Dale. 

San Diego County : Occurs as a secondary mineral with black tour- 
maline at Rincon. Rogers^^^ Clear, transparent crystals of gem qual- 
ity occur at the ^IcFall mine, 7^ miles southeast of Ramona. Occurs 
near Campo. 

San Luis Obispo County : Occurs with quartz, pyrite and calcite near 
La Panza. 

Santa Clara County: In the eclogite of Calaveras Valley, Murgoci^^^ 

Shasta County : Epidotc from this county was analysed by Schaller. 

SiO« ALOs Fe-Os FeO MnO MgrO CaO NaoO K2O 

38.22 25.12 8.75 1.25 0.19 tr. 22.77 0.11 0.06 

at 105° ab. 105° TiOs 
0.52 :?.04 0.33=100.36% 

Siskiyou County: Associated with dark brown garnet and quartz 
on South Fork of Coffee Creek. Occurs in a schist near Seiad. 

Sonoma County : In glaucophane schist near Healdsburg. 

Trinity County : Green epidote associated with colorless garnet, titan- 
ite and zircon, occurs in a soda granite-porphyry in the Iron Mountain 
district, Weaverville Quadrangle. With calcite at Douglas City. As a 
contact mineral in limestone with garnet at Red ^lountain. 

Tulare County: Common in the Mineral King district, Goodyear^^). 
Large divergent columns at Eber Flat and at Three Rivers. Also com- 
mon in Eraser Valley. Occurs with quartz and garnet on Crowley 
Mountain near Dunn Valley. Specimens have come from near Lindsay, 
Large masses of divergent prismatic crj'stals occur at Eber Flat. 

Tuolumne County: Near Sonora. 

Yuba County : At Smartsville. 

206. ALLAN ITE—Orthite. 
Basic silicate of calcium, iron, aluminium and cerium. 

Monoclinic. Flat tabular crystals and imbedded grains. Color brownish 
black. Pitchy luster. H=i5.5 — 6; G = 3.5 — 4.2. 

Refractive index: ^ = 1.74. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid, yielding gelatinous silica. Fuses easily 
with intumescence to a dark s\a^. The rare earth bases can only be 
determined chemically. 

A constituent of some crj'stalline rocks, but some of its reported 
occurrences in the State are doubtful. 


Riverside County : Has been observed as a constituent of the gneiss 
of Eagle Mountains. 

Santa- Barbara County : Said to have been found in rock near Santa 

Tulare County : Specimens of pegmatite rock containing massive 
allanite occur near Exeter on the Gasenberger Ranch associated with 
rose quartz. 

Basic silicate of calcium, aluminium, mangauese and iron, HCa2(Al,Mn,Fe)3Si30ui. 

Monoclinic. Prismatic crystals. Color reddish brown and reddish black. 
Reddish streak. Altreous luster. H = 6.5; G = 3.4. 

Refractive index: /^ — 1.S3. 

Insoluble in acid. Fus^s easily with intumeseence to a black slass. 
Gives a violet bead of manganese with borax. 

San Bernardino County : A specimen of the manganese epidote has 
come from this county. 

San Diego County: Found in tlie thin section of a dark red c^uartz- 
porphyry boulder from the gravels at Pacific Beach, Rogers^^^. 

208. AXINITE. 

Borosillcate of alumnium and calcium with iron and manganese, 

Triclinic. Thin wedge-shaped crystals. Sometimes granular massive. 
Color clove-brown, yellow. Vitreous luster. H = G.5 — 7; G = 3.27. 
Refractive indices: oc =1-678; «=;1.GS5; y = 1.688. 

Insoluble. Fuses with swelling and intumescence and may show slight 
gi'eenish flame. Powder mixed with potassium bisulphate and fluorite and 
held on platinum wire in the Bunsen flnme. will give a momentai^- green 
Hame of boron. 

Crystals of axinite are sometimes developed in the veins and along 
the contact of intrusive rocks but the mineral is rather rare in its 

El Dorado County: Small clove-brown crystals t)ccurred deposited 
on epidote at the old Cosumnes copper mine near Fairplay. They have 
been described and analysed by Schaller^^^^ Forms: (ITO), (010), 
(120), (130), (160), (1.29.0), (160), (270), (7.11.0), (110), (540), 
(430), (210), (310), (510), (100), (3T0), (950). 

= 100.00% 

Inyo County : Found in the Funeral Mountains and in the Owl 
Mountains, Death Valley. Perfectly formed small white crystals with 
smithsonite occur at the Ubehebe mine. Crystals found in the Argus 




































Nevada County : Thin bladed masses of violet-colored axinite occur 
in veins near Glen Alpine. 

Riverside County : A large axinite crystal from the city quarry at 
Riverside, measured by 12 by 1^ centimeters. The forms are: (ITI), 
(111), (ITO), (201), (001), (110), and (OTO). The axinite of this 
quarry is violet brown, Rogers'-'-'. Violet axinite occurs associated with 
cinnamon garnet in the pegmatite at Crestmorc. Crystals of violet col- 
ored iixinitc arc found in the Box Springs ^Mountains. 

San Diego County: Smoky-pink cr.vstals occur in an altered granite 
in Moosa Canyon, about eighteen miles south of Pala near Bonsall, 
associated with quartz, epidote and laumontite, and have been described 
by Schaller(ii). Forms: (ITO), (130), (110), (100), (331), (iTl), 
(112), (021), (T32), (201), (111), (131), (132). 

3, HoO 

= 99.83% 

Acid silicate of calcium and alumiuum. HjCaoALSisOj;. 

Orthorhombie. Tabular crystals, .i;rauu]ar, drusy masses. Color light 
.ijiven to white. Vitreous luster. II = 6 — 6.5; = 2.8 — 2.95. 

llefractive indices: oc =1-016; ^=1.626; y = 1.649. 

Sliffhtly soluble. Fuses with intumescence to an enamel. Gives water in 
clos_»d tube. The fused mass will sdatinize with hydrochloric acid. 

Green drusy coatings and veins of prehnite are sometimes present in 
altered diabase and lavas, but the mineral is not common in the State. 

Loiritc is a mineral similar to prehnite in composition, but differs 
from it in optical characters. 

Plumas County : Occurs as a hydrothermal product at the Engels 

Riverside County : Green drusy and light brown prehnite occur in 
cavities of white feldspar in the pegmatite veins of the limestone at 
Crestmorc. Forms of brown crystals are: (001), (110), (100), and 
(061). Analysis of the brown variety: 

SiO.. ALO, CaO ll..t> 

44.10 24.20 25.20 5.86 =9J).36% 

Santa Barbara County : Prehnite occurred in the analcite-diabase of 
Cuyamas Valley, Fairbanks^^^ 

Santa Clara County: Lotrite was observed by Murgoci^^) as probably 
present in the greenstone of Calaveras Valley. 


Fluosilicate of magucsium, [Mg (F,OH) ]» MgJSiOJ,. 
Monoclinic. Usually in grains. Color yellow to brown. Vitreous luster. 
n = 6— 1;..5; Tt =3.1—3.2. 

Refractivo indices: a:=1.*H)7: ^ = l.<n9; y = l.(>39. 
Infusible. Soluble with Kolatinization. Fused with iwtassium bisul- 
phate in a closed tube, gives off lluorine, which will etch the glass. Mag- 
nesia is precipitated from auunouiu solution by sotlium phosphate. 

A fairly common mineral foruuHi in the metamorphism of a dolomitic 

Riverside County : Some of the crystalline limestone at Crestmore 
shows evidence of the former presence of granular chondroite. Re- 
ported to occur in the limestone at Colton. Observed in the City 
Quarry at Riverside, and mentioned by Rogers. Occurs in the lime- 
stone of the Jensen property about three miles west of Crestmore. 

211. ILVAITE. 
Silicate of iron and calcium, CaFe2(FeOS) (SiOi).. 
Orthorhombic. prisms vertically striated. Color grayish black. 
Submetallic luster. H = 5.5 — 6 ; G = 4.0. 

Refractive index : ^ = 1.91. 

Becomes magnetic after heating. Easily fusible. Soluble iu hydrochloric 
acid and yields much gelatinous residue. 

Ilvaite is a rare mineral and is only knowii from two localities in the 
State. Formed by contact metamorphism in crystalline limestone. 

Shasta County: Thin bands and long prisms of ilvaite occur on both 
sides of a narrow dike cutting througli limestone on Potter Creek, near 
Baird. The crystals occur on quartz and hedenbergite and have been 
described by Prescott(i>. Forms: (110), (120), (010), (111), (101), 
(890). Analysed by H. R. Moss. 

SiOo Fe-Os AI2O3 CroOs FeO MnO CaO MgO H2O 
28.09 20.80 0.32 0.13 29.93 3.24 15.89 0.18 1.62 =100.20% 

Sonoma County : A boulder of quartzite colored black with ilvaite 
was found near Petaluma. 


Basic silicate of zinc, H.Zn^SiOs. 

Orthorhombic. Hemimorphic crystals, drusy masses, earthy. Cleavage 
perfect prismatic. Color white; sometimes bluish or brown. H=:4.5 — 5; 
G = 3.4 — 3.5. 

Refractive indices: a:=l.<514; g-LGl' ; y — 1.6S(i. 

Soluble with gelatinization. Difficultly fusible. Mixed with sodium car- 
bonate and reductid on charcoal, gives yellow coating of zinc. Some water 
iu a closed tube. 

Calamine is found in the oxidized portion of veins carrying zinc, but 
its occurrence in California is quite limited. 


Inyo County : Small amounts have been found with willcmite and 
smithsouite at the St. Yguaeio, Cerro Gordo and Indiana mines, and in 
Surprise Canyon. 

San Bernardino County : Found with simthsonite at the Cuticura 
mine, near Daggett. 

Basic silicate of calcium aud aluiuiuium, HiCaALSijOio. 

Orthorhoinbic. Prismatic aud tabular crystals. Cleavage perfect basal 
aud brachypinacoidal. Color pale blue to white. Vitreous luster. H = 8; 
G = 3.09. 

Refractive indices: cx^l.OO.j; «=l.(j74; y—^4. 

Swells aud fuses to a frothj' mass. Vei^j' slightly ncted ou by iiydro- 
chloric acid. Yields water in a closed tube. 

Lawsonite was discovered in California as a new constituent of cer- 
tain schists, and since its discovery has been found to be quite wide- 
spread in its occurrence in the rocks of the Coast Range. It is limited 
to the metamorphic rocks. 

Contra Costa County: Found as a constituent of a chlorite boulder 
on side of hill north of Berkeley and analysed by Eakle*^\ 

SiOo AUOsFeoO,-; CaO HoO 

38.43 33.39 16.85 9.83 =98.50% 

Marin County : Discovered as a new mineral in the schists of the 
Tiburon Peninsular, near Reed Station, and w^as described and named 
by Ransome(2). Forms: (Oil), (110), (041), (001). Additional 
forms by HiUebrand and Schallerd), (221), (331). 

Analyses: 1. Ransome and Palache; 2. HiUebrand and Schaller. 

FeO MnO 
0.10 tr. 



AloOs Fe.O:, 


28.88 0.85 





31.35 0.86 


MgO KsO 





0.17 0.23 



= 99.39% 


= 101.50 


= 100.33 

San Luis Obispo County : Masses of green chlorite with platy crystals 
of lawsonite occur about four miles east of San Luis Obispo. 

Santa Clara County: Mentioned by Murgoci^^^ and by J. P. Smith^i) 
as one of the constituents of the gneisses, schists and quartzites of Oak 
Ridge, Redwood and Calaveras Valley. 


Borosilicate of aluminium with various bases. 

Hexagonal, ihombohedral. Long prismatic crystals, often divergent radi- 
ating groups. Color black, green, rose-red, brown, blue, smoky. Vitreous 
luster. H=r7 — 7.5; G=:2.9S — 3.2. 

Refractive indices: £=1.041; (,, = 1.<>S7. 

Generally fusible to a blebby mass. Insoluble in acids. Fused on plat- 
inum wire with a mixture of potassium bisulphate and fluorite, will give a 
momentary groen flame. 

The greeu flame distinguishes the black tounnaline from black hornblende 
when the physical characters are similar, and the brown tounnaline is like- 
wise distinguished from l>rawn gnrai't. 

Black tourmaline is a very common mineral in the State and large 
areas of tourmaline-granites exist in the Sierras. Brown tourmaline 
has also been found, but in limited quantity. The richly colored red 
and green tourmalines of San Diego County are the tinest in the world, 
and have become almost universally known and used as gems. Tourma- 
line always occurs in prismatic crystals, often bunched into radiating 
groups and usually much fractured. The common black tourmaline is 
characteristic of granites and quartz veins in granites. Brown tourma- 
line is found in crystalline limestone near the contact with intrusive 
igneous rock. The transparent green and red and other shades occur 
in pegmatite veins which carry lithia and they are classed as lithia- 
tourmaliues. The red tourmaline is often called ruhellite, the blue, 
indicolite and the colorless, achroife. 

Alpine County: Black tourmaline is common in Hope Valley. 

Calaveras County : Black occurs in quartz at Sheep Kanch. 

El Dorado County : Black tourmaline occurs with orthoclase at 
Buck's Bar. Small, black crystals occur in orthoclase quartz rock, 
twenty miles east of Placerville. 

Fresno County : Black is connnon in Fine Gold Gulch, at the Enter- 
prise mine, and at Eber Flat. Black crystals associated with horn- 
blende and quartz occur in Watts Valley. Black occurs in the Syca- 
more district. Red and green tourmaline occurs in quartz on the White 
Divide, south of ]Mt. Godard. Green occurs on Spanish Peak asso- 
ciated with brown garnet, Bradley'^*. 

Inyo County : Black occurs in the Lee district. Black crystals occur 
in a metamorphosed sandstone at Deep Canyon, west of Bishop. Needles 
and reticulated masses of black, slender prisms are found in the Slate 

Kern County : Black is found in the rocks of the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains. Black tourmaline occurs in a calcite vein cutting schist, associ- 


cited with schcclitL' a few miles west of Randsburg. A large vein of 
quartz and feldspar containing black tourmaline occurs near Woody. 

Lassen County : Specimens of black tourmaline have come from near 

^ladera County : Black tourmaline occurs in the rocks near Ray- 

Mariposa County : Black is very common in the granites of the 
Yosemite Valley. 

Modoc County : Black crystals occur in quartz near Cedarville. 

^Fono County: Radiating masses of black tourmaline occur near a 
contaet mass of magnetite, which carries greenockite. near Topaz. 

Nevada County : Black occurs at Emerald Bay. Lake Tahoe and near 
Crystal Peak. A chiik brown variety found two miles northwest of 
(Jolfax was analvsed ])v Melville^^\ 

SiOo AUOn FeoQ.. CaO MgO KjO Na«0 BoO.t Ign. 

:'.G.40 33.64 3.13 1.51 10.01 0.12 2.49 C.52 3.53 

F O— F 

0.74 = 98.07 — 0.31 = 97.76% 

Orange County : Black is found at the Santa Ana tin mine, Santa 
Ana Mountains. 

Placer County : Black at Soda Springs. Black tourmaline in quartz 
is found near l^liir (Canyon. Specimens of black with quartz occur at 
the Excelsior mine, near Cisco. Occurs in granitic rock as black tour- 
maline with white feldspar and glassy quartz, near Rocklin. 

Plumas County : Black tourmaline occurs at Red Clover Creek. Black 
tourmaline in quartz occurs on Grizzly Range, and near Taylorsville. 
Occurs in the pegmatites at Engels. Black crystals occur seven miles 
from Portola. 

Riverside County : Some tine gem tourmaline occurs near Coahuila 
and in the San Jacinto Mountains. Black tourmaline in quartz occurs 
in the Santa Maria ^Mountains, two miles north of Blythe. Black tour- 
maline occni's occasionally in the pegmatite veins at Crestmore. Black 
radiating prisms occur with axinite on Box Spring Mountain. Occurs 
in a pegmatite vein in the Pinacate district. 

San Bernardino County: Black at Halleck. 

San Diego County : A series of pegmatite veins consisting mainly of 
white albite Avith quartz and lepidolite mica, cut through the diorite 
hills in the northwestern part of the county from the vicinity of Mesa 
Grande northward through Pala and into Riverside County, and these 
veins have been prolific in their yield of beautiful transparent tourma- 
lines in many shades of rose-red and green. The first mention of the 
occurrence of rubellite and lepidolite in southern California was by 
W. P. Blake ^^^^ who gave the locality as the San Bernardino Range. 




Later Orcntt^^) described the occurrence at Pala. The first material 
obtained was tlie lavender and lilac lepidolitc containing radiating 
clusters of bright red rubellitu prisms, which form beautiful museum 
specimens and can be seen in most mineral collections. The gem 
varieties were found later and since 1893 a number of mines have been 
located and many large beautiful crystals obtained. At present the 
best tourmalines come from Mesa Grande. Sterrett^^^ gives the crystal- 
lography of tourmaline from Damoron ranch, four miles northwest of 
Mesa Grande. Forms: (0221), (1230), (1450), (2131), (1232), (OOOT), 
(OlTT), (1012), (1120), (lOTO), (OITO), (lOTl), and (0001). Tour- 
malines of many shades, black, pink, blue, violet, green and colorless, 
occur at Kincon in tlie Victor and other claims and some of the crystals 
have the forms: (1120), (lOlO), (OlTO), (1232), (lOTl), (OOOT), (OlTT), 
Rogers^"^^ Analj^ses of the tourmaline of the county have been made 
by Schaller^'^^ 1. Pink from JMesa Grande; 2. Pale green from Mesa 
Grande; 3. Pink from Pala; 4. Altered pink from Pala; 5. Black from 
Lost Valley ; 6. Black from Ramona. 


37. .57 






























































































The bluish green tourmaline from the Mountciin Lily mine near Oak 
(irovc has Ix'cii enllod ''eineralite." Fine ])lu(' and pink occurs at the 
Peter Cabat mine, nbout six miles north of AVarner's Hot Springs. A 
deposit of green tourmaline occurs south of Banner. Good blue and 
green occur on east side of Chihuahua Valley. Black tourmaline occurs 
with cassiterite on Aguanga Mountain. 

San Luis Obispo County: Black tourmaline occurs in the rocks of 
the Santa Margarita Hills. 

Si-skiyou County : Black crystals in quartz occur near Etna Mills. 
Black, slender crystals in quartz associated with specular hematite occur 
at Westwood. 

Trinity County : Small rosettes of black tourmaline occur at the 
IMountain ^Monarch Prospect, Weaverville Quadrangle. 


Tulare County : Black in Frazer Valle}', Drum Valley, and at 
Mineral Kinf;. Jilack crystals with feldspar imd imiscftvitc occur near 
^lilo. }i]ack occurs in fjuai'tz near Dinuba. 

Tuolunnie County : Jilack near Crimea House, near ISonora and near 
Soulsby. Occurs with quartz as black prisms about eight miles south 
of Sonora. 

Basic silicate of aliiminiuni with boron. IIAlsRSiaOjo. 

Ortliorlioinbic. Small i)risms, jrrauular. Color sraalt-hlno, dark hUio, 
violet-red. Vitreous luster. IIi^T; G = 3.22 — 3.43. 

Uefractive indices: a:=l.t>78: fj=l.{iSii; y = l.G81>. 

Insoluble and infusil)le. Fused on platinum wire with a mixture of potas- 
sium bisuliihate and Huorite will give a momentary green Hame. 

Dumortierite is a metamorphie mineral found in certain gneisses and 
schists; very rare in its occurrence. 

Imperial County : Dark blue boulders of dumortierite occur on the 
plains about twenty-five miles from Ogilby. 

Riverside County : -Afassive dark blue dumortierite occurs one mile 
north of Big Four mines, Pinacate district. 

San Diego County : A violet-red variety of dumortierite occurs near 
Dehesa and was described and analysed by Schaller*^^^ and also analysed 
byFord(i>. Forms: (010), (100), (110), (120), (320), (210), (102), 

SiO. AI2O3 TioOs Fe^Os B2O3 H^G 
Schaller 28.68 63.31 1.45 0.23 5.37 1.52 =100.56% 

Ford 30.58 61.83 __ 0.36 5.93 2.14 =100.84 

Tuolumne County : Boulders of dark, blue dumortierite have been 
found in the countv. 













Brittle Micas. 














Xot (Ironped. 

















Tit a no-silicates. 


The mica family consists of a number of silicates, having various 
and complex compositions, which occur characteristically in thin elastic 
scales and plates. The common micas, muscovite and biotite, are very 
important rock-forming minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks, 
and are to be found all over the State. There are several rare micas 
and alteration products of micas Avhich have not been observed in Cali- 
fornia and will therefore not be mentioned. 

216. MUSCOVITE— Potash Mica. 
Hydrous silicate of potassium and aluminium, essentially (H,K)AlSi04. 

Monocliuic. Hexagonal-shaped plates, plumose aggregates, scales. Cleav- 
age perfect basal. Colorless, gray, brown, pale green. Vitreous luster. 
H = 2 — 2.5; G = 2.76 — 3. 

Refractive indices: cx=l-'Cl: ^r^l.-TOO; ^ = 1.594. 

Insoluble in acids and veiy difficult to fuse. A little of the powder taken 
on a platinum wire and moistened with sulphuric acid will give the violet 
flame of potassium when held in the colorless Bnnsen fiame. A small 
amount of moisture is obtained by intense beatini; in a close^l tube. 

Muscovite is a common constituent of granites, syenites, gneisses and 
schists. It is generally called mica or isinglass and is of economic 


value when in large transparent sheets. Extensive areas of mica- 
schists occur in the State in which muscovite is the principal constituent 
and gives the rock its schistose structure. 

Sericite is a soft greasy-feeling muscovite forming mostly sericitic 

Furhsitr \s a chronu'-muscovite of an emerald-i>i-een color. 

Pinite and Agahnaiolite are names given to compact muscovite or 
altered muscovite, usually of gray or white color. 

Alexandrolitc is a name given to a pale green micaceous mineral be- 
longing to the chrome micas. 

El Dorado County : According to Hanks^^> some material resembling 
agalmatolite occurred in a vein at Greenwood. 

Inyo County : Muscovite is found in the Saratoga district. 

Lassen County: Muscovite was early reported from Susanville. 

Nevada County : Sericite and biotite are mentioned by Lindgren^^^ as 
COTistituents of the rocks of Grass Valley and Nevada City. 

Orange County : Fuchsite has been found at Arch Beach. 

Plumas County : Sericite occurs as a hydro-thermal mica at Engels. 

Riverside County : JVIuscovite and lepidolite occur with the gem tour- 
maline at Coahuila. 

San Diego County : Muscovite is a common mineral in the pegmatite 
veins which carry the gem tourmaline and kunzite of this county. 
Crystals occur at the Mack mine, Rincon,with the forms: (001), (010), 
(221), Rogers (2\ 

Pink muscovite from Mesa Grande has been analysed by Schaller^'^^ 

PiO.. TiO" Al.Or. Fe-O:, MnO MgO CaO LisO NoeO KoO 

45.63 tr." 37.42 tr. 0.06 none none 0.20 1.43 9.95 

4.43 0.77 =99.89 — 0.32 = 99.57% 

Tulare County : A green micaceous and earthj^ mineral containing 
chromium and believed to be alexandrolitc occurs near Exeter. No 
analysis of the mineral has been made. 

Ventura County : Good sheets of muscovite have come from the 
Mount Almo mica mine. 

Monoclinic. Micaceous, scales, foliated massive. Cleavage perfect basal. 

Color apple-green, white. Vitreous luster. H=2.5 — 3; G = 2.78 — 2.81. 

Itcfractive indices: oc =1.00; ^ = 1.63; y = 1.63. 

Similar to musc-ovite in its reactions. An emerald green borax bead is 
sometimes obtained. 

Mariposite is essentially a muscovite with its characteristic green 
color due to the presence of chromic oxide. It is distinctly charac- 
teristic of the gold belt of the Sierras and was described as a new 
mineral by Silliman^^\ 


Calaveras County : Occurs iu schist on Carson Hill at the Reserve 
mine and at the Golden Gate mine. 

El Dorado Count}' : Green flakes of mariposite occui* in quartz at the 
Pyramid mine, four miles north of Shingle Springs. 

Kern County : Some green micaceous mariposite occurs at Rands- 
bur k. 

^Mariposa County: The green mica, mariposite, is common in the 
^lother Lode schists of this county and of Tuolumne and Calaveras 
counties, and it was first descril)ed by Silliman^'^' as a new mineral. 
The mineral from the Josephine mine was analysed by Hillebrand, 

SiOe TiOs AI2O3 Cr^Oa FeoO., FeO CaO MgO 

Green 55.35 0.18 25.62 0.18 0.63 0.92 0.07 3.25 

White 56.79 25.29 none 1.59 0.07 3.29 

K2O (Li,Na)oO H2O 
9.29 0.12 4.52 =100.13% 

8.92 0.17 4.72 =100.84 

Nevada County : Good specimens of green mariposite occur with 
quartz and calcite in veins at the Red Ledge mine, Washington. Occurs 
at the Idaho mine. Grass Valley. 

Placer County : Found at the Marguerite mine. 

San Diego County : Found also near Oak Grove and on west side -of 
^It. San Jacinto. 

Sierra County: Mariposite- is found at the Rainbow mine. Occurs 
at the Alhambra mine. Poker Flat, and at the El Dorado mine, Forest 
mining district. 

Tuolumne County : Mariposite is common at the Rawhide Ranch 
mine near Tutth^owii. Also at the App mine, (^nicga mint^ and other 
mines in the vicinitv of Jamestown. 

218. PARAGON ITE— Soda Mica. 
Silicate of sodium and aluminium, HoNaAliSijOu. 

Massive, compact, scaly. Cleavage perfect basal. Color gray, yellowish 
gray, pale green. Pearly luster. H=r2.5 — 3; = 2.78 — 2.90. 

Refractive indo.x : ^ = 1.(>0. 

Like ninscovitc in it.<5 reactions. l)ut gives the yellow sodium flame. 

The rocks of the Coast Ranges are notably rich in soda and this mica 
has been observed as one of the constituents of the schists. 

Santa Clara County: Paragonite is mentioned as a constituent of 
eclogite at Coyote Creek, near San IMartin and of greenstone on San 
Francisquito Creek. J. P. Smith'^). 


219. LEPIDOLITE— Lithia Mica. 
Silicato of litliinin. potassium, fluorine and alumiuiuni (KLi) A1(0I-I,F) Al(Si03)3. 

Monoclinic. Commonly in scaly masses; sometimes in broad plates. 
Clcavase ixnlocl basal. Color lilac, lavender, violet-blue.. pink to colorless. 
Vitreous to pearly luster. II=:2.r) — 4; G = 2.S — 2.0. 

Ilefractiv<' indici-s: ex = 1 ■•"•l^>0 ; ^=1.r.!>S; y^l.liO."). 

Easily fusible to a wliito iilohulc. and shows the red flaiui' of lithiuni. 
Insoluble in acids. A small amount of water is obtained in a closed tube 
by intense ignition, which reacts acid. 

Lepidolite occurs in scaly masses of a lavender, violet and pink color. 
It is the characteristic mica of pegmatitic veins which carry red and 
green tourmaline. 

Cookeite is a hydrous lithia mica, white to yellowish green in color. 

Inyo Coiuily: Pink lepidolite willi muscovite occurs in the vein 
matter of Half Dollar mine. 

San Bernai'diiio County: Cookeite has been reported fi'ciu Oro 

San Diego County : Lepidolite mica ranging in color from gray 
through lavender and rose to deep violet is the connnon mica asso- 
ciated with the gem tourmaline of the county. Good crystals were 
found four miles east of Ramoiia having the forms: (001), (010), 
(100). (023). (112), (Til), (132). (130), (223), (221)?, (112)?, 
Sehaller"'". Coarse and fine scaly lepidolite is common at the Victor 
mine, Riiicon, and crystals have the forms (001), (100), (010), (131), 
Rogers'-'. The lepidolite of Pala and of Mesa Grande has been analysed 
by Sehaller^"'. 1. Red purple from Pala, Tourmaline Queen mine; 



|)Uii)le from Pala 

; 3. Pi 


pie; - 

1. White; 5. 


lolite b( 




()\ite IVuiii 

.\resa G 






FeO Ml 

































0.12 1 























: 102.43 - 








: 102.80 - 

-2.57 = 






-2.11 = 





: 102.60 - 

-2.97 = 






-2.82 = 


Cookeite from Pala has also been analysed by Schaller^'^^ 

SiOo A1..0n MnO MgO CaO I^i-O Na^.O K^O at 105° ab. 105° 

35.53 44.23 tr. tr. tr. 2.73 2.11 0.31 0.61 13.57 

F 0=F 

1.46 =100.55 — 0.61=99.95% 

Colorless and dee]) pink cookeite is foiaid in pockets at the Victor 
mine, Rincon, coating (piartz, lepidolite, orthoclase, albite and kunzite, 
and as pseudomor])hs after knnzite, Rogers^^\ 


220. PHLOGOPITE— Magnesia Mica. 

Siliciite of uiaKiit'sia aud alumiua, HoKMgjAl^SiOi I3. 

-Moiioclinic. Usuallj- six-sided plates. Cleavage perfect basal. Tough 
and elastic. Color yellowish brown; sometime greenish aud even colorless. 
11=2.5—3; = 2.78=2.85. 

Refractive iudices : oc =1.502; ^=J.UU4J; y = 1.(300. 

Fuses on thin edges. Decomposed by sulphuric acid. Gives a little water 
in closed tube. 

A mica similar to biotito, but contaiuing little or no iron. 

Inyo County : Phlogopite occurs with scheelite in calc-liornfels at 
Deep Canyon west of Bishop. 

221. BIOTITE — Magnesia-iron Mica. 

Silicate of magnesia, iron and aluminium (H,K);(Mg,Fe)4(Al,Fe)2Si40ic- 

Monoclinic. Broad plates, foliated, scaly, micaceous. Cleavage perfect 
basal. Color black, dark brown, green. Vitreous to pearly lustei'. 
H=2.5 — 3; = 2.7 — 3.1. 

Refractive indices: ex =1.541; « = 1..574; y = 1.574. 

Decomposable by boiling in sulphuric acid. Veiy difficult to fuse. Iron- 
rich varieties become magnetic on heating. 

The dark brown and black biotite mica is the commonest of all the 
micas. It is generally a prominent constituent of nearly all eruptive 
rocks and also of gneisses and schists. It is present as a rock-forming 
mineral in every county. 

Lcpidomelane is very black iron mica usually classed as biotite. 

Alpine County : A black l)iotite from a quartz-monzonite rock at 
Blood Station was analysed by Valentine, Turner^'^^ 

SiO:; TiOs AI2O3 FeoOs FeO MnO CaO SrO BaO MgO LizO 
35.62 2.61 15.24 4.69 13.67 0.74 0.95 tr. 0.26 12.70 tr. 

Na;0 KoO at 105° ab. 105° P2O3 F 

0.50 7.72 0.94 ' 4.-36 none none =100.00% 

Amador County : Biotite from a pyroxene gneiss on the north fork 
of the Mokelumne River was analy.sed by Valentine, Turner^'^^ 

SiOo TIO" AI2O3 FeoOs FeO MnO CaO SrO BaO MgO LioO Na/>0 

36.62 3.03 14.37 4.04 17.09 0.40 1.48 tr. 0.33 9.68 tr. 0.45 



at 105° ab.l05° 





0.90 3.26 



= 99.95- 



Mariposa County: 1. Black biotite from biotite-granite of El Capi- 
tan, Yosemite ^'alley. was analysed by Valentine; and, 2. Brown biotite 



from quartz-monzonite on Tioga road, soutlieast of Mount Hoffman, was 
analysed hy Hillebrand, Turner^"). 

Si(% TiO. \1"0, X-Oi Cr-Oj Fe^O;, FeO MnO NiO CoO CaO SrO 
1 35 64 1.12 1S"62 1- — H.M 14.60 0.79 — — 0.90 __ 
2. 35.75 3.16 14.70 0.05 tr. 4.05 14.08 0.45 0.02 0.17 V 


BaO MgO IJ.O NaoO K...O at 100 » ab. 100° P.O. F = F 

tr. 9 72 Ir. 0.3S 9.22 0.4S 2.54 0.2U 0.26 = 100.01—0.11=99.90% 

0.12 12^37 _- Q.32 9.19 1.03 3.04 0.03 0.17- 99.90 — 0.07 = 99.83% 

Kivcr.sidc County; HiotiU' is a eon-stituiMil of the i-i'anodiorite at 
Crestmort'. Fouml a.s.soeiated witli earhonate roeks of Eagle ^[ountain. 
Long and .slender rods and plates of black biotite occur in a granitic 
rock in the city quarry at Riverside. 

San Diego County : Plates, fairly large, of black biotite occur near 

222. ROSCOELITE— Vanadium Mica. silicati' of vanadium, aluminum and potassium. II,K i .Mi;.1m' t (.Vl.\'i< 

Minute scales often in stellate groups. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 
clove-brown, greenish brown or brownish green. Pearly luster. Soft. 
G = 2.92 — 2.94. 

Refractive iiiduvs : oc =1-610; ^ = 1.685: y = 1.704. 

Insoluble, hut fusildc T.ike biotite in its reactions, l)m in addition gives 
a green head of vanadium with phosphorous salt. 

Vanadium is a rare constituent of some igneous rocks, and is occa- 
sionally found in small amounts in biotite. Roscoelite is unique in 
having a large percentage of vanadium in place of iron and thus form- 
ing a vanadium-mica. It is a very rare mica, and few specimens of it 
are now in existence, since most of the material was destroyed for the 
gold whieh was thickly interlamiuated with the micaceous plates. 

El Dorado County : Layers from a tenth to a half inch in thickness 
of a dark green micaceous mineral, thickly interlamiuated with gold, 
were found at the Stuckslager or Sam Sim's mine on Granite Creek, 
near Coloma, whieh proved to be a new mineral and was named by 
James Blake^->, in 1874. The new mica was later described and 
analysed by Genth<6>, Roscoe(^>, and Hillebrand, Turner and Clarke^^^. 






AUG., Fe^Os MnoOa 


Genth _. '> 













14.14 1.13 1.15 



















= 100.00% 







= 100.22 G = 2.938 






= 101.62 






= 99.86 

Several hundred pounds of the mineral were also found in Big Red 
Ravine, near the old Sutter :\Iill. where gold was first discovered, but 
tha masses were destroyed for their gold values, Hanks^^). 



Tht; brittle micas include several micaceous minerals whose plates or 
scales are non-elastic and easily break when bent. Otherwise they 
resemble the common micas. They are characteristic of the crystalline 
gneisses and schists. All of them probably occur in the State, but only 
margarite, xanthophyllite. chloritoid, and ottrelite have been observed. 

Hydrous silicate of calcium and aluminium, HoCaoAljSizOjj. 

Monoclinic. Scaly, micaceous. Cleavage perfect basal. Color grayish, 
pink. Pearly luster. H = 3.5 — 4.5 ; G = 2.99 — 3.08. ^ ^ 

Refractive indices: oc =1.032 ; yJz=l.G43 ; y = 1.64.5. 

Insoluble, but is somewhat fusible. Similar to the micas, but its flakes 
are not elastic and thus differ from true micas. 

Margarite is prominent in the glaucophane rocks and has been ob- 
served in several localities. 

Calaveras County : Soft silver-white pearly masses of flaky material 
occur in the Gold Cliff mine at Angels and in some of the other mines of 
the Mother Lode which bear a strong resemblance to margarite, and 
are probably this mineral. 

Marin County: Mentioned by Ransome^^^ as an associate of the law- 
sonite at Reed Station. Much of this, however, is muscovite, Eakle^^^ 

San Mateo County : A constituent of the schists of Belmont, Mur- 

Santa Clara County : Occurs in the eclogite of Oak Ridge, J. P. 

Sonoma County : A constituent of the glaucophane gneiss of Melitta, 
near Santa Rosa, Murgoci^^^ 

Hydrous silicate of aluminium, calcium and magnesium, Hs(Mg,Ca)34AljoSi505;. 

Monoclinic. Tabular crystals pai'allel to the base. Perfect basal cleav- 
age. Coior leek-green, bottle-green. Vitreous luster. H = 4.G; G = 3.09. 

Refractive indices : oc = l.WO ; ^=1.600 : y - 1.661. 

Infusible and insoluble. Gives water when intensely heated in a closed 
tube. Plates are not flexible. 

A very rare green platy mineral belonging to the brittle micas, 
resembling green muscovite. 

Riverside County : Abundant platy crystals of xanthophyllite oc- 
curred in the blue calcite of the cement quarry at Crestmore, intimately 
associated with monticellite. An analysis by Eakle gave : 


5.07 = 100.62% (J = :!.iKsi 

4.49 = 100.31% 








44. OS 












Hydrous silicate uL" iron, magnesium and aluminium, lL(Fe,Mg) Al..SiO,. 

Monoclinic. Foliated massive, scales. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 
dark gray, grayish black, grass green. Pearly to vitreous luster. H = G.5; 
G-3.52 — 3.r)7. 

K('fr;icli\(' indi'X : i^ I. "•"'>. 

Insoluldc and infusibii". I'liitcs wh' ilcxililr. Imt not (dastic (Jives nuich 
\\;itiT in a closed I nbe. 

Calaveras County : Dark green chloritoid has been found in some of 

the scliisis (if tills eonntv. 


Hydrous silicate of iron, manganese and aluminiuui. rio(Fe,Mn) ALSijOn. 

Monoclinic. Ilexagonal-shniied scales. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 
blackish gray, black. Vitreous luster. H = 6 — 7; G = 3.3. 
Insoluble ami infusible. Yields wnter in a closed tube. 

Ottrelite sehists appear to be rare in the State. 

Siskiyou County : A specimen of ottrelite schist has come from the 
vicinity of Yreka. 


Uniler the name chlorite are included several species having a mica- 
ceous structure Avith the flakes flexible but not elastic. The chlorites 
are prominent in many schists, forming chlorite-schists. They are also 
formed as secondary alteration products of hornblende and pyroxene 
rocks, and as such are very common throughout the State. They are 
characteristically dai'k hn^k-greeii or brown in color. As a general 
thing tlui various kinds of chlorite have not been differentiated. 

Hydrous silicate of magnesium and aluminium, IIsMg-jAloSijOis- 

Monoclinic. Scaly, earthy, compact. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 

deep grass-green, olive-green, rose- red. Pearly luster. H = 2 — -2.5; 

0=2.65 — 2.78. 

Refractive indices: oc = ^ ••">'^'> : y8=1.5S<>; y = l..".!M;. 

lnsohil)le in hydrochloric acid and iiractically infusilile. r)ecomposed by 
boiling sulphuric ac-iii. (Jives water in closed tube when intensely heated. 
I'lates are fle.xilile, but without elnsijijiy, thus dilVering I'roin true micas. 

Cliuochlore occurs as an alteration i)roduct of magnesian-iron minerals 
and is common in schists. 

Kotschuhcitc is a rose-red variety of clinochlore containing chro- 
mium and is associated Avith chromite in serpentine rocks. 

Calaveras County : Some pink chrome chlorite has been found near 


Nevada County: Fine chrome chlorite, pink and green, occurs on 
chromite at the Red Ledge mine. Washington district. 

Placer County : Rose-red kotschubeite aLso occurs on chromite in the 
serpentine of Green Valley, above Dutch Flat, Lindgren*^'. It has been 
analysed by ]\Ielville^^\ 









at 105° ab. 105° 








0.37 12.68 

Riverside County : Clinochlore occurs in pale green flakes with 
vesuvianite in the limestone at Crestmore. 

Siskivou Countv : A chrome chlorite occurs near Dunsmuir. 

228. PENNINITE— Rhodochrome. 
Hydrous silicate of iron, magnesium and aluminium, Hs(Mg,Fe)5Al2Si.,Ois. 

Monoclinic. Plates, scales, scaly massive. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 
emerald-green, grass-green, violet, rose-red. Pearly luster. H = 2 — 2.5; 
G 3=2.6 — 2.85. 

Refractive indices: £ = 1.579: ^j = 1.570. 

Same reactions as given by clinochlore. 

Penninite is similar to clinochlore Avith more iron in its composition. 
Kdmmcrerite is a peach-blossom red variety associated with chromite. 

Alameda County: Reddish violet kammererite occurs with chromite 
on Cedar Mountain at the Mendenhall mine, Rogers^^^ 

Del Norte Count}' : Kammererite has been observed coating chromite 
from this county. 

Placer County: Kammererite occurs on chromite in Green Valley 
above Dutch Flat. Kammererite coats the chromite about seven miles 
south of Newcastle. 

San Benito Count}' : Red kammererite occurs on chromite associated 
with uvarovite at New Idria, Brush^^^ 

Shasta County : Kammererite coats chromite in Little Castle Creek 
mine, near Dunsmuir. 

Hydrous silicate of magnesium, iron and aluminium. 

Monoclinic. Scaly, foliated, granular, massive. Cleavage perfect basal. 
Color green, blackish green, brown. Pearly luster. H = l — 2 : G = 2.7S — 2.9(5. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.606; ^=1.600; ^ = 1.610. 

Like cliniK'Iilori' in its reactions. Tron-rich varieties Iiec<ime magnetic 
ufler heating. 

Prochlorite is a common chlorite of rocks usually dark green but some- 
times brown. Forms large flaky masses in schists. 

Butte County : Prochlorite is a constituent of the schists at Forbes- 
town, specimens coming from the Gold Bank mine. 


Contra Costa County: l*rochlorite was deseril)ed and analysed from 

the schists near San Pablo by Blasdale^^^ 


SiO- Al-Oa Fe-Os FeO MgO CaO Na^O at 100° ab. 100° 

27.38 26.15 0.78 12.70 18.92 __ 1.15 1.51 11.44 =100.037o 

Kiverside County : Green chlorite occurs as an alteration of augite, 
hornblende and epidote at Crestmore. 

Hydrous silicate of magnesium and aluminium. 

Mouoclinic. Plates, lamellar massive. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 
olive-green, leek-green. Pearly luster. H=:2.5; = 2.9. 

Kefractive indices: a:=l-^>05: ^=1.007; ,^=:l.r)73. 
IJke cliuochloro in reactions. 

This is a rarer form of chlorite, but probably exists in more localities 
than are now known. 

Riverside County : Corundophyllite has been found at Roggentramp. 


ITydrous silicate of magnesium, aluminum, iron and calcium, 
H, ( Mg,Fe,Ca ), ( Al,Fe ^ , Si-O^, .JILO. 

Monoclinic? Basal plates and shreds. Cleavage basal. Sectile. Color 
dark green. H = l; G = 2.309. 

Refractive indices: cx^l.GOo; fj-l.Wl; y = l.G7o. 

Fu.'^os with intumescence to a black magnetic slag. Soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid with gelatinization. 

A new member of the chlorite group of silicates and was described 
by Larsen and Steiger^^'. 

Los Angeles County: Occurred tilling amygdaloidal cavities in 
ba.salt at Cahuanga Pass, Griffith Park, Los Angeles. 

Analysis by Steiger: 

SiO: AUO3 Fe„0, FeO MgO CaO Na..O K.O — H,0 +H.O TiQ, 
39.r,4 !>.a-. 7.:{2 7.s:; l.-..S(> S.m O.fl None 4.9r> None = 100.49% 

232. CHALCODITE— Stilpnomelane. 
Hydrous silicate of iron, magnesium and aluminium. 

Minute scales. Color black, yellowish and greenish bronze. Brassy 
to submetallic luster. Flexible. H = 3 — 4; G = 2.9G. 

Ik-fractivo index: ^, = 1.09. 

Fuses with difficulty and becomes magnetic. Decomposed by hydrochloric 
acid, but without forming a .ielly. Gives much water in a closed tube. 

Chalcodite is a rare brown chlorite, occurring in minute scales, often 
■with a bronze luster. 


Inyo County : Occurs as bronze brown Hakes on analcite and natro- 
litc ill tlic aniygdiilcs of an andesite on the Furnace Creek wash, two 
miles west of Ryan. 

Santa Barbara County : Brown crystals of chaleodite have come from 
this county. 

Hydrous silicate of magnesium, iron and aluminium. 

T.road plates, small scales. Cleavage perfect basal. C%>lor dark yeliowlsii 
l.rown. Pearly luster. 11 = 1.5; G = 2.30. 

Uefraetivo indices: £=l.r»4; ^,,:=zlJ>V>(i. 

Kntlier ditticult to fuse, but exfoliates when heati-d. Soluble in li\(lr<i- 
cidoric acid, but without gelatinizalion. (iives water in a iloscd lube. 

Jefferisite is a hydrated mica occurring in dark yellowish brown 
scales and plates. 

Lassen County : Large brown plates of jefferisite occur at Susanville 
according to Hanks^'*\ 

Mendocino County : Small flakes have been observed in this county. 

Tulare County: Hanks*^^ mentions jefferisite from this county. 



Hydrous silicate of calcium and aluminium, H4CaAL(Si03)„.3H.,0. 

Monoclinic. Platy crystals. Color white, brick-red. Perfect clinopina- 
coidal cleavage. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 2.18 — 2.2. 

Refractive indices: oc = 1 •-l!>''^ : ^=1.499: y-l.rm. 

Intumesces or boils when fused. Soluble in hydrochloric acid. Imt does 
not yield a jelly on evaporation, (iives water in a closed l\d)e. 

A zeolite formed as a secondary mineral in cavities and seams of basic 
volcanic rock, usually witli stilbilc. cliabazite and other zeolites. It is 
probably present in llic l)asalti(' areas of tlic State, but has not been 

Plumas County: Occurs as a hydrothormal mineral in the drnses of 
tiie pegmatites at Engels. Gralon and ^McLauglilin" '. 

San Diego County: Occurs sparingly as pale brown crystals with stil- 
bite at Rincon. Forms: (010), (001), (201), (201), (110), Rogers^^). 


llydi\>us silicate of ahuninium. calcium and iwtassium, 

Monoclinic. Usually in grouijs of twinned crjstals. Color white to red. 
Translucent to opaque. n=:4 — 4.5: = 2.2. 
Refi-active index: ^=1.57. 
Fuses easily to a white enanud. Gelatinizes with hydrochloric acid. 

A rarer member of the zeolites. 

Phimas County : One of the zeolites at the Engels mine. 



Hydrous silicate of calcium and aluminium, HiCaAl2Si40n.2HjO. 

Monoclinic. Radiatiuy: or divergent columnar. Cleavage perfect 
basal and clinopiuacoidal. Color white. Vitreous luster. H = 3.5 — 4; 
G = 2.25 — 2.36. 

Refractive indices: ex =l.">l-"> ; ^3 = 1.524; y = 1.52o. 
Fuses easil.v to a glass and shows the roddi.^h flame of calcium ; soluble in 
hydrochloric acid and yields gelatinous silica, (iives water in a closed tube. 

A zeolite occurring in cavities of basic volcanic rock, usually with 
other zeolites. 

Plumas County : Occurs as a hydrothermal zeolite at the Engels mine. 
Riverside County : Soft fibrous masses of .snow-white color coat some 
of the green prehnite at the Crestmore quarry. Analysis gave : 


53.49 22.01 lO.SC) tr. 13.39 = 99.69% 

San Bernardino County : Fibrous white laumontite has been found 
near the Grant mine, on the right bank of the Cucamonga Canyon. 

San Diego County: Small amounts are associated with the axinite 
crystals of Moosa Canyon near Bonsall, Schaller^^^ The mineral also 
occurs at Rincon in minute radiate crystals with the forms (110), and 
(201), and as a pseudomorph after stilbite, Rogers^^^ 

Hydrous silicate of sodium, calcium and aluminum, H4(Na2,Ca) ALSieOis.4H20. 

Monoclinic. Commonly in sheaf-like aggregates, lamellar. Cleavage per- 
fect clinopinacoidal. Color white, yellowish brown. Vitreous to pearly 
luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 2.09 — 2.20. 

Refractive indices: oc=1.4i;M:; ^=1.498: y = 1.5(J0. 

Fuses with exfoliation. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, but does not yield a 
ji'lly when evaporated to dryness. Gives water in a closed tube. 

A common zeolite occurring usually as sheaf-like aggregates in cavi- 
ties and seams of volcanic rock. It is more common in the State than 
what has been reported. 

Fresno County: Found in lava in the North Fork mining district. 

Modoc County : Specimens of lava with amygdules filled with stilbite 
and natrolite have come from this county. 

Plumas County : White and brown stilbite occurs with chabazite and 
natrolite in the cavities of basic rock at Engels. 

San Diego County: Occurs as sheaf-like aggregates of small brown 
crystals at the Victor mine near Rincon, Rogers^^^ 

Santa Barbara County : Found in the San Pablo Mountains of Santa 
Rosa Island. 

Tulare County : Occurs in volcanic rock at Mount Kaweah. 


Hydrous silifato of c-alciuin. sodium and aluniiniuiu (Ca,Nao) ALSi^Ojj.GHjO. 

Hexagonal, rliombohedral. Crystals nearly cubic. Color white, flesh- 
red. Vitreous luster. H = 4 — 5; G = 2.08 — 2.10. 

Refractive indices: g= 1.482; (,j = 1.480. 

Fuses with light swelling. Decomposed by hydrochloric acid, but witli- 
out gelatinization. (Jives nuich water in a closed tube. 

A zeolite occurring as a secondary mineral in cavities of basic volcanic 
rock, usually in rhombohedrons nearly cubic in shape. 

Nevada County : Occurs in colorless crystals with epidote and pyrite 
at the Star placer mine, Grass Valley, Lindgren^^^ 

Plumas County : Found as rhombohedrons in olivine basalt at the 
Dodson mine, Mooreville Ridge, Turner'^''. Present as one of tlu' hydro- 
x.eolites at tlie Enuels mine, (iraton and Meliaiiiihlin'^ '. 

Hydrous silicate of sodium and aluminium, NaAlSijOo.H^O. 

Isometric. Crystals usually trapezohedrons. Sometimes quite large. 
("olorless to white, ^'itn•()lls luster, ll^.j — ."».."i ; (j!=2.22 — 2.2'.t. 

Refractive index : « = 1.487. 

Fuses to a clear glass and shows bright yellow Hanie of sodium. Soluble 
in hydrochloric acid, but docs not gelatinize. (Jives a small amount of 
water in a closed tube. 

A zeolite occurring as a secondary mineral in volcanic rocks and 
often in large trapezohedral crystals. It is also found as an original 
constituent in some dial)ases and basalts. 

Alameda County: Occurs as one of the secondary minerals in the 
cavities of andesitic rock on the Berkeley Hills. 

Inyo County: An amygdaloidal mass of andesite occurs on the Fur- 
nace Creek wash, about two mih's west of Ryan with its amygdules lined 
with clear, eolorless ti'apezohedroiis of aii.'ilcitc. needles and wliitc 
bunches of natrolite and l>roii/.(>-bi-o\vn Hakes of chalcodite, Foshag. 

Plumas County: Occni's as ;i liydi-otlieniial minei'al in the druses of 
the pegmatites at JOiigels, (ir;iton and Ahdjaughlin" '. 

Santa liarbara County: A constituent of the tesclienite of Point Sal 
and was analysed by Fairbanks^^)('*\ 

SiO" AloO., CaO Na-O KoO Ign. 
54.40 23.04 0.21 13.33 0.10 8.46 =99.63 G = 2.26 


Hydrous silicate of sodium and aluminium, Na2Al;Si3O]0.2H2O. 

Orthorhombic. Lonff needles, columnar, fibrous. Cleavage perfect pris- 
matic. Colorless to white. Vitreous luster. H = 5 — 5.5; G = 2.2 — 2.25. 

U.'fractivo indicts: a:=l.-l'^0; fi=1AS2: y = 1.4!ty. 

Fuses quietly to a clear glass and gives yellow flame of sodium. Soluble 
in hydrochloric acid and yields much jelly on cvaiwration. (Jives water in 
a closed tube. 

A zeolite formed as a secondary mineral in cavities of igneous rock 
and sometimes as veins in sneh rock. It usually occurs fibrous or 
acicular, associated with stilbite and other zeolites. 

Alameda Comity : Needles of natrolite occur with analcite in the 
amygdules of the andesitic rock on the Berkeley Hills. 

Inyo County: Occurs m slender colorless needles and white fibrous 
bunches in the amygdules of an andesite on the Furnace Creek wash, 
two miles west of Ryan. Associated with analcite and chalcodite, 

Modoc County : Slender needles occur with stilbite in the lava of this 

Plumas County: Occurs as a hydrothermal zeolite in tlic druses of 
the pegmatite at Engels. 

San Benito County: A large vein of white natrolite occurs near 
the headwaters of the San Benito River on the west side of the 
Diablo Range about twenty-five miles north of Coalinga, in which 
crystals of benitoite and neptunite are included. The natrolite is mostly 
granular although some crystals with the forms (110) and (111) occur. 
The occurrence has been described by Louderback^^^^-^ with analysis by 

SiOj AlnOs NaaO HoQ 

47.69 27.14 15.74 9.5G =100.13% 

Sierra County: Found on Herkin's ranch north of Sierra. 
Sonoma County: In the rocks of the Sonoma Mountains not far from 

Hydrous silicate of sodium and calcium, m NaoALSi30,o2H;0 n CaALSijOjo-SHoO. 

Triclinic. Prismatic crystals. Generally silkj' fibrous crusts" Cleavage 
perfect prismatic. Colorless to white. Vitreous to silky luster. H = 5; 
G = 2.2 — 2.4. 

Refractive indices: «:= 1.505: « = 1.505; y=il.50G. 

Fuses with intumescence to a white vesicular glass. Soluble with gela- 
tinization. (4ives much water in a closed tube. 

A zeolite occurring generally as silky fibrous crusts as a secondary 
mineral in cavities of basaltic rock. 



Lassen County : Observed in the lava of Lassen Butte. 

Shasta County : Found near Redding. 

Ventura County: Observed in the basalt of tlie Pinos Mountains. 


Hydrous silicate of aluminium, sodium and calcium. 
( Xa,,Ca ) Al,Si,0s-2^H,0. 

Ortliorhombic. Usually radiate fibrous in si)henc'al forms. T'lcavaire pfr- 
fict basal. Snow-wliite to browu. 11 = 5 — 5.."i ; (} = 'J.;3^ — 2.4. 
Kefractive indices: a:=l.-t->": ^ = 1.503; y=:1.52;j. 
Fuses very easily to a whiti- I'uamel. Gelatinizes with liydrocliloric acid. 

Found in cavities of vesicular lava with other zeolites. 

Pliunas County: One of the zeolites occurring: at the Engels mine. 



Hydrous silicate of calcium, HjCaoSisOa.H^O. 

Fibrous and lamellar concretions. Tolorloss and white. Vitreous luster. 
H = 3 — 4; G = 2.39. 

Refractive index: ^^=;l.r»45. 

Fuses easily to a blebb.v irlass and uivos the yellowish red flame of cal- 
cium. Soluble with some gelatiuizaliou. (iives water in a closed tube. 

Formed as a secondary mineral in crevices of rocks by the alteration 
of lime silicates. 

San Francisco County : Occurs lining fissures in the rock at Fort 
Point and was analysed by Schaller*^^ 

SiOo AloOs CaO NaeO Ign. 

53.47 0.22 32.00 1.25 13.21 =100.15% 

Santa Clara County : Fibrous gyrolite occurred in the crevices of 
the cinnabar mine at New Almaden, associated Avith apophyllite and 
bituminous matter, Avhich Mas analysed by Clarke *^-^ 

SiOe AloOaFe-Os CaO K-O Na-O F Ign F — O 

52.54 0.71 29.97 1.5G 0.27 0.(55 14.60=100.30 — 0.27=100.03% 


Hydi-ous silicate of csilcium and masnesium. H2(Ca.Mg)„Si207. 
Mouoflinic. Fibi"ous. radiating. Snow-white coloi'. PI = 1 — 4: (1 = 2.75. 
Kofracrtve indices: a: =1.5(18; .y = 1.57<J. 
Fuses easily to a clear white glass. Easily solut)li' without gelatinization. 

A new mineral formed by hydrotherinal metaraorphism of limestone. 

Riverside County : Occurs with bluish calcite and grossularite gar- 
net at the Crestmore limestone quarry and was named, analysed and 
ilescribed as a new mineral by Eakle^^'-'. Analysis: 

.SiO.. CaO MgO H..O 

48.87 3S.66 4.19 7.89 = 99.61% 



Hydrous silicate of calcium and potassium, II;KCai(Si03)8.4AH„0. 

Tetragonal. Square prisms, pyramids, massive. Cleavage perfect basal. 
Colorless, white, pale violet, greenish, yellowish. Pearly luster on base. 
H = 4.5 — 5; Gr=2.3 — 2.4. 

Kofraetive indices: £=l.o37; (^=].uo.j. 

Soluble in liydnK-liloric add. hut without ^rolatinij'.ation. Fuses with 
swelling to while enamel and shows the violet linme of potassium, (iives 
mnch water in a closed tul>". 

A secondary mineral found in cavities of volcanic rock. 

Plumas County: C'ry.stals occur in cavities of l)asalt at tiie Buckeye 
mine, near Onion Valley. 

Riverside County : Cavities in the massive vvolhustouite at Crest- 
more are lined with small crystals of colorless and white apophyllite. 
The forms identified are: (100), (111), and (001). 

San Francisco County : A few crystals were found at Fort Point with 
the forms (111) and (100), but most of them were largely changed into 
quartz pseudomorphs, Schaller^^^ 

Santa Clara Cotmty : Found at Ncav Almaden in large crystals 
associated with gyrolite and bituminous matter, Clarke^-\ 

246. XONOTLITE— Eakleite. 

Hydrous silicate of calcium, OCaSiOo.H.O. 

Monoclinic. Compact fibrou.s. Color snow-white or pink. Vitreous to 
silky luster. H = 4— 1>; G = 2.705. 

Refractive indices: «: =i-->'^'^ : ^^ = 1.583; y = l..">0.3. 

Fuses easily to a glassy globule. Easily soiluble in hydrochloric acid with 
the separation of flaky silica. Yields water at a high heat. 

A white mineral resembling pectolite in structure. 

Santa Barl)ara County : A mineral specimen collected years ago from 
somewhere in the vicinity of Santa Ynez and labeled wollastonite, was 
found by Larsen''" to ditlfVr (>j)tically from tliat mineral, and, on the 
sui)position that it was a new mineral, lie proposed the name of eakleite 
for it. It apparently agrees with xonolite in composition. Analyses 
of the mineral by Eakle gave: 

Mg-O NajCKjO H^O 

tr. None 3.25 = 100.17% 
tr. None 3.11 = 99.51% 











247. OKENITE. 
Hyflrons silicate of cakiuni. ILCaSi^O,:.Ho(). 

Finely fibrous an;l acicular. Color sno\v-\\liit<'. Luster pearly. H — 4.."» — .""> : 

Refractive iiulires : oc=l."'l-; «=1.-">14: y = l.ol5. 

Soluble with slight gelatinizatiou in a hydrochloric acid solution. Fuses 
to a glass and colors flame reddish. Gives water in a closed tube. 

Riverside County : The wilkeite in the limestone at Crestniore is 
often altered to a white tihrous material, which was similar to 
okenite in its optical properties. p]akle and Rofjers'^'. Radiating 
botryoidal coatings of okenite occur on apophyllite, evidently as an 
alteration product, at Crestmore. Forms and analysis are by Foshag. 
Forms: (UO), (010), (Oil). Analysis: 

SiO., CaO H..O 

.-►8.17 -JO.IO - !» 

248. INESITE. 

Hydrous silicate of manganese and calcium. IMMn.Ca) SiO,;.ILO. 

Triclinic. I'rismatic crystals, sometimes fibrous radiating or sphenilitic. 
Cleavage perfect brachy-pinacoidal. T'olor rosi>-red. Vitreous luster. 

H = 6: G=3.03. 

Refractive indices: oc=:1.609; ^^l.BSC: y-\XA\. 

Inesite is considered quite rare, since it has been reported only 
from one locality, but it appears to be a common associate of the psilo- 
melane in several of the mines of the State. 

Alameda County: Rose-red veins of the mineral intersect the rhodo- 
chrosite, a.ssociated with bemenite, at the Xewhall or Bailey mine, ten 
miles southeast of Livermore, on the Arroyo Mocho. 

^Mendocino County : In the Rhodochrosite Claim, Mt. Sanhedrin, 
situated about eight miles from Hearst, inesite veins are associated with 
bementite ;iiid iieotocite. 

San Joaquin County : The mineral appears to be common at the old 
Ladd mine, associated with bementite. 

Stanislaus County : The gray rhodochrosite of the Cunnuings or AVin- 
ship properties is intersected by veinlets of rose-red inesite associated 
with bementite. The forms observed on the inesite cry.stals are: (llO), 
(100), (010) and (OOlj, Foshag and Eakle. 



Hydrous silicate of aluminium aud manganese, TMnO.AlnO^j.SSiOj. <)II:(1. 

Monoclinic. Tabular crystals. Color yellowish to brown. Vitreous lus- 
ter. I'erfeet ba.sal cleavage. H = 4 — 4.5; G = 2.S4. 

Refractive indices: oc=l-T(»r>; ^=1.720: y= 1.7:50. 

Soluble in strong acid. Give.s green bead of manganese with sodium 

A \{-rv vHVv mineral imt known to occur clscwlit'i't' in this ci»iinir>-. 

Santa Clara County : One of the minerals of the manganese boulder 
found near Alum Rock Park, five miles east of San Jose. Occurred in 
seams with barite as brownish yellow tabular crystals, Rofjei^^"*. 

Hydrous silicate ot" calciniii. H...( 'aSiO,. 

I'ihnius. compact. Snow-white. Vitreous to dull luster. ll=."i: (;=2.22. 

Refractive indices: a:=l-""3: ^=1.007; y=: 1.603. 

Fuses quietly and easily to a slishtly vesicular glass. Easily soluble with 
seijaration of flocculent silica. Gives reaction for sulphate, phosphate and 

A new silicate fornieti l)y.liydrothermal metamorphism of limestone. 

Riverside County : Occurs as a new mineral at the Crestmore lime- 
stone quarry, formed as an alteration of wilkeite and also as a direct 
ervstallization ; naiiietl for the locality, described and analysed by 


. Ana 

lysis wave : 























Hydrous silicate of calcium, CajSi^Oo.HjO. 
Fibrous: White, silky luster. 11 = 3; G = 2.&4. 
Refractive indices : oc = 1.51>5 ; ^=1.003 : y = ^ •♦'<>• 

Fuses easily to a white glass. Easily soluble with sepai:iti<in ol" Hoccu- 
lent silica. 

A new mineral formed l»y li.\ drothermal metamorphism of limestone. 

Riverside County : Found at tiie Crestmore limestone quarry in asso- 
ciation Avith vesuvianite. Named for the county, analysed and described 
by Eakle <"*. Analysis gave: 

^,0-, so, H„o 














A hydrous silicate of calcium and aluminium, 
3 CaO. Al.Oj. 2 (SiOo.COo). 2H,0. 

Isometric. Small oftahe<h"ons. Colorless, vitreous luster. Brittle. 
11 = 0.-.; G = 3.12!). 

Refractive index: *( = 1.710. 

Fusible, and (>asily soluhlo in hydrochloric acid, with sc|)ai-aii<in of silica 
without u'^clatiiiization. ( lives wati'r in a closed tube. 

Only a few spceimen.s of this new mineral were found. It was named, 
analysed nnd described by Foshag^'**. 

Riverside Count.y : Occurred as minute crystals witli vesuvianite in 
rlie limestone quarrj^ at Crestmore. Analyses : 





24.1 :•► 









40. 13 












100.34 99.55 99.99 

Hydrous silicate of magnesium. HiMSiSi^O,,. 

Monoclinic. Commonly massive, compact to fibrous. Color leek-green, 
oil-green, brown, black. Greasy luster. Feels smooth, sometimes greasy. 
H = 2.5 — 4; = 2.5 — 2.65. 

Refracriv." indices: oc =1.490; ^3 = 1.502: ^ = 1.511. 

Infusil)li'. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, but without foiMuing a .ielly. 
(lives water in a c-losed tube. A hea\y jji-eciiiitate of magnesia is obtained 
by sodium phosphate. 

Serpentine is one of the commonest minerals and also rocks of the 
State. It occurs in every county, and probably all tlie varieties are 
present. It is a common alteration product of basic igneous rocks rich 
in magnesian silicates, and it has all been formed by alteration and 
inetamorphism of such rocks. Besides the ordinary massive serpentine, 
retinolite, porcellophitc, marmolife, chrysotilc, picrolite, antigorite and 
nieta.ritc have been observed in petrographical literature. The only 
\'ariety of conunercial importance is the fibrous or asbestiform variety 
known as chrysotile, or asbestos, which occurs as narrow veins in the 
mas.sive material, mostlx' too narrow to be of value The massive serpen- 
tine ranges in color from light green to greenish black, but very little 
of it can be utilized as an ornamental stone on account of its foliated 
.111(1 slieared structure. Turner and jMelville*^' give several analyses of 
serpentine rock from Mount Diablo. 


Serpentine is al)undaiit in the Coast Range from San Diego to Del 
Norte County and also on the west flank of the Sierras. 

Amador County : A fine mottled serpentine occurs 1^ miles west of 
Sugar Loaf ^Mountain. Broad sheets and long fibers of chrysotile occur 
in serpentine in the American River Canyon near Towle. Chrysotile 
asbestos occurs in small veins in serpentine 2i miles east of lone. De- 
posit of chrysotile has l)een quarried two miles west of Plymouth. Veins 
of chrysotile occur in a dark green serpentine at the Mace mine, 2-^ 
miles east of lone. 

Calaveras Count\- : \'eins of chrysotile occur in the serpentine of the 
ridge northwest of the Stanislaus River, about six miles southeast of 
Copperopolis, forming a large deposit. 

El Dorado County: Veins of fibrous chrysotile are found at Forest 
Hill. Good quality of fibrous chrysotile occurs near Georgetown. 

Fresno County : Serpentine containing veinlets of chrysotile occur 
near Lanare. 

Inyo County : Long fibers of asbestos occur at Cerro Gordo. 

Kern County : Chrysotile veins occur in serpentine in Jawbone Can- 

Lake County : Becker^^> gives analyses by Melville of the serpentine 
at Sulphur Bank. 1 . Black ; 2. Light green. 










. 30.04 








= 100.38% 









= 99.93 

Fibrous chrysotile in serpentine occurs eight miles southeast of 
IjOWci- Lake. Some occurs near Siegler Springs and in the mountains 
near Bai'tlett Springs. 

Mariposa County: Small veins of chrysotile occur in the serpentine 
near Mariposa. 

Na])a County : Chrysotile asbestos in short fibers occurs in Steel 
Canyon, Berryessa Road. 

Nevada County: Massive serpentine is connnon in the Grass Valley 
and Nevada City region. Zones of short fibrous chrysotile occur in the 
Washington district on the South Yuba River. The picrolite variety of 
.serpentine occurs in ^Maryland mine. Grass Valley. 

Placer County : Long fibers of chrysotile occur at Wisconsin Hill, 
Iowa Hill and Arizona Flat. Specimens of serpentine carrying a.sbes- 
tos come from Cisco. 

Plumas County : Diller^^^ gives an analysis by Melville of serpentine 
from Greenville. 

», Fe.,0» FeO OaO Merf) HoO 

= 100,07% 


















FeO MnO 











Riverside County : Small grains of serpentine occur in the white 
crystalline limestone at Crestmore. Yellowish green nodular masses 
occur in crystalline limestone on Eagle ^Mountains. 

San Benito County: Becker^^^ gives an analysis by Melville of a light 
green marmolite from New Idria. 

SiOo Al.Os FeO NiO CaO MgO HoO 

41.54 2.48 1.37 0.04 __ 40.42 14':i8 =100.03% 

San Francisco County : Newberry^^^ gives an analysis of the serpen- 
tine of San Francisco. 

FeO MnO CaO MerO H,0 

= 100.00% 

Santa Clara County : Small veins of chrysotile occur in the serpen- 
tine near New Almaden. Pierolite occurs near ^lorgan Hill. 

Shasta County : Large tibrous masses of chrysotile asbestos occur 
near Sims Station. Massive serpentine containinu' chrysotile asbestos 
veinlets is found about three miles east of Castella Station. 

Sierra County : Serpentine a.sbestos occurs on west bank of Good- 
year Creek. 

Siskiyou County : .Massive serpentine occurs on ridge on Cottonwood 
^Mountains at the head of Bogus and Dutch Creeks. 

Sonoma County : Fibrous veinlets of asbestos occur in the serpen- 
tine near Petaluma and Sebastopol. 

Tulare County: A chrysotile variety- giving cat's-eye effect and called 
"satelite" comes from this county. Chrysotile is found in the serpen- 
tine east of Lindsay. 

Tuolumne County : The serpentine near Chinese and Montezuma con- 
tains small veins of chrysotile. 


Hydrous silicate of maguesiiim. 4Mg0.3Si02.6H;0. 

Amor])hous. Massive, gum-like. Color whitish, j'ellowish, reddish. 
Greasy luster. H = 2 — 3.5; G = 2 — 2.2. 
Like serpentine in its reactions. 

A whitish claj^-like mass with greasy luster. Its occurrence in the 
State may be more general than is knoMTi. 

Santa Clara County' : At the big magnesite mine on Red Mountain, 
crusts of deweylite have been found and described by Rogers^^^. 

Shasta County : Specimens resembling deweylite have come from this 

Siskiyou County : Tins been reported from this county. 




Hydrous silii-atc of iiinKiifNimu luul nickel, n..(Ni..Ms>-^i< •.•"'I.<^- 

Amoriihoiis : Clay-like masses with pod-shaiH'cl concretions. Color apii''- 
Sreen. Kjirtliy luster. Soft aud friahlo. (.i='2.'A — 2.S. 

liefrattive index: /i = l..''»l>. 

Infusible, but soluble in bydrocliloric acid with separation of .silica. Gives 
with b(trax a vi(det tii-jid while hm and lnown li;Md when cold. CJives water 
in closed tube. 

The cliit'f ore of nieki'l. hut (li'i>osit.s of it are not known to oeeiir 
ill this country. 

Imperial County : Rei)orte(l to oeeur on the .sontli slope of Coyote 
^lountains. but the si/c of the deposit is not stated. 

256. TALC — Steatite — Soapstone. 
Hydrous silicate of magnesium, H2Mf;3Si40,;. 

Mouoclinic. Foliated massive to granular and compact massive. Color 
gray, white, pale green, apple-grccn. brown. Greasy luster and feel. 
H = l — 1.5; G = 2.7 — 2.8. 

Refractive indices: oc =l->^>5> : ^ = l..')8n: ,^=3.o8r». 

Insoluble and infusible. Gives water in closed tube on intense ignition. 

Talc is a very common mineral in the metamorphic areas of the State, 
forming talc schists and talc gouge in mines. It occurs as a hydration 
product in the alteration of magnesian silicates, and is often associated 
with serpentine and with actinolite. The massive soapstone variety is 
of value and some is (juarried in the State. The location of some of 
the deposits is given, ])ut most of Ihciii nic of little value. 

Alameda County : Light green talc outcrops iu the serpentine about 
twenty miles southeast of Livermore. 

Amador County : Talc occurs in the sciiists near Jackson. Excellent 
foliated talc occurs at Plymouth. Light green talc occurs on the Tonzi 
Ranch, six miles northeast of lone. 

Butte County : Soapstone occurs in the vicinity of Flea Valley and 
Clear Creek. Narrow seams of talc occur in the Big Bend of the North 
Fork of the Feather River. Cray soapstone near Buck's Ranch, ilas- 
sive soapstone near Poe Station, tiiirty miles east of Oroville. Some 
talc has come from near Swayne. 

Calaveras County : Talc seams are found two miles northeast of 
Angels aud on Quail Hill. Deposits 2^ miles west of Murphys and 1| 
miles southwest of Vallicita ha\'e beeit utilized to some extent. ^Massive 
soapstone occurs four miles east of Valley Springs, ^lassive soapstone 
one mile southwest of Vallicita. Large deposit .six miles east of Moke- 
lumiii' Ilil] on the Calaveras l\ivrr. Also 2-1 miles west of Murpliy. 








at 100° ab. 100° 







0.16 4.34 


Contra Costa County : An analysis of the talc from the schists near 
San Pablo was made by Blasdale^^^ 

Can at 100° ah. 100° 

= 100.48% 

El Dorado County: In the Kelsey district and at Georgetown some 
tale occurs. Good talc or soapstone occur.s near Shingle Springs and 
near Latrobe. 

Fresno County : Talc occurs in schist in Watts Valley and in Kings 
Kiver Canyon. 

Glenn County : Talc seams occur with the serpentine on the eastern 
border of the county. Specimens have come from near Willows. * 

Inyo County : Fine greenish and white talc occurs near Keeler. Pure 
white talc is found at contact of limestone and diorite. eight miles 
southwest of Zabriskie. White and gray indurated talc occurs in the 
Darwin district. A deposit of soft silvery talc occurs at Acme Siding. 
A fine bluish white tale occurs near Keeler, which can be cut into blocks. 

Kern County : Steatite occurs on Soapstone ^Eountain. Good speci- 
mens of talc occur near Goler and Randsburg. Foliated masses are 
foimd near Kernville. 

Los Angeles County : Soapstone is found with serpentine at Empire 
Landing, Santa Catalina Island. Steatite occurs near Acton in the 
vicinity of the Red Rover mine. 

Madera County : Tale schist from which large blocks of soapstone 
can be obtained occurs on the north side of San Joaquin River, above 

Marin County: Some talc is found near San Rafael and Taylorville. 

Mariposa County : Small amounts of talc are found near Princeton, 
and in thf Lewis District. Gray soapstone occurs near Coulterville. 

Napa County : Seams of talc with serpentine are found in the Chiles 
district. ^Massive green talc is found on the Fir Hill Ranch, two miles 
west of Chiles P. 0. 

Nevada County : Specimens occur in the Grass Valley region. 

Placer (,'Ounty: Outcrops of tale oct-ur a few miles north of Colfax. 
Small amounts of talc have been found near Clipper Gap. Soapstone 
occurs at Bobtail mine. Rock Creek district. 

Riverside County : A white, scaly talc occurs about three miles south- 
west of "Winchester, and near Perris. 

Sacramento County: Talc occurs with chromite on Bear Mountain, 
near Mormon Island. 

San Benito County : Some talc is found between San Benito and 
Clear Creeks. 

San Bernardino County : A talcose clay called ' ' rock soap ' ' is found 
near Waterman. An extensive deposit of silvery white talc occurs along 


contact of limestone and tliorite near Riggs, 10 miles north of Silver 
Lake and on Sheep Creek about twenty miles northwest of Silver Lake. 

San Diego County: A rock soap is found near National City, at 
Otay and in Tia Juana Valley. Steatite specimens come from about 
five miles from p]scondido. 

Santa Barbara County : Kock soap occurs on the Santa Maria River. 

Santa Cruz (V)unty : Some talc occurs near Aptos. 

Shasta County : Talc is found on Boulder Creek. 

Sierra County: Soapstone suitable for slabs has been ([uarried near 
Pike City. 

Siskiyou County : Talc occurs in several localities associated with the 
serpentine areas of the county. It is found near Etna, near Fort Jones, 
near the head of Wolley Creek, near Scott, and in the Cottonwood 
^lountain. Small quantity occurs in serpentine about thirty miles west 
of Etna. Large deposit of soapstone south of Marble ^Mountain near 
head of Wolley Creek. l)ei)osit in Cottonwood ^Mountains on divide 
between Beaver and Bumble Bee Creeks. Large mass of soapstone 
occurs a few miles southeast of Hamburg Bar. 

Sonoma County : A soft green talc is associated with actinolite at 
Petaluma. A French chalk variety is found at Pipe Flat. 

Tehama County: Soapstone mixed with limonite has come from 

Trinity County: Light gray soapstone occurs on Brown's Mountain. 

Tulare County : Specimens of talc are found near Visalia. Green- 
ish massive soapstone occurs in large deposit eight miles east of Lind- 
say. Analysis : 

SiO, A1..0. Fc.O, MnO TaO MjrO Irii 

r.7.:u .'i.iV 0.20 1.7-2 2T.2f. ."..12 = n«».02% 

.Massive talc occurs near Portcrville. 

Tuolumne County : A greenish white talc is found about nine miles 
north of Sonora. Talc also occurs at Shaw's Flat and on Yankee Hill. 
A deposit of talc occurs near Shawmut. 

Yuba County: Soapstone has been ({uarried I'nr local use below 
Weed's Point near Camptonville and in the vicinity of Challenge, and 
Oak Vallev. 


257. SEPIOLITE— Meerschaum. 

Hydrous silicate of magnesium, HiMgoSigOio- 

Compact. Earthy texture and smooth feel. Color white. Dull luster. 
H = 2 — 2.5; = 2. When dry floats on water. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.")1!> : R='i.~>-: y=1.52S. 

Difficult to fuse. Heated in closed tube, gives off water. Moistoued with 
cobalt nitrate and intensely heated. as=sumes a pink color. Sohiltli' in hydro- 
chloric acid without fomiing a .jolly. 

Sepiolite occurs as a compact earthy white mineral with a smooth 
feel. When dry it floats on water. It is a valuable mineral, but its 
occurrence in California is doubtful. 

Inyo County: Mentioned by Planks^^^ as possibly occurring at the 
Half Dollar mine. 

Kern County : Reported to have been found in this county. County : Found in excellent (juality on a copper claim just 
east of Mariposa. 

Hydrous silicate of iron, magnesium and potassium. 

Earthy or in minute scales. Very soft. Color deep olive-green or apple- 
green. Greasy feel. ■ 

Refractive indices: oc = 1.02;" ; y^ = l.(i3: y = 1.038. 
Infusilili'. hut somewhat soIuIjIc without gelatinization. 

An earthy green mineral usually found in minute scales, having a 
greasy feel like talc. 

San Mateo County : A specimen has come from near San Mateo. 

Hydrous silicate of aluminium, HnALSiiOj;. 

Monoclinic. Radiating fibrous, compact granular, lamellar. Cleavage 
perfect basal. Color white, apple-green, light brown, gray. Pearly luster. 
H = l — 2; G = 2.8 — 2.9. Soft and greasy like talc. 

Refractive indices:' oc=1.5r)2: ^=:1..588: y = 1.(i<»o. 

Fuses usually with exfoliation. Insnhiblc in acids. ^loislcnrd with 
cobalt nitrate and intensely heated, assumes a l)lue color. Gives a little 
water in closed tube. 

Pyrophyllite resembles talc so closely in its properties that it is 
generally classed as talc. It occurs generally in schists and gneisses, 
often associated with eyanite. 

Agalmatolite is an indurated talc or pyrophyllite often carved into 
small ornaments. 

Alameda County : A radiating fibrous variety occurs near Irvingtou. 
Butte County : Found in rock on Berry Creek. 
Invo Countv : Occurs near Keeler. 


Marin County: A fibrous radial inti: pyropiiyllite has boon found on 
Mount Tanialpais. 

Mariposa County : Gray inassos of radiating, fibrous rosettos occur at 
Tres Cerritos, southwest of Indian Gulch, wliich have been described 
by Turnor^^\ An analysis of the pyrophyllite from this locality has 
been made by H. C. McNeil. 

SiO" AloO., FeoOa MgO at 105" ab. 105° TiO,. 

( 28.25 O.IS none 0.14 5.27 tr. =99.80% 

Plumas County: Some i)yropliyllito occurs at the Diadem Lode, 
Meadow Valley. 

San Diego County : A mottled jjyrophyllite occurs near San Diego. 
A compact cream-colored agalmatolite with dark red streaks occurs near 
Encinitas, Rogers^^^ 

San Luis Obispo County : Some massive pyrophyllite has come from 
this county. 

260. KAOLINITE— Kaolin— Clay. 

Hydrous silicate of aluminium, Alo03.2SiO;.HoO. 

Monocliuic. Occurs occasionally in scales and plates but is generally mas- 
sive, earthy, clay-like. Color white, yellow, red, brown. A'itreous to dull 
luster. H = 2 — 2.5; G=2.6. Plastic. 

Refractive indices: cc ='\.Zi(il; i3 = 1.5G5; y=1.507. 

Pure clays are infusible and insoluble, but sonic iiDt iK^ing i^ure kaolinite, 
will fuse to a RJass and are slijihtly soluble. Most will turn a blue color 
when heated intensely after moistening with cobalt nitrate. Give water 
in a closed tube. 

Kaolinite forms the base of clays. It is derived by the alteration of 
rocks containing aluminium silicates, especially the feldspars, and most 
good clays come from the alteration of the potash feldspar, orthoclase. 
As clay it is usually (piite impure with iron, sand, and other impurities, 
thus giving rise to many varieties which may be suitable for one 
purpose and not for another. Clays possess more or less plasticity, the 
highly plastic kinds being used for pottery and chinaware while the 
sandy and less plastic kinds may make bricks and terra-cotta ware. 

There are extensive deposits of clay in the State, some of which are 
utilized. Many analyses of clay are also available, but these analyses 
and the many occurrences of clay in the State are beyond the scope of 
this book. 

Rock soap and Mountain soap are names applied to impure clay-like 
masses having a soapy feel. They belong perhaps under the species 
talc, halloysite, or montmorillonite. 

Lithomarge is a finely compact variety which might be classed as a 


Fuller's earth is a sort of non-plastic clay suitable for decolorizing 
a)i(l i)urifying fat.s and oils. Its value as fuller's earth depends upon 
tliis propci'ty. which can he determined only by trial. 

Amador County : Banks of white clay containing silica occur two 
miles north of Carbondale. Good white clay occurs near lone. Fine 
pure white kaolinite occurs on the Scully Ranch near lone. 

Calaveras County: Good clay ocmii's at Valley Springs. Litliomarge 
occurs near Big Trees. 

J^ake County: Good quality of cla^' occurs at the Mt. Sam mine, on 
.\li. Koiiocti, southeast of Kelseyville. 

Los Angeles County: A deposit occurs si.\ miles west of Saugus. 

Napa County : Some has been found at the old Redington Mine, 

Riverside County : Fine kaolinite is found in Hagador Canyon. Soft 
white clay is present as an alteration of the feldspars at the Crestmore 

Solano County: ^lonterey shales suitable as fuller's earth occur on 
the Joice Ranch, one-half mile northeast of Vacaville. 

Sonoma County : A deposit of white kaolin occurs in a hill about 
07ie-quarter mile northeast of Beltane Station. Analyses gave : 

MgO H„o 

0.0(i 8.80 = 100.32% 

0.05 11.67 = 100.09% 

O.OG 12.0(3= 99.65% 


Hydrous silicate of aluminium, HiAloSioOg.HoO. 

Massive. Earthy clay-like masses. Color white, gray, greenish, reddish. 
Waxy luster. Slightly plastic. H = l — 2 ; G = 2 — 2.2. 

Kefractivp index: ;/ = 1.470 — 1.57. 

Like kaolinite in its blowpipe reactions aud indistinguishable from it. 
(iiMicriilly elassod as clay. 

A clay-like material occurring in masses which are indistinguishable 
from ordinary clay except by an analysis. It is usually less plastic than 

Lenzinife is a compact "rock soap" form of halloysite or clay. 

Inyo County : Lenzinite has been reported from Owens Valley by 
Hanks^^\ A banded white and brown halloysite occurs at the Cerro 
Gordo mine, Rogers-"^'. Pure white halloysite or montmorillonite occurs 
•at Shoshone. 

Kern County : Occurs near Piute Mountains. 

Lassen County : Halloysite occurs at Hayden Hill. 














Mt'diuni • 















]Moiio County : Halloysite was analysed from the Detroit mine, near 
Mono Lake, by Clarke^^^ 

SiO- AUG.-, Fe.O:, CaO MgO HoQ 

42.01 38.40 tr. O.(i0 1.50 18.00 =101.05% 

San Bcniartlino County : Near Vietorville. 

San Diego County : ^Massive pink halloysite occurs at Pala with the 
gem tourmaline and has been analysed by Schallor^^^ 

SiO-. Tic A1-.0.1 Fe-O. MnO CaO MgO LioO Na^O KjO 

43.02 i.oiio .",.-)..". 0.21 (t.2r, 1.02 0.10 0.2?, 0.10 0.03 

at 107° ab. 107"- 
6.63 12.2r, -1(X).1S% 

The rock-soap from Otay used for oil lilti-iition is montmorillonite. 
Locally called "otay lite." 

Ventura County : An analysis of lenzinite from this county has been 
made bv ^lerrill. White earthv hallovsite occurs near Xordhotf. 

Hydrous .silicate of aluminium, HoALSiiOjo.nHoO. 
Massive, clay-like. Color rose-red. Soft. 
Uofractive index: g — 1.5CA). 
Like kaolinite in its reaction-s. 

A massive clay-like mineral indistinguishable from clay except by 

Inyo County : Found in Death Valley. 

San Bernardino County: A clay mass, pi-obably montmorillonite, 
occurs near Needles ; ailso from near Yerma and Ludlow. Deposit occurs 
;ibout seventy miles north of Ludlow. 

San Diego County : Some of the pink clay associated with the tour- 
maline of Pala may bo in pai-t montmorillonite. Mentioned by Good- 
year(^> as forming a deposit about three miles northeast of Otay. This 
white to reddish sonpy iii;itcri;d is classed as a 'rock soap.' 


Hydrous silicate of aluminium, ALSiOj.oH^O. 

Amorphous. Incrustations. Colorless, pale sky-blue, green, brown. Vit- 
reous luster. H = 3; G = 1.S.j — 1.S9. 

Refractive inde.\ : h = 1.40. 

Infusible. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, yielding gelatinous silica. Heated 
with cobalt nitrate assumes a blue color. 

This is a rare amorphous mineral occurring as an incrustation. 

San Luis Obispo County : A specimen has come from Arroyo Grande. 



rij'drous silicate of ahimiuium, Al;Oo.2SiO:.H;0. 

Mouocliuic. In leaves like inountaiu leather. Soft with soapy feel. 
Color white. Pearly luster. 
Like kaoliniio in its reactions. 

This minoral exists as white, pearly scales with a greasy feel. It is a 
rare mineral. 

Amador County : Found in pearly scales near lone by Turner^^> and 
analysed hy Uillebrand. 

SiO-. TiO.. AI..O3 Fe-Oa FeO CaO K.>0 Na-^O at 100° ab. 100° 
.=i.-..SS 0.50 :',0.24 0.45 0.10 tr. 0.42 0.84 0.63 11.72 =rl00.3l7o 

Cahiveras County: A mineral similar in appearance has been found 
in the gangue of the mines at Angels and elsewhere in the Mother Lode. 

Hydrous silicate of aluminium, 2AL03.9SiO,6H,0. 

Amorphous. Clay-like or chalky. Color white, grayish or reddish. Soft. 
G = 2.18 — 2.30. 

Refractive index: h = 1.5G4. 

Another clay-like substance not distiusuishable from kaolin by the 

An amorphous clay-like or chalky mineral of rare occurrence. 

Lake County: Found in the Uncle Sam quicksilver mine, near Clear 


HyJrous silicate, carlionatc ami sulplialc dI calcium. CaSiOs. CaCOa. CaSO,. 

Ti'trasonalV Masse.^ of interlaced needles. Colorless and \\hite. Greasy 
luster. 11 = 3.5: G = 1.8T7. 

Refractive indices: £=1.4(>N: „j=- 1..'')(i7. 

Infusible, but swells up when iieated, coloriuir the (lanu- red. Easily sol- 
uble. (;i\-es watiM' in cl(is<>il tube. 

This is a rare and interesting mineral containing three acid radicals. 

Riverside County : Occurs in needles lining cavities of the rock in the 
limestone at Crestmore. Associated with spurrite. Observed, described 
and analysed by Foshag*-*. Analysis: 

SiO, A1.0,.Fe.,0, CaO SO, H,O.CO,, 

9.10 0.84 12.98 27. m 4i).4S = 99.96% 


Hydrous silicate of copper. CuSi03.2H20. 

Cryptocrystalliuo. Opal-like, earthy, incnistations. Color bluish ?reen, 
turquois-blue. Vitreous to dull luster. H = 2 — 4; = 2 — 2.24. 

Uefractive indices: j — l..")!: ,„:=1.4<i. 

Infusible. l)ut solul>lc in nilric acid witiuuU funning' a jelly. A blue solu- 
tion is oi)lained by addinjr ammonia to the nitric acid solution. Can be 
reduced to metallic copiK'r by fusing on charcoal with sodium carbonate. 
Darkens and gives water in a closed tube. 

Small amounts of chrysocolla occur in most of the copper districts of 
the State, but there are no deposits of the silicate. It occurs as an 
oxidation product of copper minerals, and is usually a stain or incrusta- 

Amador County: Common at Volcano. 

Calaveras County: Common as a staining material at Campo Seco 
and at Copperopolis. 

Fresno County: Found at the Ne Plus Ultra mine. Occurs as an 
alteration of copper minerals at the Gordon Fresno Copper mine and 
at the Red Streak mine, Big Dry Creek. 

Inyo County: Connnon at the Cerro Gordo mines. Occurs pseudo- 
mor])h after limonito at the Aries mine. As an alteration of chaleopy- 
rite in the Gold Belt of Panamint Range. Associated with brochantite 
near headwaters of Cottonwood Creek ; with garnet at the Green Mon- 
ster mine, 1^ miles north of Citrus. Occurs as an alteration of chalco- 
pyrite in garnet rock in ^lazourka Canyon. Associated with the scheel- 
ite of Deep Canyon, west of Bishop. Occurs with cerargyrite at the 
Bonanza King mine, Sherman district ; at different points on Ubehebe 
^lountains. Associated with azurite, cuprite, malachite and melaconite 
at mines of Greenwater district, IMack ^Mountains. 

Los Angeles County: Reported from th(> old Kelsey mine, near San 
Gabriel Canyon, by Storms'^\ 

Mariposa County : In streaks near Mariposa. 

^Mendocino County: Found in the Red Mountain mining diijtrict. 

^lodoc County: Occurs with malachite and cuprite near Fort Bid- 

Mono County : Common at Lundy and Benton districts. With part- 
zite at the Diana mine. Blind Springs district. 

Nevada County : Common with the copper of ]\Ieadow Valley and 
also at Spenceville. 

Plumas Count}- : Banded masses with malachite occur at the Engels 
mine. Light's Canyon, and in the ]Mohawk Valley. Fine specimens of 
chrysocolla and malachite are found at the EngeLs mine. 



Riverside County: Has been found in the mines of Chuckawalla 
^Mountains. Good specimens have corao from the Mountain King mine. 

San Benito County :. Small amounts occur witli ohalcocite in natrolite 
at the benitoite locality, Louderback^->. 

San Bernardino Couut}^: Common in the Calico and Bismark dis- 
tricts, Lindgren^'^\ Massive at the Copper AYorld mine, Clarke Moun- 

San Diego County : Common in the Julian and Banner districts. 
Good specimens have come from various places in the county, 

Santa Clara County : Occurs with malachite near Fifteen Mile House. 

Siskiyou County : Found at the Blue Ledge mine. 


Hydrous silicate of iron, HoFe^Si30,2.2H20. 

Compact massive, opal-like. Color pistachio-green, greenish yellow. Dull 
luster. H = 2.5 — 4.5; G = 1.72 — 2.01. 

Refractive indices: cc =1.<325; ,, = 1.655. 

Heated in1:ensely, becomes magnetic. Soluble with precipitation of silica. 
(Jives water in a closed tube. 

Chloropal is a green, opal-like mineral of rare occurrence. 
Nontronite is a yellowish variety. 

El Dorado County: Nontronite was observed at Georgetown altered 
to limonite. 

Kern County : Specimens of chloropal have come from the mountains 
east of Bakersfield. 

Mariposa County : Nontronite has been found with garnet in this 

Placer County : Specimens of chloropal have come from Bath. 


Hydrous silicate of mauganese, 2 Mu SiOs.HX). 

Urtliorhombic. Fine fibrous masses and granular. Color pale grayish 
yellow to light brown. Luster vitreous to pearly. H=::3; G=2.98. 

Refractive indices: cx:=l-G24; R — 1.Q^~; ^ = 1.047. 
Fuses easily to a dark brown glass. Soluble in hydrochloric acid with- 
out gelatiuizatiou. Gives green bead of mauganese with sodium carbonate. 

This is considered a rare mineral, but it appears to be abundant in 
some of the psilomelane deposits of the State. It is characteristically 
associated with rose-red inesite and l)rown neotocite. 

Alameda County: Occurs in the Arroyo Moeho manganese ore and 
observed at the Bailej'- mine in association with inesite and gray rhodo- 


Humboldt County : Associated witli browu neotocite and rhodoehro- 
site at the Woods niiue, 12 miles liorthwest of Blocksburj?. 

Meiidoeiuo County: (Ti-anular pale brown bementite occurs with neo- 
tocite and psilonielaue at tlie Tliomas mine, six miles northeast of Red- 
wood. Also at the ^It. Sanhedrin deposits, especially in the Rhodo- 
clirosite Claim at Impassable Rock, associated with inesite and neotocite. 

San Joaquin County : Masses of it occur at the old Ladd manganese 

Stanislaus County : First observed and identified by Foshag in the 
ore from the Cummiugs Lease, where it occurs granular, mixed with 
grav carbonate and rose-red inesite. 

270. NEOTOCITE— Stratopeite. 
Hj'drous silicate of manganese and iron. 

Amorphous. Color black to dark brown. Dull luster. 14 = 3 — 4; G = 2.64. 

Refractive index: n—lAl. 

Gives green bead of manganese when fustMl with sodium carbonate. Solu- 
ble in acid. Yields wat.^r in a closed tube. 

This amorphous silicate of and iron appears to be common 
in association with the manganese deposits of the State. 

Humboldt County : Very abundant in resinous brown to almost 
black masses at the Woods mine, twelve miles northwest of IMocksburg. 

Lake County : Associated with psilomelane at the Witter Springs 

Mendocino County : Abundant in the Thomas mine in light and dark 
brown colors. Also in the deposits of IMt. Sanhcdrin. 

Sonoma County : A dark brown amorphous mineral with dull luster, 
supposed to be stratopeite has come from this county. 

Hydrous silicate of calcium and aluminium. 
Found in felt-like iiias-ses re.S4jmbling mountain Icathci- ;im(1 asbestos. 

l*\isible but insoluble. Gives water in a closed tube. 

Santa Clara County : Found on quartz at New Almaden. Also in 
sheets with dolomite at the Senator mine. 
Yuba County : Occurs at Smarts vi lie. 



Hydrous borosilicato of sodium, Na B (SiO,.;)„.II^.O. 
Mouoclinie. Radiate-fibrous spherulites. Color white Vory soft. 
Ilefractivo indices: oc=l--~>l'^; Q—1.^:VA; y = l.~}liry. 

Kasily soluble in hydrochloric acid and .somewhat .S'ohii)le in water. Fuses 
easily to a clear glass. 

This rare salt was described by Larseii and Hicks* ^^ as a new Cali- 
fornia mineral. 

San Bernardino County : Occurred as crusts of white spherulites at 
Searles Lali:e. Analyses and composition determined by Hicks: 

SiO, , 
















273. TITAN ITE—Sphene. 
Titano-silicate of calcium, CaTiSiOj. 

Monoclinic. Wedge-shaped crystals, sometimes massive. Color 
brown, yellow, gray, yellowish green. Adamantine luster. H = 5 — • 5.5. 
G = 3.4 — 3.56. 

Refractive indices: ex =1.900; ^ = 1.907: y = 2.034. 

Slightly soluble in hydrochloric acid and the solution when boihMl 
down with metallic tin, assumes a violet color due to the titanium. 
Fusible at about 4. 

Titanite is a common accessory mineral of the granites, gneisses and 
schists of the State. It has been mentioned by most writers in their 
petrographical descriptions as a microscopic constituent of the rocks, 
and large crystals are seldom found. 

Leucoxene is a grayish alteration product of ilmenite, rutile and 
titanite, often observed in rocks containing those minerals. 

Contra Costa County : Titanite is mentioned as an associate of crossite 
in the schists near San Pablo, by Palache*^-^ 

El Dorado County: Titanite was first observed by Blake^'^^ in the 
granite of Slippery Ford and other places of the Sierras. 

Fresno County : Titanite is a constituent of the rocks at Fine Gold 

Inyo County : Occurs at the scheelite deposit of Deep Canyon west 
of Bishop, in microscopic crystals. 

Marin County : Occurs as one of the minerals of the lawsonite schists 
of the Tiburon Peninsular, Ransome^^^ 

Plumas County : Leucoxene is mentioned by Murgoci^^^ in the sye- 
nite of Spanish Peak. A constituent of the norites at Engels. 


Riverside County : Granular titanite is rather abundant in the quartz 
monzonite at Crestmore, in pale brown grains. Small crystals occur in 
the igneous rocks of Eagle ^Mountains. 

San Diego County : Titanite is an associate of duniortierite at Dehesa, 

San Francisco County : A constituent of the rocks of San Francisco, 

Santa Clara County: Fine large crystals occur in the eclogites of 
Calaveras Valley, in the quartzite and diorite of Oak Hill, near San 
Jose, and it is a common constituent of the glaucophane rocks of the 
Coastal region, Murgoci^^^ 

Trinity- County : Associated with epidote, colorless garnet and zircon 
in a soda granite-porphyry in the Iron Mountain district. 



Titiiuo-silicate of barium, BaTiSisO,;. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Prisms with trigonal pyramids. Colorless 
to deep blue. Vitreous luster. Transparent, strongly dichroic. H=:6.5; 
G = 3.64 — 3.65. 

Rt'fractivo indices: £=1.^(14; ^^l.TnT. 

Soluble sutlifiontly to give the titanium roaction when the hydrochloric 
acid solution is boiled with tin. Gives the green flame of barium. 

San Benito County: Colorless and beautiful sapphire-blue crystals 
of this new gem mineral were discovered in 1907 near the headwaters 
of the San Benito River, about twenty-five miles north of Coalinga and 
the mineral was described by Louderback^i),^^). They show the forms: 
(0001), (lOTO), (lOTl), (OlTl), (1120), (10T2), (2241), and are of tri- 
gonal habit. The crystals occur in a zone of narrow veins of natrolite in 
serpentine and have associated with them neptunite, chalcocite, chryso- 
colla, actinolite. crossite, albite, aegyrite. calcite, arauonite and psilome- 
lane. Analyses of the mineral were made by W. C. Blasdale : 

Si02 TiOs BaO 

43.56 20.18 36.34 =100.08% 

Sp.G. = 3.64 — 3.67 
43.79 20.00 36.31 =100.10 

Additional notes on benitoite have been made by Baumhauer^^)^ 
Hlawatsch(i>, Palache^^) and Rogers<2). 


Titano-silicate of iron, manganese, potassium and sodium (Na,K)»(Fe,Mn)TiSi40,o. 

Monoclinic. Prismatic crystals. Color black, in thin splintera blood-red. 
Streak cinnamon-brown, yitreous luster. H = 5 — 6; G = 3.234. 

Refractive indices: « =3.fflX>; ^ = 1.009; y = 1.736. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid and solution turns violet when boiled willi 
metallic tin. Fused with sodium carbonate, gives green b6ad of manganese. 

San Benito County : Black crystals of neptunite accompany benitoite 
and these were first described by Louderback^iX^). The crystals are 
deep blood-red in thin splinters and show the forms: (001), (100), 

(110), (111), (Til), (T12), (211), (221), (311). 
An analysis was made by Blasdale : 

SiOo TiO" FeO MnO CaO MgO KoO Na^O 

53.44 17.18 11.23 1.7S 0.25 1.82 5.39 9.14 =100.23% 

The mineral was later analysed by Bradley ^^^ : 

SiOo TiO" FeO MnO CaO MgO K^O Na-O 

52.91 17.77 11.54 0.82 1.59 1.41 5.11 9.83 =100.98% 
52.83 17.89 31.83 0.88 1.53 1.48 5.06 9.28 =100.78 

Further notes on neptunite by Ford^^^ and Schallcr(^°>. 










































Soda niter 





























The only phosphate of commercial importance as a source of phos- 
phoric acid is the lime phosphate, represented by apatite and lime 
phosphate rock, deposits of which have not been found in the State. 
Masses of amblygonite occur, which have been mined for lithia, and 
veins and seams of turciuois are mined for the gem, but the rest of the 
phosphates are very rare in the State. 


Ptiosphate of cerium, lanthanum and didymium (Ce,La,Di)P04. 

Monoclinie. Crystals rare. Commonly in grains as sand. Color yel- 
lowish brown, sometinips reddish. Vitreous to resinous luster. H = 5 — 5.5; 
G = 5.0. • 

Refractive indices: oc =1.780; «=1.788; y = l.S37. 

Insoluble and infusible. Fused with sodium carbonate and the fusion dis- 
solved in nitric acid, the .solution will give a lemon-yellow precipitate on 
the addition of ammonium molybdate. Decomposed by concentrated sul- 
phuric acid and the solution treated with ammonium oxalate, will precipi- 
tate the rare earth metals (cerium, lanthanum, etc.). 

Monazite has been detected in the black sands and concentrates from 
some of the mines but no deposits of this important mineral are known 


in the State. Its presence in the sands has been noted by Day and 

Butte County : Traces of monazite have been found in the black sands 
of Little Rock Creek. 

Del Norte Countj^ : Observed in the sands at Crescent City and 
on Gilbert Creek. 

El Dorado County : Traces have been found in the concentrates of 
the Brownsville district and at Plaeerville. 

Humboldt County : Observed at Trinidad. 

Placer County : Traces at Michigan Bluff. 

Plumas County : Occurs in the sand at Nelson Point. 

Yuba County: Traces in the Brownsville district. 

Phosphate of lithium and iron, LiFePO^. 

Orthorhombic. Commonly massive. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 

bluish Jiray. lisht blue, grayish green. Vitreous luster. H = 4.?) — -H; 
G = 3.42 — 3.56. 

Refractive indices: oc=l-t>SS: ^ = 1.(588: y = l.(5J)2. 

I'iasily fusible and soluble. Ammonium molybdatc added to a nitric acid 
suhitiou precipitates yellow ammonium phospbo-molybdate. Yields a reil 
lithium flame when fused. 

This rare phosphate usually contains manganese and grades into 

San Dipgo County: Found in the lithia mines at Pala associated with 
lithiophilite and purpurite. Gratou and Sehaller^^\ 


Phosphate of lithium and manganese, LiMnPOj. 

Orthorhombic. Commonly massive. Cleavage perfect basal. Color 
brown, salmon-pink. Vitreous luster. H = 4..5 — .5: G = 3.42 — 3. 50. 

Refractive indices: oc=l-07G: « = 1.G79: y = 1.6S7. 

Easily fusible and soluble. The phosphate reaction is obtained wIumi 
ammonium molybdate is added to the nitric acid solution. Fuses with a 
red flame. The sodium carbonate bead is blue-green. 

San Diego County : Found with triphylite and purpurite as an altera- 
tion product of triphylite at Pala. Graton and Schaller^^^ 



Phosi)hatt' of iron, inangaueso ami niioniic. ;; ( Mii.Fc )(). ro(.).-,. MuF.. 

Monoclinic. Massive, Color pir.i<. hrowii. tu lilmk. Stroak yellowish 
l.n.wii. 11=4 — 5.5; G = 3.44— 3.S. 

Itcfractivo iiulices : a:=l-<><>5: ^=l.<i7;>: y= 1.08*2. 

Fuses easily to a black nia{,'netic kIoI'uI''- With bora.K it ,u;ives an aiiir- 
th.ystine bead and with sodium corbonate a green bead. Soluble in liydio- 
eliloric acid. Usually gives a fluorine test when dissolved with sulplmiic 

A rare mineral usually ()('ciirrin<i- with tungsten minerals in pegmatite 

San Bernardino County : Found with liiibnerite on specimens from a 
deposit eight or ten miles north of Goffs, Hess-'". 

280. APATITE. 

Phosphate of calcium with chloi-ine or fluorine (CaCl)Ca.i(P04)3 or 


Hexagonal. Prismatic crystals, granular, massive. Color browu, green, 
yellow, pink, colorless. Vitreous to greasy luster. H=:5; = 3.1" — 3.23. 

Ivtlractive indices: £ = 1.G31 ; (,j=:l.<j34. 

Practically infusible, but easily soluble. Ammonium molylxlate i)r("<-ipi- 

lates much canary -yellow granular jiowder. Calcium can be determined by 
dissohnng in hydrochloric acid, adding ammonia to precipitate the calcium 

phosiiliate. redissolving this precii)itati' with just enough drops of acid, and 

then addinu ammimium oxalate, whicli will precii»itate the calcium. Some 
\ aril-tics will gi\c a fluorine reac-tion. 

Apatite has been observed as small crystals in many of the rocks of 
the State, l)iit no deposits of the mineral are known. A small percent- 
age of calcium ])h()si>hate is found in many of the limestones of the 

Contra Costa Count}' : Found in brownish masses in the schists north 
of Berkeley. 

Fresno County : Observed in the rocks near Dunlap. 

Humboldt County : Specimens of rock phosphate or phosphorite have 
been found near Yager. 

Placer County : An earth>" lime phosphate has been found near Dutch 

Plumas County : A constituent of the syenite of Spanish Peak, Mur- 
goci"'. Occurs as a constituent of the norites at Engels copper mine. 

Riverside County : Greenish blue apatite as granular masses occur in 
A\hite calcite. associated with diopside and wollastonite, at Crestmore. 

San Bernardino County : Small crystals were found in limestone on 
eastern end of Kingston Range. 


San Diego County : Occurs in the gneiss at Dehesa with dumortierite, 
Schaller^^). Tabular crystals of violet and pink colors occur at the old 
Mack mine near Rincon. At the Victor mine, Rineon, pale dirty green 
crystals occur with the forms: (0001), (lOTO),' (1121), (10T2), (lOTl), 
(3141), Rogers^^\ Crystals are also found on South Mountain and at 
]\Iesa Grande. Small crystals occur in limestone near Jaeumba. and near 
Grapevine Camp. 

San Francisco County : Mentioned by Lawson^^) in the rocks of San 


Phosphate of lead with chlorine (PbCl)Pbi(P04)3. 

Hexagonal. Prismatic crystals, columnar, massive. Color brown, yel- 
lowish green. Adamantine luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 6.5 — 7.1. 

Refractive indices: £=2.042; (^=2.050. 

Fuses easily on charcoal and yields a lemon-j-ellow c-oating when reduced. 
The phosphate reaction can be obtained by dissolving in nitric acid and 
adding ammonium molybdate. 

The lead phosphate is occasionally found in the mining districts as 
an oxidation product of galena and a few localities are known. 

Calaveras County : Green crystals in gold quartz have been found at 
the Reliance mine. 

El Dorado County : Occurred at Mosquito Gulch, six miles northeast 
of Placerville as a yellowish green coloring matter in botryoidal chal- 
cedony and as a crystalline coating, Turner ^^^. 

Inyo County : Found in small amounts in the Cerro Gordo district. 

Mariposa County : A small amount was found in the mines near 

Riverside County : Found at the El Dorado mine in crystals at 300- 
foot level. 

Tulare County : Found in the White Chief mine, Mineral King dis- 
trict, Goodyear^i^ 

Phosphate of lithium and aluminium with fluorine, Li(AlF)P04. 

Triclinic. Generally massive. Cleavage perfect basal. Color white. 
Pearly to vitreous luster. H = 6; G = 3.10. 

Refractive indices: cc =1-579; ^ = 1.593; y = 1.597. 

Insoluble, but easily fusible, giving the red flame of lithium. Fused with 
sodium carbonate and then boiled with nitric acid, the phosphate reaction 
is obtained on the addition of ammonium mol.vbdate to the solution. 

This is an important lithia mineral, and but one deposit is knoAvn in 
the State. 


San Diego County : A large mass of white massive amblygonite occurs 
in the pegmatite vein carrying the rnbollite and lepidolite and was 
mined at the Stewart mine, Pahi. The mineral was analysed by 






Li,0 Na,0 HoO 






9.8S 0.14 5.95 






= 101.31 — 0.96 = 100.35% 

Massive amblygonite occurs on Aguanga Mountains associated with 
blue tourmaline and cassiteritc 

A few small specimens of white cleavablc amblygonite have been 
found at the Victor mine, Rincon. Kogers^^^ 


Basic phosphale of aliuainium, iion and magnesium (Fe.Mg) A12(OH)2P;Ok. 

Monoclinic. Sharp pointed pyramids, granular. Color azure-blue. Vit- 
reous luster. H = 5 — 6; = 3.05. 

Ucfriu-tivo indices: oc=l.<><^3: ^--l.(J32: y^^AuVJ. 

Infusible and insoluble. Falls to pieces when heated. ]'"usr(l \\ itii soiliuiii 
carbonate and then dissolved in nitric acid, tlii> i)lK)S))hat(' reaction is 
obtaincnl liy adding ammonium molybdate. Yields water in a closed tube. 

Lazulite is a rare phosphate found in quartzites and metamorphic 


Inyo County: Lazulite occurs in a white ({uartz vein intersecting 
schist in Breyfogle Canyon, Death Valley. Occurs in a vein cutting- 
schist, in pfde to deep azure blue colors in Breyfogle Canyon, Death 

Los Angeles County: Specimens have been found in the San Gabriel 

Mono County: Blue lazulite occurs as bands in a white quartzite 
associated with rittile, near Mono Lake. Occurs associated with coarse 
granular andalusite in the White ^FountHins near the southern border 
of the county, Knopf*^'. 

Deep blue lazulite was found in a quartz vein in Green Creek Canyon, 
near Bodie, Kogers^^V 

San Diego County : Some lazulite has been reported as found in the 
rock at Oceanside. 


Phosphate and silico-sulphate of calcium, 3Ca,(P04)2.CaC03 + 3Ca3 (SiOj (S04).CaO. 
Hexagonal. Small prismatic crystals and grains. Color pale rose- 
red. Vitreous luster. H=:5; = 3.234. 

Refractive indices: £=].<ioO; ^=1.(355. 

Infusible, but soluble in nitric acid. The nitric acid solution gives a 
phosphate i-eaction on addition of ammonium molyl)date and a sulphate 
reaction on addition of Ijarium chloride. 

This very rare mineral is unlike any other in having four acid 
radicals. It resembles apatite in physical properties. 
















Riverside County : A recently discovered new mineral in the State, 
occurring in blue calcite, with diopside, vesuvianite, garnet, and its 
alteration product, crestnioreite. in the limestone quarry at Crestmore. 
Analysis by Eakle and Rogers^^^ 

SiOs CO2 H2O 

= 100.06% 

Hydrous phosphate of iron, FejPoOs.SHoO. 

Mouoclinic. Long prismatic crystals, earthy, incrustations. Cleavage 
perfect cliuopinacoidal. Color generally sky-blue or green, rarely colorless. 
Pearly to dull luster. H = 1.5 — 2 ; G = 2.58 — 2.68. 

Refractive indices: ex =1.579; ^=1.603: ^ = 1.633. 

Soluble and fusible. Fuses to a black magnetic mass. Ammonium 
niolybdato added to a nitric acid solution gives the yellow phosjihate reac- 
tion. Yields water in a closed tube. 

The iron phosphate is formed in rocks, usually sedimentary rocks, 
by decaying phosphatic matter such as bones, in the presence of iron. 

Alameda County : Small specimens of earthy blue vivianite Avere 
found some years ago in the hills back of Berkeley and were reported 
by Hanks(6). , , ^^ . g| 

Calaveras County : Has been found at Copperopolis. 

Humbohlt County : Occurs in the rock at Yager. Said to have been 
found on ]\Iaple Creek. 

Los Angeles County : Early observed as earthy blue masses in the 
asphalt bed of the Rancho de la Brea. where it formed by the decomposi- 
tion of the bones of extinct animals. Mentioned by W. P. Blake^^^^ 

Madera County : Dark blue earthy masses have been found near 

Yuba County : Good crystals occurred near Camptonville and were 
described by Jackson<3). They showed the forms: (010), (100), (110), 
(111), (101), (411), (410). 


Hydrous phosphate of manganese and iron (Fe,Mn);0;.P;05.H20. 

Orthorhombic. Irregular masses. Color deep red or purple. Satin 
luster. H = 4 — 4.5; G=3.40. 

Refractive index : g = l.S6. 

Similar to vivianite in reactions. Yields a blue-green head of manganese 
with sodium carbonate. 

One of the very rare minerals associated with the pegmatites of San 
Diego County. Of a deep red or purple color. 

San Diego County: Found at Pala in a pegmatitic dike on Hiriart 
Hill, associated with lithiophilite and triphylite, Graton and Schaller(i>. 


Hydrous phosphate of alumiuium, AIPO,.Al(OH)3.H;0. 

Massive. In thin seams and incrustations. Color sky-blue, bluish green, 
apple-green. Waxy luster. II = G; G=2.6 — 2.S3. 

Refractive indices: oc=l*>l; /J=1.62; y = 1.65. 

Soluble in liydiXK-hloric acid. Infusible and becomes browu or black 
when boated. Ma.v give reaction for i-opper. After fusion with sodium car- 
bonate and dissolving in nitric acid, tlie plios]>liate reaction is obtained on 
addition of ammonium molybdate to solution. Gives water in a closed tube. 

Thin seams of apple-green and 1)luish green turquois occur in the 
State which are suitable for gem i)urposes when cut with the matrix. 

Madera County: A specimen of turquois (Kallaite) was found on the 
Taylor ranch, having a hexagonal form and it was described as a 
pseudomorph after apatite, Moore and Zepharovitch^^^ 

San Bernardino County : Some apple-green turquois has been found 
near Victor. Turquois was early mined from a deposit in the extreme 
northeastern part of the county in the high mountains north of Ivanpah. 
Considerable light green gem material has been obtained from this 
district. Occurs near the head of Riggs Wash, twelve miles northeast 
of Silver Lake, iu a coarse porphyritic granite autl in porphyry dikes. 
Some turquois has been found in the Solo mining district, thirty miles 
northwest of Cima. 

Tulare County : Specimens of turquois have come from this county, 
a few miles from the Kern county line. 


Hydrous phosphate of nluminium, AirO,.2H^O. 

Orthorhombic. Usuall.v in round compact masses. Color dci-]) emernld- 
green or bluish green. Vitreous luster. II- 4: (i=:2.54. 

Refractive indices: oc— 1.551; « = 1.55S: ,, = 1.582. 

Infusible, but whitens when heated. Moistened with cobalt solution and 
intensely heated, it becomes blue. (Jives water in a closed tube. Phos- 
phate can be precipitated by ammonium molybdate from a nitric acid solu- 
tion after fusion of the i)owd<-r with sodium carbonate. 

El Dorado County : Specimens have come from Pleasant Valley. 

Il.vdrous phosphate of lend iiiid jiluminium, lM)f).2Al203.Po(),,.H;0. 

Hexagonal. Globular, incrustations, compact massive. Color reddish 
brown, yellowish gray. Resinous luster. H = 4 — 5; G = 4 — 4.9. 
Refractive indices: gUil.CiTG; ^j = l.()54. 

Fused on chai'coal with sodium carbonate, a yellow coating and metalli(; 
globule of lead are obtained. The nitric acid solution gives the phosphate 
reaction on adding ammonium molybdate. Yields water in a closed tube. 

Inyo County : A specimen of this rare mineral has been found at the 
Cerro Gordo mine. 


Hydrous phosphate of calcium iuul ii-ou, (Ca,Fe)3PO.,.4H:.0. 

Triclinic. Usually in tal)ular crystals. Color pale greon. A'itroous. 
H = 3.5 ; G = 2.81—2.8."). 

Refractive iudices : oc=l'J02; fj-IMli; y = 1.04J». 

Soluble in nitric acid and a yellow precipitate is obtained by adding am- 
monium molybdalf to the acid solution. Becomes magnetic on heating, 
(lives water in a closed tube. 

Kings County : This rare phosphate was found in the Lewis well, Sec. 
23, T. 21 S., R. 21 E., at a depth of 500 feet, in layers of pale green 

Hydrous phosphate of uranium and copper. CuO. 2 VO.. IVOj. 8HjO. 

Tetragonal. Usually in square tiakes and micaceous. IVrfect basal 
cleavage. Color emerald-green. Sti'eak pale green. H = 2 — 2..j ; (4=3.-! — 3.<>. 
Refractive indices: £ = 1.582: ^,J=l.o9'2. 

Uranium minerals are very rare in the State. 

San Bernardino County : Specimens of green torbernite with yellow 
antunite have come from the uoi'thcjistcfn pjirt (if llic county. 

Hydrous phosijliate of uranium and calcium. CaO. 2 UO,. 1\.():,..SH4). 

Orthorhombic. Thin tabular crj-stals. Color lemon-yellow. Streak yel- 
h)w. Cleavage perfect basal. 11 = 2— 2..") : (i = 3.1 9. 

Refractive indices: oc = 1 ••~>53 ; fl=l..")75: .y = 1.577. 

Fuses easily to black mass giving a pale greenish flame. Gives green 
bead with phosphorous salt. Soluble in nitric acid. 

San Bernardino County : Specimens of yellow autuuite associated 
with green plates of torbernite have come from the northeastern part 
of the county. 

Hydrous phosphate of manganese, 5Mu0.2P205.5H;0. 

Mouoclinic. Groups of short prisms. Also scaly, massive. Color orange- 
red, rose and nearly colorless. H = 5; = 3.185. 

Refractive indices: oc=l.<»47: ft=1.054i; y = l.Gt>0. 

Fusible and .soluble. The nitric acid solution gives the phosphate reac- 
tion on addition of ammonium niolybdate. A blue-green bead of manganese 
is obtained when fused with sodium carbonate. Yields water in a closed 

San Diego County: Found iu the Stewart mine at Pala and men- 
tioned by Schaller<i''\ 


294. PALAITE. 
Hydrous phosphate of manganese, 5MnO.2P2O0.4H2O. 
MouoclinicV Crystalline masses. Color flesh-red. G = 3.14 — 3.20. 
Kefractlvo indices: a:=l-<5'')2; y^ = l.(>jG; y = l.G6<>. 
Ucactious aro .similar to those for hureaulito. 

San Diego County: A new phosphate of manganese having a flesh- 
red color, which has resulted from the alteration of lithiophilite. Found 
in the Stewart mine at Pala and described and analysed by Schaller^i^\ 
Analysis : 

FeO MnO CaO FecC-! FnO-^ H2O Li^O Insol. 

7.4S 40.S7 1.77 O.IG 39.02 - 10.43 tr. 0.89 =100.62% 

Hydrous phosphate of manganese. 

Triclinic? Minute crystals. G = 2.94. 
Kefractivo indices: cc— 1-*>^: ^=l-*>f»: y = 1.09. 
Reacts similar to hurcaulite. 

San Diego County : Found in the Stewart mine at Pala as an abund- 
ant alteration product of lithiophilite. Finely fibrous doubly refract- 
ing mineral, probably triclinic. Described by Schaller* 


Hydrous phosphate of manganese and iron, Fo„03.9Mn0.4P205.14H20. 
Massive. Color bufif-yellow. G = 2.88. 
Kefvactive indices: cc =l-^>~>'~» : 13 = 1. (JO; y = l.(>7'll. 

Ueaets similar to vivianitc. but gives in addition a hlui'-grecn head «if 
manganese with sodium oarl)onatc. 

San Diego County : A new )iiineral resulting from the alteration of 
hureaulite, having a buff-yellow" color, occurring in the Stewart mine 
associated with fibrous palaite and blue strengite. Described and 
analysed by Schaller^^^V Analysis: 

.Or. H«0 Insol. 

= 100.45% 

Hydrous phosphate of iron. Fe2O3.P2O5.4H2O. 

Orthorhombic. Generally in spherical and botryoidal forms. Color pale 
red. Vitreous luster. H = 3 — 4; G = 2.S7. 

Refractive indices: cc =1.708; ^ = 1.708; y = 1.745. 
Reacts .simihir to vivianite. 

San Diego County: Found in the Stewart mine at Pala associated 
with salmonsite, Schaller^^^^ 
















Hydrous phosphate of iron, manganese ami lithia, Fe;,03.6Mn0.4PoOo.3(Li,H)20- 
Massive. Color dark brown. Streak light yellowish brown. = 3.45. 
Refractive indites: tx ^I.TIS: ftml.To."); y=rl.74."5. 
IJeacts like lithinitiiilite. 

San Diego County : Occurs in cloavable masses at the Vanderburg- 
Naylor mine on Hiriart Hill, near Pala. Dark hrown mineral result- 
ing from the alteration of litliiophilitc Described and analysed by 
Schaller^^'*^ Analysis: 

MnO CaO PesOs Mn.O:, P..>0-, H2O LiaO Insol. 

33.60 0.20 n.26 2.10 4'8.10 1.71 3.80 4.18 =99.95% 



Chromate of Inul. ThrrO,. 

^lonoclinic. lAtnti ]>risinatie crystals or uranuhir. Scdile. 11=2.5 — ;i ; 
(;=5.!) — 0.1. Adiiiiiaiitiiic liistci-. Color lii-ii;lit red. Stri'ak <irMi\se-.V<'llo\v. 

Ki-fraclivc indices: ex = -'..■{ 1 : « = 2.:!7; y = 2.tii;. 
A rare miuernl iu this StMte. 

Inyo (!()unty: Found in the Darwin mines associated with wulfenite. 
Riverside County: Occurred in the El Dorach) mine, near Indio. 


The minerals containing vanadium are exceedingly rare and are only 
represented by a few localities. 


\'anadate of l)isnuilli, BiVO,. 

Orlhorhonibic. 'Pabular and acicular crystals. Perfect basal cleavage. 
Color reddish brown. Streak yellow. H = 4; G = 0.25. 

Kcfractivi: indices: ex =2.41 ; /^=2..")0: ^ = 2.51. 

Fused on charcoal with nu.xture of potassium iodide and sulphur, a red 
sublimate is obtained mixed with sreenisli y(dlo\v. The phosphorims salt 
bead of vauiidiuni is yi'llow in;- flame and emerald-,;;re(Mi in reduc- 
ing- tlame. 

San Diego County: The yellow l)ismuth ocher which occurs at the 
Pala Chief mine, near Pala. has been deterniinod by Schaller^^^ to be 
puch(M'it(^ with the followino' comjio.sition : 

: 100.68% 





at 107° at 240° 





0.21 0..32 




Vanadate of lead with chloriue (PbCl)Pb4(V04)3. 

Hexagonal. Small prisms. Color deop ruby-red, sometimes yellow. 
Somewhat resinous luster. H = 3; G = 6.(>6 — 7.23. 

Refractive indices: £ = 2.299; ^, = 2.804. 

Boused on charcoal with sodium carbonate, the mineral is reduced to 
metallic load with a yellow sublimate on the coal. The green bead of vana- 
dium can be obtained with phosphorous salt. Di.ssolved in nitric acid and a 
drop of .silver nitrate added to the sDlutioii. silver chloride will he 

Kern Coimty : Some crystallized vanadiiiite has been found two 
miles north of Searles Lake. Associated with galena and miraetite near 

San Bernardino County: This rare lead mineral occurs at Camp 
Signal, near Goffs, in the Vanadium King mine, associated with cerus- 
site and cuprodescloizite, Schaller^'-'. Some has been found near Moore 
Station on Salt Lake Railroad. 

302. DESCLOI2ITE— Cuprodescloizite. 
Vanadate of lead, zinc and copper. 

Orthorhomhic. Drusy surfaces and crusts. Color yellowish brown, dull 
green and greenish black. H=:3.5; = 0.2. 

Refractive indices: a:=2.1S; ^ = 2.20; y=:2.35. 

RlowpiiK* reactions are similar to for vanadinite. Ammonia added 
to a nitric acid solution may show blue solution of copper. Reaction can 
also be obtained for zinc by heating coating on charcoal with cobalt nitrate. 
Gives a small amount of water in a closed tube. 

San Bernardino County : Minute colorless and yellowish plates of the 
rare cuprodescloizite occur with cerussite and vanadinite at Camp 
Signal Schaller<i2). 

Hydrous vanadate of copper, barium and calcium. 

Small plates in globular aggregations. Color olive-green, citron-yellow. 
Streak yellowish green. Pearly to vitreous luster. H = 3 — 3.5; = 3.5. 

Refractive indices: cc =2.0<); rt = 2.01 ; y = 2.02. 

A small amount of metallic copper can be obtained by reduction on char- 
coal, using sodium carbonate flux. Ammonia added to a nitric acid solu- 
tion will show the blue color of copi)er. Dilute sulphuric acid added to solu- 
tion will precipitate lyarium-sulphate. The green bead of vanadium can be 
obtained with phosphorous salt. Water is given off in a closed tube. 

Glenn County : Reported to have been found at the MamuiOth Copper 
mine on Grindstone Creek. 




The arsenates and antimonates are generally the result of the direct 
oxidation and hydration of arsenides and the sulphosalts of arsenic and 
antimony. They are usually found as coatings upon the mineral from 
which they are derived. 

Arsenate of lead with chlorine (PbCl)Pb4(As04)3. 

Hexasonal. Prismatic crystals, rounded or globular aggregations. Color 
pale yellow, light brown. Resinous luster. H = 3.5; G = 7 — 7.25. 
Refractive indices: ^ =: 2.118 : (^ = 2.13."). 

Reduced on charcoal to metallic lead and gives a yellow coating, using 
sodium carbonate as flux. Powder heated in closed tube with a splinter of 
charcoal above it, becf>mes reduced to metallic arsenic, which forms a ring 
around the walls of the glass. Gives a slight chlorine reaction with nitric 
acid and silver nitrate. 

Brown crystals of mimetite are often associated with pyromorphite, 
and the two minerals are very closely allied in properties and occur- 

Inyo County: One of the numerous minerals occurring in the Cerro 
Gordo mines. 

Kern County : Found associated with paleua near Randsburg. 

San Bernardino County : Small amounts of the mineral were found 
in the Morning Star mine, Lava Beds district. Brown mimetite asso- 
ciated with galena, wulfenite and malachite about eighty miles north of 

305. ERYTHRITE— Cobalt Bloom. 
Hydrous arsenate of cobalt, Co-As„Os.8H;0. 

Monoclinic. Fibrous, incrustations, earthy. Cleavage perfect clino- 

pinacoidal. Color peach-blossom red. Pearly to adamantine luster. 

H = 1.5 — 2.5; G = 2.95. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.626; ^ = l.t561; y = 1.690. 

Gives a white coating of arsenic oxide on charcoal. A little of the wcll- 
roasted powder fused in borax bead, gives the fine blue bead of cobalt. 
Yields water in closetl tube. 

The peach-blossom red coatings and incrustations of erythrite are 
seen wherever smaltite or other cobalt minerals exist, and this secondary 
oxidation product often serves to locate deposits of cobalt. 

Los Angeles County: Coatings of erythrite with smaltite, argentite 
and barite occurred at the old Kelsey and 0. K. mines near the San 
Cabriel Canyon. 

jMariposa County : Found in rock seams with danaite, the cobaltifer- 
ous arsenopyrite, at the Josephine mine, Bear Valley, Turner ('*\ 


Napa County : Occurs with .suialtite in serpentine and chlorite in the 
Berrye.ssa Valley. 

San Diego County : Associated with snialtite in a specimen from near 
the Mexican line. 

306. ANNABERGITE— Nickel Bloom. 

Hydrous arsenate of nickel, Ni3As208.8HjO. 

Monoclinic. Finely fibrous incrustations. Color apple-green. Vitreous 
luster. Very soft. 

Refractive indices : oc = 1.622 ; ^ = 1.052 : y = LOST. 

Reacts similarly to erythrite, but the borax bead of nickel is brown in 
oxidizinji Hamo and gray-cloudy in tbe reducing flame. 

The green coatings of this nickel compound are an indication of the 
presence of nickel minerals that have been oxidized, and often the 
cobalt bloom is associated with the nickel bloom. 

Lassen County : Reported with erythrite and smaltite from this 

Los Angeles County : The green coatings of nickel arsenate were 
associated with erythrite and smaltilc m1 the Kelsey mine, San Gabriel 
(yanyon, Storms^^^ 

Tulare County: The green color of the chrysoprase and chrysopal in 
the hills east of Porterville is due to nickel, and some coatings of 
annabergite occur in the region. 


Hydrous arsenate of iron, FeAsOi.2H20. 

Orthorhombic. Aggregates of small crj-stals. Color pale leek-green, 
liver-brown. H = 3.5 — 4; 6 = 3.1 — 3.3. 

Refractive indices: cx=l."3S; «=1.742; y = 1.7(,)5. 

A slight coating of arsenic can be obtained on charcoal when, reduced, 
and the residue becomes magnetic. The areenic ring can be obtained 
by fusing in a closed tube with a splinter of charcoal. (Jives wafer 
in a closed tube. 

Inyo County : In Noonday mine, near Tecopa. 

Mariposa County : Pale green crystals of scorodite were found as an 
alteration product of arsenopyrite associated with pitticite on the South 
Merced River, near the mouth of Devil's Gulch, Rogers^^^ 

San Diego County : Near ^Moreno Lake. ^lassive. 


Hydrous arsenate of alumiuium and copper. 

Monocliuic. Thin tabular crystals. Color sky-blue, green. Streak blue 
or green. Vitreous luster. H = 2 — 2.5 ; G = 2.88 — 2.98. 
Refractive indices: a:=l-*>12; /^=^.'>>2; y = l.G7r». 

Can be reduced to metallic copper on charcoal with sodium carbonate 
flux, and .yields a slight coating of arsenic. Ammonia addi'd to a nitric 
acid solution will precipitate flocculent alumina hydrate, while the solution 
becomes blue. Gives wati'r in a closfd tube and also an arsenical mirror 
when vapor.-^ are reduced b.v a splinter of charcoal. 

Inyo County: The very rare copper arsenate was found at the old 
Cerro Gordo mine associated with other rare copper salts. 

Hydrated arsenate and sulphate of iron. 
Massive and reniform. Color brown. H=z2 — .3; G = 2.2 — 2.5. 
Refractive index: h = 1.635. 

Becomes magnetic on heating. Barium chloride added to the hydro- 
chloric acid solution precipitates barium sulphate. Gives water mid the 
.•iisciiic mirror in a closed tut)e. 

IMariposa County: Dark brown amorphous pitticite resembling limo- 
nite was found with scorodite as an alteration product of arsenopyrite, 
on the South Merced River; near the mouth of Devil's Gulch, Rogers^^^ 


Hydrous antimouate of lead, Pb3Sb20s.4H20. 

Amorphous. Lamellar, massive, incrustations. Color brown, white, gray. 
Resinous luster. H = 4; G = 4.6 — 4.76. 

Refractive index: h = 1.<S4. 

Easil.v redu(;ed on charcoal to a brittle white metallic globule of antimon.v 
and lead, and .yields a white and yellow coating of the mixed oxides. A 
white antimony oxide coating can be obtained in an open tube. Gives 
water in a closed tube. 

Fresno County : Some brown bindheimite has come from this county. 

Inyo County: Browai resinous lead antimonate was one of the rare 
minerals at the Union and IModoc mines, and was mentioned by 
W. P. Blake(6). 



The nitrates can only exist in solid form in arid regions and are 
therefore peculiar to desert lands where they are sometimes left as white 
incrustations by evaporation. Some of these white crusts are to be 
found in the California desert land, but no important deposits are 

311. SODA NITER— Chili Saltpeter. 
Nitrate of sodium, NaNOj. 

Hexagonal, rliombohedral. Crystals, massive, incrustations. Cleavage 
perfect rhomboliedral. Color white, reddish, yellowish. Vitreovis luster. 
H = 1.5 — 2; = 2.24 — 2.29. 

Refractive indices: ^ — l.~>?>(>: j^ = 1.587. 

Soluble in water. Fuses with strong yellow flame of sodium. Heated 
in a bulb tube willi potassium bisulphate, gives off red vaiK)i-s of nitrous 

Inyo County: Crusts of saltpeter occur along the Amargosa River 
and along shore lines and old beaches of Death Valley, which were 
reported by Bailey ^^\ 

]\1 creed County : Occurs in crusts with other sodium salts, from Mer- 
ced Bottom. 

San Bernardino County : The same white incrustations extend along 
the Amargosa River in this county. Small amounts of soda niter have 
been found in the Calico district, Williams^^', and at Searles Borax 

Tulare County : Alkaline crusts containing soda niter with other 
soda salts occur in San Joaquin Valley, near Tulare City. 

312. NITER— Saltpeter. 
Nitrate of potassium, KNO^. 

Orthorhombic. Silky tufts, incrustations. Color white. Vitreous luster. 
H = 2; G = 2.09 — 2.14. Salt taste. 

Refractive indices: oc =1-334; ^ = 1.505; y = 1.506. 

Similar to soda niter in its reactions, but the flame is violet red, best 
s,!t'n through blue glass or Thf> Menvin color screen. 

Inyo County : The connnon saltpeter occurs with the soda niter in 
the Death Valley region. Crusts of the nitrates of sodium and potas- 
.sium occur near Shoshone. 

Modoc County : Incrustations of potassium nitrate have been found 
near Cedarville. 

Riverside County : Bailey^^^ mentions saltpeter as found in the desert 
northeast of Salton. 

San Bernardino County : Occurs Avith the soda niter in the Amargosa 


Hydrous nitrate of calcium, Ca(N03)2./iH20. 

Silky tufts and masses. Efflorescent. Color white or gray. Sharp, 
hitter taste. 

Refractive indices: a:=^--4(i5; Q — 1A9S; y = 1.50<X 

Soluble in water. Fused with potassium sulphate in a hull) tulie. it 
.uive.s off red fumes of nitrous oxide. Heated in a closed tube, it yields 
water. Ammonia and ammonium oxalate added to a hydrochloric acid solu- 
tion precipitates white calcium oxalate. 

San Bernardino County : The white efflorescent nitrocalcite occurs in 
the niter beds of the lower end of Death Valley, according to Bailey ^^^ 

Hydrous sulphato-nitrate of sodium, NaN03.Na-.S04.H:0. 
Tetragonal. Square tabular crystals. Colorless. 
Refractive indices: cc =1.391: yj = 1.481; y = 1.4S6. 
Soluble in water. Heated in bulb tube with ixjtassium sulphate, gives 
red nitrous fumes. Fuses with strong; yellow flame. Barium chloride added 
to acid solution pi-ecipitates barium sulphate. Yields water in a close<l tube 

San Bernardino County: This rare nitrate occurs in the niter beds 
of Death Valley according to Bailey ^^^ 


Hydrous sulphato-nitrate of sodium, 6NaN03.2NaoS04.3H;0. 
Fibrous masses. Color white. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.118; ^ = 1.500: y = 1.543. 
Reactions for the mineral are the same as for darapskite. 

Inyo County : Also an efflorescence in the niter beds of Death Valley, 
according to the report of Bailey ^^\ 


The element boron is widely distributed in the State. It is present 
in many of the spring waters and lakes and has been an important 
factor in the formation of much of the igneous rocks of the Sierras. 
Granites and acid pegmatites containing an abundance of tourmaline 
are very common. The bedded deposits of lime and soda borates in the 
southern counties appear inexhaustible. All of the deposits of borates 
occur in regions which have been the scene of nmcli volcanic activity, 
and the emanations of the boron gas have accompanied or followed 
eruptions and intrusions, issuing from vents in the form of hot borated 
waters. It is perhaps by the action of these waters on the travertine or 
soda accumulations in lake depressions that the thick bedded deposits of 
these borate salts have formed. 


Borate of magnesium and iron, 3MgO.B2O3.FeOFe.jO3. 

Orthorhombic. Small fibrous masses. Color blackish green. Silky luster. 
H = 5; G = 3.91 — 4.02. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.8i5; AJ = 1.85; ,, = 2.02. 

Soluble in hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but insoluble iu nitric acid. 
Yellow turmeric paper dipped into the hydrochloi'ic acid solution, turns red 
when dried. Fusible into a magnetic mass. Magnesia can be precipitated 
by sodium phosphate after the boron and iron have been ivnioved. 

El Dorado County : Scaly masses of black ludwigite, associated with 
calcite, epidote, inolybdonite and chalcopyrite occur at the old Cosumnes 
copper mine, near Fairplay, Rogers^^^. 

Borate of iron and masiuesium, 2 (Fe,Mg)0. B203 + FeO. FejO.i. 

Orthorhombic. Imperfect crystals and granular masses. Color black. 
Streak brownish black. Brilliant metallic luster. Very brittle. H = 5; 
0=4.21. Perfectly opaque and non-magnetic. 

Fuses easily to a black magnetic mass and gives green flame of boron. 
Soluble in hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but unattacked by nitric acid. 

A new borate apparently derived by the action of borate solutions on 

Riverside County : Discovered by ^I. Vonsen in the old city quarry at 
Riverside and was described and named by Eakle^^^'. Forms on the 
imperfect crystals are: (110), (210), (140) and (160). The analysis 


FeO MgO B^Og Fe^Oa 

39.75 10.71 14"l2 34.82 = 99.40% 

318. BORAX— Tincal. 
Hydrous borate of sodium, NaoBiO^.lOHoO. 

Mouoclinic. Crystals, powder, incrustations. Colorless, white. Greasy 
to dull luster. H = 2 — 2.5; G=1.69 — 1.72. Sweetish alkaline taste. 

Refractive indices: ex =1.447; « = 1.470; ,, = 1.472. 

Soluble in water. Fuses with strong yellow flame to a clear glass. Tur- 
meric paijer dipi>ed in a hydrochloric acid solution, turns deep red on 
drying. Gives much water in a closed tube. 

The natural borax, usually accompanied by sulphates of lime and 
soda, is common at many of the depressions or sinks of the deserts. 
For some time it was the chief mineral, but the more extensive solid 
masses of eolemanite have replaced it as the principal boron mineral. 

Tincalconite. A name given to a w'hite efflorescent variety by 

Inyo County : The borax industry began with the discovery of the 
extensive deposits of Death Valley, although some borax had been 


previously dredged from Little Borax Lake, iii Lake County. The 
mines on Furnace Creek and at Resting Springs produced large 
quantities, and it was hauled to Mojave bj'' the famous 20-mule team. 

Kern County : Borax is also common at some of the sinks and wells 
of the desert and has been obtained from Kane Springs and Desert 

Lake County : The first discovery of borax in the State was made at 
Little Borax Lake, a few miles south of Clear Lake. Fine large 
crystals were obtained from the mud of the lake bottom, and consider- 
able borax was dredged from this lake before the more important 
deposits of San Bernardino County were discovered. W. P. Blake^*' 
and Hanks'"'' have described this occurrence. 

Riverside County : Incrustations of borax are rather common at some 
of the playa or dry lakes of this county, but none is produced. 

San Bernardino County : The most important deposit of natural 
borax in the State occurs at Searles Borax Lake in the northern part 
of the county. Hanks^^^^ and others have described this deposit. It 
consists of a pan-like depression about 10 miles long by 5 miles wide 
and borax occurs with numerous other salts deposited by the evaporated 
waters of the lake. The associated minerals forming layers in the 
deposit are mainly sulphates and carbonates of sodium and it is now 
mainly for these and for the potash associated with them that the 
deposit is worked. This locality is noted for the great variety of 
interesting salts that have formed by the evaporation of the waters. 

Borax has been found with the colemanite near Yenna and at many 
of the numerous depressions in the Mojave desert and in the lower end 
of Death Valley. 


Hydrous borate of calcium, CaiBaOu.SHjO. 

Monoclinic. Crystals, massive. Cleavage perfect clinopiuacoidal. Color- 
less, white, yellowish white. Vitreous luster. H = 4 — 4.5; G=li.42. 
Refractive indices: oc ==1-586; ^=1.592; y==1.614. 

Decrepitates violently wheu touched with hot flame, but finally fuses to 
a clear glass. I'owder on platinum wire, moistened with sulphuric acid, 
will give a momentary green flame of boron mixed with reddish flame of 
calcium. Yields water in a closed tube. 

This valuable borate is the principal mineral for borax in the State. 
It was first discovered in Death Valley in 1882 and in the following 
spring at Borate in what was known as the Calico district. 

Inyo County : The deposits of Death Valley occur on the east fork 
of the Black Mountains of the Amargosa Range near its southern end, 
and immense solid veins or beds of the mineral occur. The important 
mine is the Lila C, at Ryan, which has been described by Gale^^^ The 


mineral was first analysed by Price^i^ with the results shown in analysis 
No. 1. Analyses 2, 3 and 4 are by Whitfield^i). 

B2O3 CaO AI0O3 FesOa MgO SiOa H^O 

1. (4S.12) 28.43 0.60 — O.60 22.20 

2. 50.70 27.31 0.10 — 21.87 = 99.98% 

3. 49.56 27.36 0.25 0.44 22.66 =100.27 

4. 49.62 27.40 0.26 0.47 22.70 -: 100.45 

Some crystals from the Biddy ^IcCarthy mine were shown by Rogers 
to be pseudomorphs after the new borate, inyoite. The forms occur- 
ring were: (001). (110), (010) and (111). Tabular parallel to base. 
The crystals were formed by dehydration of inyoite. 

Kern County : Specimens have come from Lost Hills. 

Los Angeles County : An important and extensive deposit occurs near 
Lang which Eakle'^^* described as a variety and called neocolemanite. 
Hutchinson<i) shows it to be identical with eolemanite. It occurs as 
thin and thick seams, almost vertical, and has considerable howlite 
associated with it. The mineral has been described and analysed by 
Eakle. Forms: (001), (010), (100), (210), (_110), (^30), (Oil), (021), 
(201), (301), (241), (231), (221), (661), (221), (223), (211), (263). 

B2O3 CaO HsG 

49.45 27.76 22.48 =99.69% Sp. G. = 2.423° at 13° C. 

Riverside County : Found in the foothills of San Bernardino Range 
northeast of Salton Sea. 

San Bernardino County : The extensive deposit of eolemanite at Borate, 
in the Calico district, near Yerma, was discovered in the spring of 1883 
and became the principal source of the mineral before the Death Valley 
deposits were worked. Beautiful crystals of the mineral in large geodal 
masses occur having celestite crystals associated with them. The 
crystals were first described by Jackson^^) (2) (3) Forms : (001), (010) 
(100), (210), (110), (120), (130), (370), (10.19.0), (Oil), (021) 
(201), (101), (TOl), (201), (301), (401), (601), (111), (311), (711) 
(10.1.1), (771), (19.19.6), (331), (731), (131), (1_2]), (111), (221) 
mi), (411), (311), (211), (721), (321), (231), (121), (241), (131) 
(532), (412). Additional forms described bv Eakle^^) are: (310) 
(301), (o02), (80D, (522), (142\ (141), (164), (165), (232), (123) 
(T82), (341). 

Analysis No. 1 is by Hiortdahl^^^ and No. 2 by Bodewig(i\ 



AI2O3 Fe;0:: 















— — 


= 99.38% 

Small amounts of eolemanite were found with borax at Searles Borax 
Lake. Hanks'^"^'. This is evidently an error in locality. 


Ventura County : Deposits of colemanite similar to the Lang deposit 
exist in the Frazer Mountains and have been mined for some years. 
These deposits have been described by Gale^^V ^ 

References to literature on colemanite: Evans^i>*^2)^ Jackson^^^^^xs)^ 
Hiortdahl^i^ Arzruni^i), Bodewig and von Rath(i>, Mulheims^^^ Baum- 
hauer<^\, Eakle*-'^^', Campbell '"'-', Gale'^'''-^'^^'. 

320. PRICEITE— Pandermite. 

Ilydi-ous calcium borate, 5CaO.6R.O3.9H2O. 
Tricliuic. Massive, chalky or compact. Snow-white. H = 3;G = 2.26 — 2.30. 
Refractive indices: a:=t-5T2; ^ = 1.501; y = 1.594. 

Easily fusible and gives green flame. Soluble in dilute hydrochloric 
acid. Gives water in closed tube. 

Priceite and pandermite are identical and form a different species 
from colemanite, with which they have been classed as varieties, Lar- 


Inyo County: Priceite has been found as pseudomorphs after ulexite 
iu Death Valley. It occurs associated with the colemanite. 

San Bernardino County : Both the chalky priceite and more compact 
pandermite have been found with the colemanite of the Calico district. 

Ventura County : Massive soft pandermite occurs at the colemanite 
deposit of Frazer Mountains. 


Hydrous borate of calcium, 2Ca0.3B203. THoO. 

Triclinic. Long prismatic crystals, sometimes tabular parallel to the 
maeropinacoid. Color white or colorless, ^'itreous luster. Cleavage brachy- 
pinacoidal. H = 2; G = 2.12. 

Refractive Indices : ex =1-500; /J= 1.535; y = 1.560. 

Fuses readily with intumescence to an opaque white enamel, giving the 
green flame of boron. Gives water in n closed tube. Easily soluble in acids. 

This new mineral was associated with inyoite as an alteration product. 
Described, analysed, and named by Schaller^^^\ 

Inyo County : Occurs as an alteration of the glassy inyoite crystals 
in the colemanite deposit of Mount Blanco district on Furnace Creek. 
Forms observed are : (100), (010). (001), (110), (210), (120), (370), 
(350), (450), (520), (310), (510). (810), (350), (ITO), (430), (3T0), 
(101), (12.0.11), (706), (605), (504), (705), (302), (12.0.1), (101), 
(]11). Analysis: 





under 110° 

ab. 110° 





= 100.61% 


322. INYOITE. 

Hydrous borate of Ci^lcium, 2 Ca«>. SB.O^.ISILO. 

MoDocIiiiic. I^arjro jrlassy transparent crystals. Cleavage basal. IJrittle. 
11 = 2; = 1.87"). 

Refractive indices: oc=l.^*«>^: rt=1.51: y = 1.52U. 

Decrepitates on fusing and intumesces, jrivins the irrecn huroii llaiue. 
lOasily soluble in acids. Gives water in a closed tube. 

A new borate from the colenianite deposits of the Death Valley re- 
j;ion. Described and named for the county by Schaller^^^\ 

Inyo County: This new l)or;ite occurred in llie Mount Blanco 
district on Furnace Creek directly associated with colemanite and its 
alteration product, meyerhofferite. 

Forms observed are: (001), (010), (110) and (111). Crystals tab- 
ular to base. Analysis : 

H„o H.O 

CaO B.,0, under 110° ab. 110° 

20.5 [37.2] 26.1 16.2 =100.00 

323. ULEXITE— Cottonballs. 

Hydrous borate of sodium and calcium, NaCaBjO.j.SHoO. 

Usually in nodules or sheets of fine fibers. Color white. Silky luster. 
Very soft. G = 1.6.5. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.41)1: ^ = 1..504; y = 1.520. 

Fuses with strong yellow flame to a clear glass. Turmeric pai)er im- 
mersed in a hydrochloric acid solution Ix-comcs red on drying. Calcium 
can be determined as the oxalate by ])recipitation fi"om a veiy weak hydro- 
chloric acid solution. Gives much water in a closed tube. 

The white silky balls of ulexite are frequently found at some of the 
desert depressions, often with borax. 

Inyo County : Ulexite masses are found at some of the sinks in the 
Death Valley. 

Kern County : Ulexite was mentioned from the Cane Spring District 
by Silliman(^). Found in f|uautity in the bed of an extensive salt 
marsh a few miles north of Desert Wells, W. P. Blake^^^\ 

Los Angeles County : Found in compact divergent masses at Lang 
with colemanite. 

A partial analysis by Foshag gave : 

B„0, CaO X„0 Xa.O 

43.1.3 14.14 .Ho'.eS (7.05) 

San Bernardino County : Small amounts occur at the colemanite 
deposit near Yerma and in the lower part of Death Valley. It has also 
been found in several places in the Mojave Desert. 


Hydrous borate of calcium and ma,i,'nesium, CaMgBgOn.eHjO. 

Monoclinic. Fibrous masses. Color white with red spots. H = 2; 
G=:1.9 — 2. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.517: «=1.534; y = 1.565. 

Fuses easily to a clear glass and coloi-s flame green. Calciuiu and mag- 
nesium can l)e detennined by precipitation from a weak hydrochloric acid 
solution. Gives much water in closed tube. Gives also the wet test for 
boron with turmeric paper. 

Inyo County : Occurs in acicular aggregates with the colemanite at 

San Bernardino County : Found with cok'niauite near Yerina, but in 
subordinate amounts. 

Ventura County: Said to occur at the colemanite mines of Frazer 

Hydrous silico-boratc of calcium, SCaO.GB^Oj.eSiOj.BH^O. 
Amorphous. Massive. Color white to faint green. H = 4.5; G = 2.7o. 
Refractive index : n = 1.583. 
The reactions obtained' for bakcritr are the same as those for howlite. 

San Bernardino County: This new borate was found in the Mojave 
Desert, about sixteen miles northeast of Daggett, associated with howlite 
and ulexite. Described and named by Giles^^\ 


White 27.74 

Faint green 26.85 

326, HOWLITE. 

Hydrous silico-borate of calcium, HsCaoBsSiOu. 

Orthorhombic? Round nodules, massive, chalky. Color white. Dull 
luster. H-1 — 3.5; G = 2.5. 

Refractive indices: a:=1.58G; « = 1.508; y = 1.005. 

Fuses easily and colors the flame green. Easily soluble and precipitates 
silica. Calcium is precipitated with ammonium oxalate from a weak hydro- 
chloric acid solution. Yields water iu a closed tube. Gives the boron 
reaction with turmeric paper. 

Howlite is an associate of the other borates, but owing to the silica 
present it is not utilized, although it contains a large amount of boric 

Inyo County: Massive howlite is associated with the colemanite at 














Los Angeles Coimty: Large masses of compact white howlite are 
common in the colemanite deposit near Lang, and the mineral has been 
described and analysed by P]akle^'**\ 

B.O3 CaO SiO" H:;0 

45.0G 28.26 14.81 11.37 =100.38% 

San Bernardino Connty : Large masses occur associated with bakerite 
and ulexite in the ]\Iojave Desert, sixteen miles northeast of Daggett, 
Giles^^^ Analyses No. 1 is of soft scaly, and No. 2 of hard rock-like 
material, iiuuk^ by Giles. Analysis No. 3 is of soft white material, made 
by Will. Lawson. 























= 100.29% 


The niobate-tantalate group of minerals are characteristic of acid 
pegmatite veins. They are mostly of high specific gravity, varying in 
(!olor from yellow tn lirown ;inil black, jiiid ol'teii contain tli<' rare-earth 


Niobate of titanium, calcium, cerium aud thorium. 

Isometric. Commoulj- in octahedrons. Color dark reddish brown. 

Streak light yellowish brown. H = 5 — 5.5; G = 4.32. 

Kcfractive index: }i = l.!)(). 

Insoluble and infusible. Fused with bora.x as a tiux, the fused mass pow- 
d'.-red and then dissolved by Iwilins in hydrochloric acid. If metallic tin is 
mhled and the solution boiled flown lo small bulk, the color of the solution 
lieeomes at first violet, due to tilnnium, an<l then blue, due to the niol)ium. 

San Diego County : A dark brown isotropic mineral, presumably 
pyrochlore, surrounded by microlite, came from some locality in the 
county, Rogers^^\ 


Tautalate of calcium, Ca/raLOr. 

Isometric. Often small octahedrons. Color pale yellow to brown. Luster 
resinous. H = 5.5; G = 5.4S. 

Refractive index: ?i = 1.925. 

Insoluble and infusible. The nmetions are similar to those for pyro- 
ehlore. Fused with potassium l)isulphate or potassium hydroxide, the fusion 
dissolved in hydrochloric arid and the solution boiled down with tin. it 
assumes a deep blue color. 

San Diego County : This rare tantalate has been found in the county, 
exact locality unknown, as a honey-yellow mineral associated with 
albite, lepidolite, tourmaline and colorless apatite. A few crystals are 
octahedral with narrow faces of (Oil) and (311), Rogers^^^ 


Niobate of iron and manganese (Fe,Mn)Nb;Oc. 

Orthorlioiiibic. Prismatif t-rystals. ninssivc. Color iron-black. Itrowiiisli 

black. Suhnicfallic Instcr. Stroak dark brown to black. 11 = 6; 
G = 5.3— 7.:i. 

R«-fractivc indices: oc=2.r.>: ^ = 2.2.') ; y = 2.:i4. 

Insoluble and practically infusible. Fused with i>otassiuui bisulphate, 
then dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the solution boiled down with tin. 
it assumes a deep blue color. Gives the green color of manganese when 
fused with .sodium carbonate. 

Fresno County : Massive and crystalline black columbite has been 
found at the Reynolds mine, Kings River district. 

San Diego County: Crystals from the Little Three mine, near 
Ramona, were described by Eakle^") Forms: (100), (010), (110), 
(130), (150), (160), (021), (111), (221), (211), (121), (131), (141). 
Small imperfect crystals found at the Victor mine, Rincon, have the 
forms: (100), (210), (130), (103), (133), Rogers^^'^ Occurs in good 
crystals associated with eassiterite, tourmaline all)ite and ortlioclase in 
the Chiliuahua Valley, Schaller'^*'. 

Niobate and tantalate of antimony, m (SbO)oNboOe.H (SbO)oTa„Oo. 

Orthorhombic. Hemimorpliic prisms, twinned. Color light brown to dark 
brown. Resinous to adamantine luster. H = 5 — 5.5; G = 5.98 — 7.37, 
mostly 6.6 — 6.7. Fyroelectric. 

Refractive indices: a: =2.374: ^=2.404: ^ = 2.457. 

Reduced on charcoal w-ith sodium carbonate, it gives a white coating and 
metallic brittle bead of antimony. Fused with ix)tassium bisulphate, fusion 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and the solution boiled down with metallic 
tin assumi^s the blue coli)r due to ni(>l)iiini and tantalum. 

San Diego County: This rare mineral was found in small amounts in 
the pegmatite veins at Mesa Grande associated with gem tourmaline, 
pink beryl, quartz, orthoclase, lepidolite and eassiterite. It was de- 
scribed and analysed by Penfield and Ford'^^\ Forms: (100), (110), 
ri30), (209), (203), '(4.12.9), (043), (100), (110), (130), (209), 
(203), (4.12.9). The analyses show a varying amount of niobium and 
tantalium to antimony. 

(Nb,Ta)o05 Sb^Os BiaOs 

55.33 44.26 0.33 = 99.92% Sp.G. = 6.72 

50.30 49.28 0.53 =100.11 Sp.G. = 5.98 

(Nb,Ta):03 NboOs Ta^Os 

55.33 = 18.98 36.35% 

50.30 = 39.14 11.16% 

The mean of three analj'ses of this stibiotantalite by Foote and Lang- 
ley ^^^ gave: 

Sb.O, Bi„0, Ta..O-, Nb.O, 

40.95 0.60 41.02 16.19 = W.667o 



The three valuable tungsten minerals, scheelite, wolframite and 
hiibnerite, have been found in several localities in the State, but only 
scheelite has until lately been worked for tungsten. The manganese 
tungstate, hiibnerite, usually contains iron and grades into the iron- 
manganese tungstate, wolframite. 

Tuugstate of manganese and iron (Mn,Fe) WOi. 

Monoclinic. Thick tabular crystals and massive. Perfect clinopina- 
coidal cleavage. Color dark grayish or brownish black, brownish red. 
Thin splinters often deep red. Streak dark brown to black. Luster 
metallic to submetallic. H=:5 — 5.5; G = 7.2 — 7.5. 

Refractive indices: a:=-'.2G; ^=2.32; ^ = 2.42. (Wolframite.) 
Refractive indices: cc=2.17; «=2.22; ^ = 2.32. (Hiibnerite.) 

Fusible, but i-ather insoluble. Fused with sodium carbonate, gives blue- 
green fusion ; the fused mass dissolved in hydrochloric acid ami tln'ii Ivoilcd 
down with iiit'tallic tin, the solution beoimies deo]) lilue, later turning tt) 
brown. 'I'hi' iiliosjihorous salt i)ead of tungsten in the reducing flame is a 

tilli' blue. 

Inyo County : Boulders of black wolframite have been found in 
Death Valley. 

Kern County : Occurs with chalcopyrite at "Woody. 

Madera County : Large crystals and masses weighing several pounds 
occur in quartz, about twelve miles north of Raymond. The quartz 
•vein with the wolframite is in an andalusite schist. 

Mariposa County: Crystals and massive wolframite have been found 
near Buchanan. 

San Bernardino County : Veins of wolframite wdth some scheelite 
have been located in the Clark ^Mountains. Hiibnerite associated with 
triplite occurs at Camp Signal about nine miles north of Goffs. Occurs 
in a (|uartz vein with chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena at the Saga- 
more mine, New York Mountains. 

Siskij'ou County : Said to occur in quartz in one of the mines of the 



Tun8:3tate of calcium, CaWO^. 

Tetiasoual. Pyramidal crystals and massive. Color white, yellow, 
brown. Vitreous luster. H=4.5 — 5; 6 = 5.9 — 6.1. 

Kefractivo indices: £ = l.!lv}4i; („:=1.01S. 

Difficult to fuse and only solnbh; by Imilinjj in strong hydrochloric acid, 
the solution becomes bright yellow jind tinigstic oxide is precijjitated. On 
the addition of tin and boiling, the sfjiution turns blue and later brown. 
Ammonia and ammonium oxalate i'.dded to tlie diluted hydrochloric acid 
solution will precipitate the calcium. 

Scheelite is the principal tungsten ntineral of the State and important 
deposits exist. It is frequently found in isolated crystals and patches 
in quartz-feldspar veins and has been reported from several localities. 

Fresno County : Found at contact of limestone and granite near 
Trimmer. Reported from thirt}' miles northwest of Coalinga. 

Inyo Count}^ : Scheelite in white and yellowish grains and occasion- 
ally in crystals intermixed with a dark brown garnet mass occurs in 
Deep Canyon about eight miles west of Bishop, and also at several 
l)oints a few miles south. Other minerals of the district are : silliman- 
ite, quartz, muscovite, diopside, wollastonite, epidote, vesuvianite, cal- 
cite, phlogopite, apatite, andesite, titanite, biotite and quartz. The 
deposit is of contact metamorpliic origin and has been described by 
Knopf '^'>. 

Kern County : Small amounts of scheelite occur in the Amalie, Rand 
and Stringer districts, associated with gold. Occurs in the Yellow 
Aster mine. Randsburg, and in the Winnie, Sidney and other mines of 
the Stringer district. Occurs in massive green epidote M'ith quartz 
and calcite at the Cadillac claims. Greenhorn mining district, near- 
Kernville. Found with wolframite in Slick Rock Canyon near Glenn- 
ville. As a contact mineral near Weldon. In the Amalie district it 
occurs in Jawbone Canyon with p>'rite and gold-bearing Galena. 
Occurs with molybdenite and possilily pow(41ite in Black ]\Iottntains 
about twenty miles northwest of Randsl)urg. Occurs in a garnetiferous 
rock on the west slope of Greenhorn INIountains along Cedar and Slick 
Rock Creeks. The garnet rock also contains pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalco- 
pyrite, hornblende, black tourmaline, quartz and feldspar. Sheelite 
and quartz as veinlets occur in a hornblende schist at the Cottonwood 
mine, Kelso district. 

Nevada County: A few brownish yellow masses were found in a 
quartz ledge at Howard Hill, Grass Valley, Hanks^^\ Small amounts 
of reddish brown scheelite occurred at the 3,000-foot level of the Empire 
mine, Grass Valley. Veins of white scheelite intermixed with quartz 
and feldspar occur at the Union Hill mine, Grass Valley, and is mined. 

San Bernardino County : The most important veins of scheelite occur 
at Atolia in the Papoose and other claims. The scheelite occurs in a 


quartz-feldspar vein, and is jicnerally intimately mixed with the pnigue, 
forming a low grade ore. Some scheelite is associated with wolframite 
in Clark Mountain. (Jecurs in limestone at contact with granite asso- 
ciated with garnet and epidote in clear pyramidal crystals in the ^lor- 
ongo district. Sometimes massive np to three feet in width and high 

San Diego County : ]\lassive brown scheelite has been found at 
Julian. Tt occurs in quartz fi\e miles southeast of Laguna Mountains. 

Siskiyou County : Scheelite in crystals has been observed at Scott 

Tulare County: Small amounts of yellow scheelite liave come from a 
locality east of Visalia. 

Tuolumne County : A small amount found on the Mackey Ranch, 
three miles from Jamestown. 

333. CUPROSCHEELITE— Cuprotungstite. 

Tungstate of copper and calcium (Ca.Cu)WOi. 

rji-anular, incrustations. Color olive-green, pistachio-green. Vitreous 
luster. H=^1.5 — 5. 

Refractive index: /3=2.15. 

( 'MprosL-lu'clitc will give similar reactions to scheelite. The presence of 
copper can be told by the borax bead. 

Kern County: Reported to have been found with radiating black 
tourmaline at the Green Monster mine, twelve miles east of White River, 


Molybdatc of lead, PbMoOi. 

Tetragonal. Thin lahular crystals; sometimes pyramidal. Color orange- 
yellow, bright red. Adamantine luster. H = 2.5 — 3; G = 6.7 — 7. 
K(!rrii(tivr indices: trTl'.;{04 : ,„ = L'.402. 

Jteduced on charcoal, using sodium carbonate as ilu.x, it yields metallic 
lead and a yellow coating. Easily fusible and soluble. Powder dissolved 
in a few drops of strong sulphuric acid by Iwiling, gives a solution which 
turns blue when a small amount of organic matter is introduced, a piece 
of pai)er the size of a pin head generally being sufficient; the blue solution 
turns bix)wn in a short time. 

El Dorado County : Occurs in small grains near Garden Valley. 

Inyo County: Crystals of wulfeuite occurred with the linarite and 
caledonite of the Cerro- Gordo mine. Has been observed in the Darwin 
mines associated with croeoite. 

Kern County : Wulfenite was found six miles northeast of Kane 
Springs, Hanks^^^. 



Plumas County: Found at the Diadem Lode on Muraford Hill. 

Riverside County : Occurs associated with crocoite at the El Dorado 
mine near Indio. Said to occur in the gold mine of Chuckawalla 

San Bernardino County : Considera])le wulfenite was found with the 
lead carbonate of the Silver Reef district, Storms^^'. Light red crystals 
of wulfenite occurred with galena, mimetite and malachite about eighty 
miles north of Barstow. Crystals coming from Lavic were described 
by Guild and Wartman^i'. Forms observed were : (001), (012), (Oil), 
(113), (111) and (133). Occurs associated with vauadinite at the 
Vanadium King mine near Golfs. 

San Luis Obispo County : Found at the Fairview mine. 

Molybdate of calcium, Oa Mo Oj 
Tetragoual. Minute pyramids. Color grei-nish yellow. IIr=3..5 ; G = 4.53. 
Refractive indices: £ = 1.967; (y = l.'JT8. 

Fusible with difficulty to a gray mass. Soluble in nitric and hydrochloric 
acids. A deep blue solution is obtained by boiling the powdered mineral 
in a few drops of strong sulphuric acid and adding a pin-head scrap of 

Powellite is a rare molybdate and is formed as a secondary mineral 
usually by the alteration of molybdenite. 

Kern County: Found in the Black Mountains as an oxidation prod- 
uct from molybdenite with which it is associated. 


The uranium minerals are very rare and only one or two specimens 
of them have been found in California. All uranates are highly radio- 
active and pitchblende is one of the ores of rndiuin. so it is a very 
valuable minornl. 

336. URANINITE— Pitchblende. 
Uranate of uranyl, lead and the rare earths. 

Isometric. Crystals rare. Generally massive and granular. Color 
grayish to brownish black. Streak brownish black or greenish. Sub- 
metallic to pitch-like luster. H = 5.5; G = 9 — 9.7. 

The phosphorous salt bead of uranium is yellowish-green in the oxidiz- 
ing flame and a fine clear green in the reducing flame. Uranium minerals 
arv' very heavy and all arc strongly radioactive. 

Calaveras County : The only known occurrence of the heavy brown 
pitchblende was at the Rathgeb mine, near San Andreas, where it was 
found in acicular crystals in a pocket with spongy gold, quartz and 
clay, Rickard^^\ 


337. URACONITE— Uranocher. 
Hydrous iiranate or sulphato-urauate. 
Amorphous, earthy or scaly. Color lemon-yellow. 
Refractive indices: oc =1.75;; y = l.S5. 

In addition to the uranium reaction, the mineral will i;iv.' wntcr in ;i 
closed tube. 

Calaveras County: This occurs as an alteration product of pitch- 
blende at the Ratgeb mine, in coatings immediately in contact with the 
gold. Rickard(i>. 








Pickering! te 















Sulphate of ammonium (NH4)oS0,i. 

Orthorhombic. Generally in mealy crusts. Color lemon-yellow, yel- 
lowish gray. Vitreous to dull luster. H = 2 — 2..5;G = 1.70 — 1.77. Bitter 

Refractive indices: oc=l..")21: ^=1..523; y = l.;j:ii3. 

Soluble in water and very easily fusible. Boiled in a test tube with 
potassium bisulphate, it gives off the odor of ammonia. F.arium chloride 
added to the solution precipitates barium sulphate. 

Sonoma Comity : Goldsmith^^^ reported finding mascagnite with 
boussingaultite in this county but the locality was not given. 


Sulphate of sodium, NrjSOi. 

Orthorhombic. Pyramidal crystals. Color white. Vitreous luster. 
11 = 2.68—3; G = 2.68— 2.69. 

Refractive indices: <x=l-'i04; « = 1.474; y = 1.4S.~. 

Soluble in water. Barium chloride precipitates barium sulphate. Fuses 
easily, coloring the flame intensely yellow. 

Imperial County : Extensive deposit of the sodium sulphate occurs 
about 2^ miles from Pope Siding. 

Inyo County : White masses of sodium sulphate occur in the Funeral 
Range and in the dry depressions of Death Valley. Large crystals, some 
twinned, occur at Deep Springs Valley. The crystals are blue-gray, hav- 
ing the forms (001) and (110), some in cruciform twins. 


San Bernardino County : Thenardite forms layers several feet in 
thickness at the Searles Borax Lake. Large crystals of it occur often 
as cruciform twins. The crystals were described by Ayers^^^ Forms: 
(110), (001), (111), (106),"(100). 

San Luis Obispo County : Soda Lake on the Carissa Plains, a depres- 
sion between the Caliente and Tremblor ranges, is a dry lake with 
crusts of sodium sulphate. Analysis of this crust by Steiger gave: 

Insol. AUG., MgO CaO NaoO K^O H.,0 SO3 CI O 

0.40 0.04 1.66 0.4.-) 40.50 0.28 3.65 46.12 9.27 =102.37% — 2.09=100.28 


Sulphato of potassium and sodium, (.K.NaK. SO^ 

Ithombohedral. Tabular crystals and crusts. Color white-trauspareut. 
Taste saline and bitter. H = 3— 3.5; = 2.63—2.65. 

Refractive indices: ^=1.499; (^ = 1.491. 

Fuses with yellow flame which shows violet through blue glass. Barium 
chloride precipitates barium sulphate. Soluble in water. 

The double salt of potassium and sodium sulphate is sometimes 
formed in a lake deposit or about the vent of a volcano. 

San Bernardino County : Is present as the only recognized potash 
mineral occurring at Searles Lake. Obtained from well G 75 in color- 
l(«s crystals associated with halite on a mass of borax. The mineral was 
analysed and its occurrence described by Fo.shag. 

K Na so, Cl H..O 

32.46 9.01 . 53.71 4.76 0.10 = 100.04 

This is equivalent to K.SO, 72.87% ; Na.SO, 18.38% ; NaCl 7.87%. 

Sulphate of potassium, K^SOj. 

Orthorhombic. Thin basal plates. Colorless, yellowish. Vitreous luster. 
H = 2. 

Refractive iiidic's: az-^A'M; ^=L495; y = 1.497. 

Like thenardite in its reactions, except that the flame is violet. 

Orange County : Found as thin crystals in a mine-timber in Tunnel 
No. 1 of the Santa Ana Tin Mining Company in Trabuca Canyon. The 
crystals are twinned on the prism and have the forms: (001), (111), 
(112), (102), Eakle(7>. 



Sulpliatt; of sodium and calcium, NajSOi.CaSOj. 

Monocliuic. Tabular crystals. Cleavage perfect basal. Color yellowish 
white or gray. Vitreous luster. H = 2.5 — 3; G = 2.7 — 2.85. 
Kefractivo indici's : oc=1.5ir); «=1.532; y = l.r(36. 

Tartly sohildc in wattn- and completely soluble in dilute acid. Calcium 
is liri'cipitatt'd from the acid solution hy adding ammonia and ammonium 
oxalate. Fuses easily, coloring the flame yellow. 

San Bernardino County : The doul)le salt of soda and lime is also a 
very prominent mineral in the deposit at Searles Borax Lake. It is 
found in platy crystals with the forms: (001), (111), vom Rath^^^. 

343. BARITE— Heavy Spar. 

Sulphate of barium, BaS04. 

Orthorhombic. Tabular and jtrismatic crystals, massive, lamellar, granu- 
lar, concretionary. Cleavage perfect basal and good prismatic. Color 
white, yellow, brown. Vitreous luster. H = 2.5 — 3.5; G = 4.3 — 4.6. 

Refractive indices: a: =1.030: ^8= 1.037; y=: 1.048. 

Insoluble in acids. Fuses with decrepitation and colors the flame green, 
l^'used with sodium carbonate and the fused mass leacb.ed with boiling 
water, gives the sulphate in .solution, which can be tested with barium 
chloride and leaves the precipitate as barium earlK>uate, which can be tested 
for barium. 

Barium sulphate is one of the common minerals of the State and some 
deposits of it occur. It is commonly found as a gangue mineral in vein 
deposits, and is especially associated with galena, and therefore promi- 
nent in silver-lead districts. 

Alpine County: Found with pyrite and enargite at the IMorning Star 

Butte County: "With gold at the Pinkstown ledge. Big Bend Moun- 
tain, Turner (1^ 

Calaveras County: Occurs on Carson Hill with quartz and gold. 
Also with the pyrite at Copperopolis and at Carapo Seco. 

El Dorado County : Yellow platy barite occurs on Slate Mountain 
and ten miles above Georgetown. 

Fresno County: Nodules and large concretions of dark gray impure 
barite occur in the Mount Diablo Range. 

Inyo County : jMassive barite occurs near Independence ; at the 
Defiance mine with native sulphur ; white massive at Bishops Creek, 
White Mountains; veins in the Alabama Range. Deposits of massive 
barite occur twenty miles west of Shoshone. 

Kern County : Nodular masses in the Mount Diablo Range. 

Lake Count v : Some barite has been found near Glenbrook. 


Jjos Angeles County : White barite occurs near Azusa. Barite was a 
gangue mineral in the old Kelsey mine, San Gabriel Canyon, Storms(i>. 

Mariposa County: A large deposit of barite occurs about two miles 
west of El Portal which has produced much of the mineral mined in 
the State. The barium carbonate, witherite. is associated with it. 

Mendocino County : A large deposit occurs near Castella on moun- 
tains east side of river, Castle Crags. 

]\lerced County: A tribolumiscent sphalente mixed with barite occurs 
near INIereed Falls. 

Mono County: Barite has been found as a gangue mineral near 
Bodie, Benton and other mining districts. Some barite has been found 
in the ^Nlono Lake district. 

Monterey County: A deposit occurs on Fremont Peak. 

Napa County : Plates of barite occur at the Manhattan mine, Knox- 
ville, with cinnabar ; platy quartz as pseudomorphs after barite also are 
common at this mine. Occurs associated with cinnabar at the Oat Hill 

Nevada County: Occurs with gold at the Malakoff mine. North 
Bloomtield. Slender prisms of barite in a limonite gangue associated 
with gold occur at Pine Hill and these crystals have been described by 
Eakle(6). Forms: (100), (010), (110), (210), (320), (530), (130), 
(001), (102), (Oil), (111), (113). A large deposit of white barite 
occurs live miles north of Alta. Round concretions have been found at 
the Buckeye Hill min(\ White veins of barite occur near Graniteville. 
Tjarge deposit five miles northeast of "Washington, pure whito. 

Orange County: A white barite gangue occurred with the tiemannite 
of San Joaquin Ranch mine. 

Placer County : AVhite barite comes from near Lincoln. 

Plumas County : Found associated with lead and copper minerals in 
Indian Valley. Small veins occur in altered andesite at Indian Valley 
Silver Mine. 

San Benito County : Pure white barite occurs in limestone on Bardin 
]?anch, Fremont Peak. 

San Bernardino County: Barite was common as a gangue in the 
silver districts of Calico and Barstow, occurring as white and yellow 
platy masses, Lindgren^^\ Storms^^'. Also common at the Imperial 
mine. Occurs six miles north of Barstow in limestone. White barite 
has been found near Trona. One of the minerals occasionally found at 
Randsburg. Reported as a deposit near Ludlow. 

San Diego County: Occurs on Red Mountain. 

San Francisco County : Needles of barite have been found at Fort 


San Mateo County: Massive barite has ])een found on Permenente 

Santa Barbara County: White massive at Santa Maria. White 
massive on north fork of La Brea Creek, twenty miles from Sisquoe. 
Wide white vein in sandstone on ridge above north fork of La Brea 

Santa Chira County: Occurred in small amounts with ganophyllite 
in the manganese boulder found near Alum Rock Park, five miles east 
of San Jose. Crystals had the forms: (110), (111) and (001), Rog- 
ers^"'. Occurs as veins in an old cinnabar mine on Yagis Creek, eight 
miles from Gilroy. Found as coarsely crystallized masses in the Solis 

Shasta County: Barite occurs at several of the copper mines as 
a gangue mineral, but the amount is small. A large deposit of white 
massive barite occurs 2^ miles north of Baird. Large deposit occurs 
near Copper City. 

Siskiyou County: Found with argentiferous galena about 2i miles 
north of Callahan. 

Trinity County: Dark gray barite occurs about fifteen miles below 
Hayfork. Small tabular crystals occur in gold ores of Five Pines mine 
associated with pink calcite, and also at Delta mine, WcaNcrvillc Quad- 

Sulphate of strontium, SrSOi. 

Orthorhombic. Crystals and ma.ssive. Cleavage perfect basal. Color- 
less, pale, bluish. Vitreous luster. H = 3 — 3.5; G = 3.9o — 3.97. 

Kofrai'tivo indices: a:=l.t>2"J; ^ = 1.G24; y=zl.(Wr>. 

Similnr to barite in its reactions, except that the flame is ib'cj) cmniino 
ri'd. Slightly soluble in .acid. 

Imperial County: Celestite associated with gypsmn beds occurs in 
the Fish Creek Mountains, thirty miles west of Brawley. 

Inyo County: Slender l)luish crystals occur with the colemanite of 
Death Valley and these have been measured by Eakle^'^^ Forms: 
(001), (110)", (102), (104), (Oil), (122), (067). 

Mono County : Blue celestite has come from the county. . 

San Bernardino County: Long crystals occur with the colentanite of 
Calico similar to those from Death Valley. Celestite was reported as 
one of the associated minerals of Searles Borax Lake by Hanks^®*. A 
large deposit si lowing as wdiite outcrops visible from the railroad occurs 
on southern base of a mountain four miles northeast of Lavic. Occurs 
as veins in walls of jasper, Mallery*^'. Some celestite is associated with 
th.e strontianite on Strontium Hills, ten miles north of Barstow. 


Sulphate of lead, PbSO,. 

Orthoilioiubic. riismalic crystals aud massive. Colorless, white, yellow. 
gray, brown. Adamantine luster. 11 = 2.5 — 3; G = 6.12 — 6.30. 

Refractive indices: oc =1-877; jg = l.S82; ^/ = 1.894. 

Reduced on charcoal, using sodium carbonate as tlux. to uu'lallic lead. 
Siisrhtly soluble and haritim cldoridL' added to the acid soluti<iii precipitates 
harium siilpliate. 

The sulphate of lead i.s a very eoimiioii oxidation produet of galena, 
consequently it is often found in lead districts usually in small amounts. 

Inyo County : Considerable anglesite has been formed from the lead 
sulphides in the Cerro Gordo district. Found associated with bind- 
heimite, galena and linarite at the Modoc mine; gray masses banded 
with eerussite occur at the Cerro Gordo mine. Good crystals associated 
with linarite and caledonite have come from this mine, with the forms : 
(001), (100). (110), (104), (111), (122), Eakle^''. Crystals with the 
forms: (001), (102), (Oil), (112), (111), (122), (324), (110), (120) 
and (010) were described by Guild'^'. Associated with eerussite and 
galena in limestone at the Ubehebe mine. 

Kern County : Anglesite as an oxidation of lead sulphide occurs seven 
miles northwest of Randsburg. 

Mono County: Anglesite occurs witli galena in the Benton district. 

Riverside County: Anglesite has been identified as one of the min- 
erals at the Crestmore quarry. 

San Bernardino County: Massive and in crystals at the Ibex mine. 
Black Mountains. 


Sulphate of calcium, CaSOi. 

Orthorhombic. Generally granular or lamellar massive. Color white, 
bluish white. Vitreous luster. Hz=3 — 3.5; = 2.89 — 2.9S. 

Refractive indices: ex =1-571; « = 1.57G; y=:1.014. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid and barium chloride added will pre<;ipilate 
barium sulphate. Calciuiu is i)reci])itated by adding amniuuia and anunon- 
ium oxalate to the dilute acid solution. Gives no water in a closed tube. 

Inyo County: Found massive at the St. Ignacio and Cerro Gordo 
mines. Also in the Panamint and Funeral Ranges. 

Mono County: Associated with ])arite at the Mammoth mine, Mineral 

Orange County : Found in the Santa Ana Mountains, near Anaheim, 

San Bernardino County : Anhydrite is mentioned as one of the 
associated uunerals at Searles Borax Lake, Hanks'''\ Deposits with 


sypsuiii on llie Owl Mountains, near Owl Springs, and on Avawate 

San Diego County : Some anhydrite has been found at M&sa Grande. 

Shasta County : Anhydrite partly altered to gypsum occurs at the 
deep levels of Bully Hill and Rising Star mines. 


Chloro-sulphate of sodium, 3Na2S04.2NaCl. 

Isometric. Rhombic dodecahedrons with cubes and tetrahedrons. Color 
faint greenish yellow. Vitreous luster. H = 3.5; G = 2.4S9. 

Refractive index: h = 1.454. 

Soluble in water, and barium chlorido precipitates barium sulphate. 
Silver nitrate precipitates from the solution acidified with nitric acid, silver 
chloride. Fuses with intumescence, coloring the flame yellow. 

San Bernardino County : Found as small crystals implanted on 
hanksite, at Searles Borax Lake, and was described as a new mineral 
and named by Hidden and Mackintosh "^^^ ^2) Forms: (111), (101), 

so.-, CI Na^COs Na.SO^ NaCl Na^COa 

42.48 13.12 1.77 = 75.41 21.62 1.77 =9S.S07o Sp.G = 2.4S9 

Small crystals of sulphohalite as octahedrons were described by Gale 
and Hicks*^' from Searles Lake. Anal^'sis by Hicks: 

so, Xa.O Na CI F Loss above 200° C 

42.00 32..50 11.35 0.19 [4.71] 0.25 

Equivalent to 2 Na.S04. NaCI. XaF. 


Carbonato-sulphate of sodium, 4Xa;S04.Na;C03. 

Ilexagoual. Prismatic, tabular. Color white. Vitreous luster. 
H = 3 — 3.5; G = 2.562. Taste saline. 

Refractive indices: £ = 1.4ijl : (,j = 1.481. 

rjasily soluble in water. Shov>s a slight effen-escence when dropped into 
diluti> hydrochloric acid. Barium chloride precipitates barium sulphate. 
Fuses easily, coloring the flame yellow. Potash is sometimes present, giving 
a violet flame wh?n seen through blue glass or the Mei*^in color screen. 

The double soda salt is quite common in the borax lake districts where 
it has crystallized in large hexagonal crystals. It was discovered as a 
new mineral in 1885 and its occurrence is practically limited to this 

Inyo County : Some hanksite is found with the borax in the sinks of 
Death Valley. 

San Bernardino County : First discovered at Searles Borax Lake as 
one of the numerous crystallization products and was described as a 
neAv mineral and named by Hidden^^^, with an analysis by ]\Iackiutosh. 


. Analysed 

by :\Iack- 

iisol. lyn. 

- 99.99% 

4.41 1.32 

:^ 100.00 


:3 99.81 


= 99.73 


Forms: (0001), (lOTO), (lOTl), (2021), (4045). 
intosh. Dana and Penficld^'^ and by Pratt^^\ 

SO;, COs Cl NaaO KoO 

Miukiiitosli 45.89 5.42 2.30 46.34 

Peulield 43.59 5.42 2.13 40.8G 2.33 

Tnitt 45.93 5.05 2.21 43.35 2.48 

45.78 5.03 2.28 43.61 2.31 


Carbouato-sulphule of lead, 41'bO.SO,.2CO:.n:0. 

Monotlinic. Tabular crystals. ("k'avii.;;c perfect basal. Col( r white, 
yellowish, greenish. A'itreous to pearly luster. 11=2.5; G = 0.20 — 6.49. 

Refractive indices: a: =1.87; « = 2.(K»: ,, = 2.01. 

Easily reduced ou charcoal to metallic lead, giving a yellow coatin^. 
Effervesces slightly iu hydrochloric acid. Barium chloride precipitates from 
the acid solution barium sulidiate. (iives a small amount of wat?r in a 
closed tube. 

Inyo County : Found as pale sea-green crystals at the Cerro Gordo 
mine, associated with linarite and caledonite, with the forms*: (001), 
(110), (100), and a prism. Rogers" \ 


Basic sulphate of lead and copper (Pb.Cu) Sd. (Pb,Cu) (OH).. 

Orthorhombic. Small crystals. Cleavage perfect basal. Color bluish 
a:reen and dark emerall-irreen. llesinous to vitreous luster. 11 = 2.5 — 3: 
G = 6.4. 

Fu.sed ou charcoal with sodium carbonate, it becomes reduced to metallic 
lead globules and coats the coal yellow near the assay. Barium chloride 
added to thf hydrochloric acid solution precipitates barium sulidiate : 
ammonia afld(>d to the solution gives th:> I)luo color due to copper, (iivi's 
a small amount of water in a clased tube. Easily fusible. 

Inyo County : Occurs as small emerald-green crystals associated with 
linarite and brochantite at Cerro Gordo. Described by Eakle^''\ 
Forms: (001), (110), (040), (Oil), (111), (201), (021), (012), (013), 
(221), (223), (014), (203). Bright green crystals from Cerro Gordo 
described by Guild<^> had the forms: (001), (Oil), (010), (113), (223), 
(221), (110) and (201). 


Basic sulphate of copper, CuSOi.3Cu(OH)2. 

Orthorhombic. Small crystals. Cleavage perfect brachypinacoidal. 
Color emerald-green, dark green. Vitreous luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 3.907. 

Refractive indices: «:= 1-7.30: « = 1.778; y = 1.803. 

Easily fusible. ReduoiMl on charcoal with smdium carbonate, yields metal- 
lic copper. Barium chloride precipitates barium sulphate from a hydro- 
chloric acid solution. Ammonia added to solution gives a blue color. 
Gives water in a closed tube. 

Calaveras County : Druses of small dark green crystals, derived from 
chalcopyrite, occur at Copperopolis, Rogers' ^\ 


Inyo County : Occurs as small dark emerald-green crystals at the 
Cerro Gordo mine, associated ^\•ith linarite and caledonite. The 
crystals have the forms: (010), (110), (120), (001), (012), (101), 
(041), Eakle^^'. Occurs with chrysoeolla in the Panamint Mountains 
near headAvatere of Cottonwood Creek. 

Plumas County : Occurs in crystals at the Engels Copper mine. 

San Bernardino County : Observed as coatings on breccia at Stagg. 

Basic sulphate of lead and copper (Pb,Cu) S04.(Pb,Cu) (OH),. 

Monocliuic. Small crystals, divergent columnar and platy. Cleavage 
perfect orthopinacoidal. Color deep azure-blue. Streak pale blue. Vit- 
reous to adamantine luster. H = 2.5; G = 5.3 — 5.45. 

Refractive indices: a:=l.SC(9: ^ = 1.S3.S; y = 1.859. 

Reactions for linarite are like those for caledonite. The two are often 
associated, but are easily distinguished by color. 

Inyo County: Beautiful divergent, columnar masses of deep azure- 
blue linarite were obtained in the Cerro CTordo mines during the early 
days of mining there, the specimens sometimes being banded with green 
caledonite and brochantite. Fine crystals were also obtained from 
pockets and cavities in the massive mineral. The Cerro Gordo, Crapo, 
St. Ignacio and other mines of the loealitj^ contained the linarite in the 
oxidized zones of the deposit. Rogers^^) gives several of the forms on 
the linarite crystals. Forms: (001), (100), (110), (010), (201), (TOl). 
Eak]e(") gives additional forms: (210), (012), (Oil), (203), (Tl2), 
(211), (716), (14.0.1), (302), (211). Crystals show twinning on 
the orthopinacoid. 


353. MIRABILITE— Glauber Salt. 

Hydrous sulphate of sodium, XaoSOi.lOHoO. 

Monocliuic. Generally as crusts and efflorescences. Color white. Vit- 
reous luster. H = 1.5 — 2; G = 1.4S. Taste salt and bitter. 

Refractive indices: a:=1.3»4: ^ = 1.39G; y = 1.398. 

Sohiblt' in water. Gives an intensp yellow flame when heated. Barium 
chloride precipitates from the acid stilutiou barium sulphate. Gives much 
water in a closed tube. 

Mirabilite generally occurs as- white crusts and efHoresceuces and it 
is sometimes found on the walls of mines where sulphide ores are 
decomposing. It is also found as crusts about dry alkali lakes. 

lni])erial ("oiiiitx : Glauber salt is associated with the thenardite at 
]*ope Siding. 


Napa County : It oecurred on the walls of the tunnels in the old 
Redington cinnabar mine, Knoxville. 

San Bernardino County: Forms crusts about some of the dry salt 
basins of this county. 

San Luis Obispo County : Found on Carrizo Plains. 

354. GYPSUM— Gypsite. 
Hydrous sulphate of calcium, CaS04.2H;0. 

Monocliuic. Crystals, massive, granular, fibrous, lamellar. Cleavage 
perfect cliuopinacoidal. Colorless, white, light browu, reddish. Vitreous 
luster. 11 = 1.5; = 2.31 — 2.32. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.520; ^ = 1.523; y = 1.530. 

Easily soluble in dilute hj-drochloric acid. Ammonia and ammonium 
oxalate added to the solution precipitates calcium oxalate. Gives water in 
a closed tube and crumbles to a white powder. 

Gypsum is a very common mineral in the State, but extensive deposits 
of good pure gypsum are exceptional. The mineral is easily formed 
by the action of sulphated waters on limestone, consequently small 
amounts of the mineral are usual in mining regions where sulphides 
are decomposing. Larger deposits are generally bedded deposits formed 
by the evaporation of lime sulphate waters and these are apt to be 
quite impure from admixtures of lime carbonate and clay. 

Selenite, satin spar, alahasicr and gypsite are varietal names. The 
granular, bedded and efflorescent deposits are the only kind in the 
State of value and the term "gypsite" is generally applied to the 
material of such deposits. 

The 1( cations of some of the deposits are givv.'n, and the nnneral is 
frequently mentioned in descriptions of the counties. 

Hess^^^ has given us a more recent description of the gypsum re- 
sources of the State. 

Alpine County : Small amounts occur at Bulliana. 

Butte County : Found at the St. Clair mine. A vein of gray gypsum 
occurs one mile from Pent/ near road to Cherokee Flat. 

Colusa County : Small amounts occurred with the sulphur at Sulphur 

Contra Costa County : Selenite gypsum is common in the coal seams 
at Antioch and near Danville. Disks of selenite occur near Clayton. 

Fresno County: Deposits of gypsite occur on the low hills on the 
north and south sides of Tomey Creek, about eighteen miles southwest 
of Mendota, and along Cantua Creek. In the Coalinga oil district 
there are frequent occurrences of gypsite. Occurs in San Joaquin mine, 
four miles northwest of Coalinga. Deposit west of Huron. Satin spar 
occurs in Oil Creek Canyon. 


Imperial County: Yellow selciiile has conic i'l-om a locality about 
five miles west of Volcano. An extensive bed of gypsum associated with 
celestite occurs in the Fish ('reek .Mountains about thirty miles west of 
Brawley. Analysis of Fish ('reck Mountain siypsuiu by J. 0. Handy: 




1 'a( ) 

.Mg< » 





0.14 ' 





Occurs on south slope of Coyote ]\rountains. thriu' miles northwest of 
Coyote Wells. High grade near Dixieland. 

Inyo County: Fibrous gypsum occurs at Clark's Fork, Amargosa 
River. Small amounts occur in the Cerro Gordo district. Deposits occur 
between Teeopa and Acme. Satin s]>ar occurs in long fibrous masses on 
('lark's Fork, Amargosa River. 

Kern County: Hess^^^ reports good deposits of gypsite in the Lost 
Hills about twenty-five miles west of Wasco. An analysis of the 
material was made by C. W. Wells and quoted by Hess. 






















= 99.2% 











= 100.4 

Impure gypsite is common in the oil districts and some has been 
mined in the McKittrick district. Deposits are said to exist on Cotton- 
wood Creek, about sixteen miles cast of Bakersfield. Beds of gypsum 
occur in the bed of old Kern Lake, about twenty miles southwest of 
Bakersfield and five miles from Connor. Some gypsite occurs on the 
shores of Buena Vista Lake. Selenite is found with stibnite at the old 
San Emidio antimony mine. Small deposits of gypsite occur near 
Kane Springs and near Bakersfield, i-esting on limestone. Gypsite and 
gypsum occur on Mojave Desert, twelve miles east of Mojave. Found 
as selenite on Posa Creek. Near Kane Spring's as a lake deposit. 

Kings County: Gypsite occurs in deposits on the range of low hills 
southeast of Dudley and on Kcttlcman Plains, about five miles north- 
east of Dudley. 

Lake County : Selenite is found on Robinson's ranch. Small amounts 
are also found at Sulphur Bank, Clear Lake. 

Lassen County: Large slabs of selenite occur near Susanville. Ob- 
served at Honey Lake. 

Los Angeles County : Deposits of good white gypsum occur in 
Charley Canyon, twelve miles north of Castiac in shale rock. Gypsite 
and alabaster occur at Palmdale on ridge interbedded with shales. 
Seams occur in bluffs at San Pedro. A deposit is given two miles 
north of Lang. Large selenite plates have been found in Soledad 

Mariposa County : Selenite has been reported from Bear Valley. 

Mono Comity : Occurs in the Bodie district. Observed in mountains 
south of ^lono Lalie. 


Monterey County : Deposits occur east of King City near county line. 

Napa County : Small amounts of gypsum were associated with the 
cinnabar at tliu old Kodiuglon or Boston mine, Knoxville. 

Nevada County : Fibrous radiate gypsum occurs near Truckee. 

Orange Counly: Outcrops of gypsum occur in Gypsum Canyon and 
adjacent canyons, about two miles south of Corona. Alabaster gypsum 
occurs on San Joaquin Ranch. 

Riverside County: Good deposits of g^'psum occur in the Palen 
Mountains interstratificd with limestone. Deposits also occur in the 
Santa IMaria ^Mountains which are thought to be extensive. Some 
gypsum occurs in the Colorado Desert about twelve miles east of IMecca. 
IMassivo wbito and tine selenite crystals occur at the Adams Blakely 
mine. Selenite occurs south of South Riverside. Deposits occur near 
Banning and in the hills west and southwest of Corona. AVhite finely 
crystalline gypsum occurs twenty miles soutlieast of lilytbe. 

San Benito County: Outcrops of gypsum occur along the Coast 
Range in many places. ]\Iany occurrences in Bitterwater Valley. De- 
posits lie east of Metz and King City. 

San Bernardino County : In the dry lake depressions of the desert 
deposits of gypsite occur but most of them are impure material. A 
large deposit of this nature occurs at Amboy which is mined at present. 
Some also is found in the lake beds south of Danby and near Kelso. 
Gypsum is one of the associated minerals of the borax at Searles Borax 
Lake. Selenite occurred with eolemanite in the Calico district. Large 
deposits of gypsum occur on the northeast side of Avawatz Mountains. 
Selenite, satin spar and massive white, pink, red and green occur. Sel- 
enite in good crystal specimens occurs in the eolemanite beds near 
Yerma. A deposit occurs near Camp Cady. Thin beds are associated 
with rock salt in the Avawatz ]\louutains. Crystals occur in the mud of 
Strontium Hills, ten miles north of Barstow. 

San Diego County: Gypsite is found near Dos Palmas. 

San Francisco County : Small amounts have been found near Merced 
Lake. Disks of selenite occur on Seal Rock. Some selenite is found 
at Fort Point. 

San Joaquin County : Selenite occurs at Vernalis. 

San Luis Obispo County : White bunches and veins occur on Alamo 
Creek, sixteen miles from Santa Maria. Some alabaster occurs at 
Arroya Grande. Gypsite occurs in beds on the southwest side of Trem- 
blor Range, east of Carrizo Plain. Selenite crystals occur in the clays 
of Carrizo Creek. 

Santa Barbara County : Alabaster occurs near Santa Barbara Creek, 
about thirty-two miles southwest of McKittrick. Small amounts of 
alabaster are found on Santa Rosa Island. Massive gypsum was early 

272 state; mining bureau. 

worked near PoiDt Sal. Occurs as massive frypsiiin in Cuyama Canyon 
on east side of Santa BarV»ara Canyon, five miles south of Quartel. 

Santa Clara County: Selenite occurs near Gilroy. 

Santa Cruz County: Satin spar and massive white gypsum occur 
near Santa Cruz. 

Shasta County : Some gypsum as hydration of anhydrite occurs in 
the Bully Hill and Rising Star mines. 

Sierra County : Small amounts have been found on Kanaka Creek. 

Siskiyou County : ^lassive white gypsum oecui^s near Sulphur 
Springs, ]\rt. Shasta. 

Sonoma County : Found at the Geysers with sulphur and with bous- 
singaultite. Selenite in good crystals h;us been foinid near Santa Rosa. 

Stanislaus County : Selenite is found near ]\lodesto. 

Trinity County : Small amounts of fibrous gypsum occur at Island 
Blount a in. 

Tulare County : Fibrous satin spar at White River. Occurs twenty 
miles southeast of Porterville. 

Tuolumne County: Some gypsum has been found near Groveland. 

Ventura Count}' : Small amounts on Dennison Ranch, three miles 
east of Nordhoflf. Selenite occurs in Lockwood Valley. ^Massive white 
gypsum occurs four miles south of Fillmore interbedded with diatoma- 
ceous shale. Also on South Mountain aliout four miles south of Santa 
Paula. Occurs as alabaster on French Point liiil six miles above mouth 
of Santa Barbara Canyon : Analysis of white gypsite from Ojai Valley : 

CaSO< MgO Xa.,0 SiO.. AU0, + Fe.,03 H,0 

7.>.22 1.15 1.10 0.70 ' O.M ' 2ll22 = 99.80% 

355. EPSOM ITE— Epsom Salts. 

Hydrous sulphate of maguesinm, MgSO^.TH-O. 

< )rtliorhombic. Bunches of long slender fibers and fibrous crusts. Cleav- 
airo perfect brachj'pinacoiflal. Color Avliite. Vitreous luster. H = 2 — 2.."> ; 
G = 8.75. Taste bitter and salt. 

^^efractivc indicps : cc = 1 -^Oo : ^ = 1.4.>">; y= 1.401. 

Soluble in- water. Barium ohlorido precipitates barium sulphate from a 
hydrochloric acid solution. So<lium phosphate added to an ammonium 
chloride solution proeii)itates MJiite niiijrnesium ijyrojjhosphate. 

EfHorescenees of epsomite are common in caves and tunnels where 
pyrite or other sulphides are decomposing in the presence of magnesian 
rocks. Long hair-like masses of the mineral are common in the cinna- 
bar mines of the State but no epsomite is mined. Commercial epsomite 
is produced as a by-product in the evaporation of the bitterns of sea 
water at the salt works. 


Alameda County : An efflorescence on the walls of tiie pyrite mines 
of Leona Heights. Analysed from the Alma mine by Sehaller^^\ 


MgO SO:, at 100° ab. 110° Al^Oa 

14.8 31.7 -lO.S 12.2 tr. =99.5% 

Amador County : Comnion in the mines on Copper Hill. 

Imperial County : Mentioned by Emory^^^ as occurring in white 
crusts on the Colorado Desert. 

Lake County: Abundant in the old Abbott quicksilver mine. 

Mariposa County : Found as tine tibers in the Purchase mine near 

Napa County: Abundant in long white fibers in the tunnels of the 
old Rediugton mine, Ivnoxville. 

San Benito County : Exceptionally long fibers of epsomite occur in 
the New Idria cinnabar mine. 

Santa Clara County : Abundant on the walls of the New Almaden 
and other cinnabar mines of the county. 

Sonoma County: An associate of boussingaultite, Goldsraith^^^. 

356. GOSLARITE— White Vitriol. 

Hydrous sulphate of zinc, ZnS04.7HoO. 

Ortliorhomhic. In long acicular crj'stals and massive crusts. I'erfect 
bracliy pinacoidal cleavage. lirittlo. Coloi- white, reddish or bluish. Taste 
metallic, nauseous. H = 2— 2.5; G = 1.9 — 2.1. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.450; « = 1.481; y = 1.481. 

Yields water in closed tube. Reduced with soda on charcoal, sivina yel- 
low coating, which turns gi'etMi when heated with cobalt nitrate. Barium 
chloride will precipitate the sulphate. Easily solulile in water. 

Formed through the decomposition of sphalerite and is sometimes ^ 
found on the walls of tunnels. 

Trinity County : Very small amount of white powdery goslarite 
occurs in the decomposed material at the pyrrhotite deposit at Island 


Hydrous sulphate of nickel, NiSOi.THjO. 

Orthorhombic. Acicular crystals, fibrous, efflorescent. Color apple-green 
to greenish white. Vitreous luster. H = 2 — 2.5; G = 2. Taste metallic. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.4G7; « = 1.4S9; y = 1.492. 

Fused in a borax bead, gives a brown bead of nickel in the oxidizing 
flame, which becomes gray and cloudy in the reducing flame. Nickel can 
also be determined by using dimethylglyoxime. Gives off acid water in a 
closed tube. 

Napa County : Said by Becker^^^ to coat a specimen of millerite from 
the Phoenix cinnabar mine. 



, 358. MELANTERITE— Copperas. 

Hydrous sulphate of iron. FeSOi-TILO. 

Monoclinic. Fibrous, stalactitic. Cleavage basal. Color light greeu to 
white. Vitreous luster. H = 2; G = 1.S9 — 1.9 

llefractive iudices : ex =1.471 ; ^3=1. 478; y = 1.4S6. 

Easily soluble in water. Becomes magnetic Oft heating. Ammonia pre- 
cipitates reddish ferric hydrate from a nitric acid solution. Barium chlo- 
ride i)recipitates barium sulphate. Gives acid water in a closed tube. 

Melanterite is a common formation in mines containing pyrite or 
marc a site. 

Alameda County: Abundant as small tibrons crystals on the walls of 
the Alma pyrite mine at Leona Heights. Described and analysed by 
SchallerC. Forms: (110), (001), (010), (lO^), (101), (Oil), (111), 
(T21), (120), (102), (203), (802), (201), (904), (832). 

FeO SOs HoO CuO MgO 

28.1 31.2 42.0 none none =101.3% 

Amador County : Occurred on walls of an old tunnel 1^ miles north 
of Volcano. Had mendozite associated with it. 

Lake County: Abundant as stalactites in the Sulphur Bank cinnabar 
mine, Clear Lake. 

Mariposa County: Found as coating's in the Purchase mine, near 

Mono County : Common in the mines about Lundy. Found with 
pyrite and arsenopyrite at Mono Lake. 

Napa County : Long pale green stalactites were abundant in the old 
Redington cinnabar mine, Knoxville. 

Santa Cruz County : Specimens have come from the vicinity of Santa 

Shasta County : Common at Copper City, Bully Hill and other mines 
of the county. 

Sonoma County : Drusy green specimens have been foinid near 

Hydrous sulphate of iron and copper (,Fe. Cu)S04.7H20. 

Monoclinic. Long slender prisms, stalactitic. Color greenish blue. Vit- 
reous luster. H = l — 2. 

Refractive indices: oc=i-472; ^=1.47!>; y = 1.487. 

lleaetions are similar to those for melau'terite, except that aniniuuia 
turns the solution blue at the same time pivcipitating the iron a.s ferric 

Alameda County: One of the secondary sulphates formed with 
melanterite and chalcanthite on the walls of the Alma pyrite mine on 
Leona Heights. Described and analysed by Schaller(i>. Forms : (001") , 





at 110° ab. 110° 












34.25 10.96 


(101), (010), (110), (103), (Oil), (100), (210), (320), (120), (TOl), 
(T12), (205), (111), (335), (221), (T21). 


= 101.39% 
= 100.61 
2.82 =100.69 

Monterey County : Pale bine crystals from near Gonzales were 
analysed by Schaller^^^. 

CuO FeO SOa H«0 

7.56 15.85 30.74 45.85 

360. BIEBERITE— Cobalt Vitriol. 

Ilyarous siilphatc of c-obalt. Coir^Oj. 7 11,0. 

Moiiocliiiic. Staliictitt's and crusts. (,\>lor losc-n-d. Astriiiufnt t.islc 
Soft and friable. G = 1.924. 

Refractive indices: oc =1-447; ^=1.483; y = 1.4S9. 

Yields water in a cIusihI tulx'. (Jives a blue bead with borax. Suljdiiite 
is precipitated by baiiuni chloride. 

A secondary' sulphate formed through the alteration of cobalt-bearing 
minerals. Generally formed by dessication of solutions containing it. 

Trinity County : Small amount as a pale rose-red powder occurs from 
the dessication of the sidphate solutions at the pyrrhotite deposit near 
Island Mountain. 

361. BOOTH ITE. 
Hydrous sulphate of copper, CUSO4.7H2O. 

Monoclinic. Fibrous massive. Color greenish blue. Vitreous luster. 
H = 2 — 2.5; G = 1.94 — 2.1. 

Soluble in water. Gives the blue solutiuu of copper when ammonia is 
added to a nitric acid solution. The .sulphate is determined by barium 
chloride. Gives water in a (•los<'d tube, which reacts acid. 

Alameda County : This was a new sulphate of copper differing from 
chalcanthite in the amount of water and crystallization, found with the 
other sulphates of iron and copper at tile Alma pyrite mine, Leona 
Heights. Described as a new mineral and named by Schaller^^^ 
Forms: (001), (100), (110), (TOl), (301), (Tl2), (Til), (121). 






at 110° ab. 110° 




36.64 7.42 

= 100.26% 






= 101.26 

Calaveras County : Crystals of this new sulphate were later found at 
Campo Seco and analy.sed by Schaller'". 

CuO FeO MgO SO3 at 110° ab. 110° Insol. 

26.13 0.81 0.64 27.25 36.76 4.91 3.96 =100.46% 


362. CHALCANTHITE— Blue Vitriol--Bluestone. 
Hydrous sulphate of copper, CuSOj.SH^O. 

Triclinic. Generally in fibrous veins or stalactitic. Coloi greenish blue 
to sky-blue. Vitreous luster. H = 2.5; G = 2.12 — 2.3. 

Refractive indices: cc =1.516; = 1~)S9: y = 1.546. 

Same reactions as for boothite and only distinguishable by amount 
of water. 

The natural chalcanthite is found in mines where it results from the 
alteration of copper sulphides })ut the amount is generally small 
and unimportant. All of the commercial bluestone is a manufactured 

Alameda County : It is common in small crystals and seams in the 
Alma pyrite mine, Leona Heights, and was described and anal^ysed by 
Schaller^l^ For^ns: (001), (010). (100), (110). (120), flTO), (120), 
(Oil), (021), (031), (101), (111), (131), (141). 






at 110° ab. 110° Insol. 





28.20 7.50 0.81 =99.71% 

Amador County : Common in the mines on Copper Hill. 

Calaveras County: Occurred at Quail Hill, Silliman^^^ Common at 

Nevada County: Found at Sweetland, Hanks^^^ 

Shasta County : Common evaporation product in the mines of the 
county and reported from the Peck mine. Copper City, Hanks^'^^ 
Bluish green crystals and veins have been observed at Copper City. 

363. BL6DITE. 

Hj-drous sulphate of magnesium and sodium, MgS04.Na2S04.4H;0. 

Monoclinic. Prismatic crystals, granular massive. Color white. Vitre- 
ous luster. Soft. G = 1.67. 

Refractive indices: oc =1-486; ^=1.4SS; y = 1.48t>. 

Hasily soluble in water. Barium chloride precipitates barium sulphate 
from an acid solution. Fuses, giving a strong yellow tlame. Magnesia is 
determined by i)recipitatiou witli sodium pbnsiiliatc from an ammonia solu- 
ti<in. Gives water in a closed tube. 

Imperial County: Specimens of this rare sulphate are reported to 
have been found on the Colorado Desert. 

San Luis Obispo County : Very large crystals of blodite occur in the 
mud of Soda Lake, Carisso Plains, which have been described by 
Schaller (i^) Tj^gy g^o^^. tj^^ following forms: (001), (110), (210), 
(Oil), (111), (201), (Til), (211), (T21). 

Analysis : 

NaaO MgO SO3 H2O 

18.26 11.93 48.11 21.37 =99.67% 


Hydrous sulphate of ammouium and magnesium (NH4)jS04.MgS04.6H:0. 

Monoclinic? Fil)prs, cnists. Tenuiform aggrogatos and stalactites. (~"olnr 
pure white. Silky luster. Taste saliiie-astriugont. 11 = 2: G = 1.(».S — 1.72. 
Kefractive indices: oc -l.-iW; ^=1.472; y-lA~'.K 

l']iisily fusil)l('. and easily soluhle in water. I'ariuni chluridc i)n'cipitates 
barium sulphate, and sfKliuin phosphate precipitates the magnesia. < lives 
water in a cIosimI tnhc. Healed in cIosim] tnhc with linn'. it ffives odor of 

.Sonoma L'uiait \' : This rare .siilpliatc was (U-st-rihctl ami analysed by 
Goldsmith^^). No locality was given, but presumably it came from the 
vicinity of the Geysers. 


38.86 15.5G 5.03 40.55 

Ventura County : Found on South Mountain opposite Santa Paula, 
in stalactites and incrustations, foi-med by heated gases escaping through 
crevices in sandstone and shale. Described b}' Larsen and Shannon'^'. 
Analysis by Shannon: 

(NH4)oO MgO AI3O3 Fe„03 K.O Na,0 CaO SO3 H.O CI CO, 

laST. n.r>4 0.04 O.ns 0.22 O.m tr. 43.40 31.4S tr. tr. r= 08.31% 

365. KALINITE — Potash Alum — Common Alum. 

Hydrous sulphate of aluminium and potassium, K2S04.Alo(S04)3.24H;0. 

Isometric. Mealy crusts and fine fibrous. Color white. Vitreous luster. 
1-1 = 2 — 2.5:0 = 1.75. Alum taste. 

Kefraotive index: */ = 1.450. 

Easily soluble in water. .Vmmouia iirccipitates flocculent alumina hy- 
drate, and I)arium chloridt^ precipitates barium sulphate from a hydrocldorir 
acid solution, (iives the violet flame <if potassium when fused on jtlatinum 
will'. Yields much water in a closed tnbr. 

Mealy crusts of alum are rather common in mining regions, formed 
by the action of sulphated waters on rocks, and are more prominent 
in association with gypsum deposits. There are several kinds of alum, 
but the various species have not in general been differentiated. Com- 
mercial alum is largely a manufactured product. 

Alpine County : Found at the mines of Silver ]\Iountain. 

Calaveras County: Observed at Quail Hill, Silliman^^^. 

Fresno County : Common in the oil district at Coaliuga with sulphur. 

Inyo County : Occurs on the shores of Owens Lake. Also on the 
sides of a steaming vent two miles east of Coso Springs, as white crusts, 
Rogers^ ^^ 

Lake County : Common at the Sulphur Bank cinnabar mine. 

Los Angeles Countj^: Occurs near Newhall. 

Mono Comity : Found near Bodie. 


Napa County : Observed at the Rediugton eimiabar mine, Knoxville, 
Melville and Lindgren^^^ 

Placer County: In the gold mines near Dutch Flat; in slates near 

San Bernardino County : Some granular kalinite has come from this 

Sonoma Countv : Found at the Geysers. 

366. TSCHERMIGITE— Ammonium Alum. 

Hydrous sulphate of aluiuiniiim autl aminouiuui. (XH4):.S04.AL(SO/):;.24ILO. 

Isometric. Octahedral crystals, fibrous, crusts. Color white. Vitreous 
luster. Hz=l — 2; G = 1.5. 

Refractive index: n=1.4^t*.). 

Moated in a closed tube with lime, it siv^s off odor of ammonia. Kariuni 
chloride precipitates barium sulphate from a hydrochloric acid solution. 
Ammonia precipitates alumina. Gives water in a closed tube. Soluble in 
wa tor. • 

Lake County : Mentioned by Becker^^^ as an efflorescence at Sulphur 

367. MENDOZITE— Soda Alum. 
Hydrous sulphate of aluminium and sodium, Na2S04.AL(S04)5.24H;0. 

White fibrous masses or powder. H=3; G = 1.S8. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.432; ^=1.457; y = 1.4«3. 

Gives strong yellow flame. Reactions similar to other alums. 

Thorp are many varieties of alums, all formed as secondary minerals, 
by ci-ystallization from sulphate solutions. 

Amador County : Crusts (?n walls of old tunnel H miles north of Vol- 
cano, associated with melanterite. 

Inyo County : Some soda alum has been found in the Panamints. 

Napa County : Occurs on Pritchard Ranch, nine miles southeast of 
St. Helena. 

San Bernardino County : Platy and fibrous, white mendozite occurs 
five miles north of Hidden Springs. 

368. PICKERINGITE— Magnesia Alum. 
H.vdrous sulphate of aluminium and magnesium. Mg:S04.Al2(SO4)3.22n;0. 

IMonoolinic. Fine acicular crystals as efflorescences. Color white, yel- 
lowish and pink. Luster silky. H = l. Taste bitter, astringent. 

Refractive indices: <x =1.470; «=1.4S0: y = 1.488. 

Yields water in closed tube. Alumina and magnesia can be precipi- 
tated from acidified solution b.v ammonia and sodiimi phosphate. 

One of the alums haviiio- the iisiuil alum taste. Found as efflorescences 
on shale containinii' pyrite. 

Inyo County : Reported as a secondary efflorescene in the mountains 
west of Bishop. 


369. HALOTRICHITE— Iron Alum. 

Hydrous sulphate of aluminium and iron, FeS04.Al2(S04)3.24H.O. 
Monoclinic? Silky fibrous. Color yellowish white. Ink taste. 

Hi'fraftivc index: »—lA'.K 

Ainmoiii.'i ]>r<'cii)itatos iron ami iiluniiiia rroiii a ii.vdroclilnric ai-iil sulut iuii. 
IVariuin cidoi-idc precipitates Ijariiiiu suli)liati'. (iivcs niucli wati-i- in a 
closed tnln'. Soinhle in water. 

Alameda County : Found ;is filn-ous masses in the Eureka tunnel, 
near Livermore. 

370. SONOMAITE— Magnesi£i Alum. 
Hydrous sulphate of aluminium and magnesium, 3MgS04.Alo(S04>3.33H;0. 

Colorless crystals. Silky luster. G-1.60. 

Animouia added to a liydrochloric acid solution prccipiiatcs alumina and 
sodium phosphate added to the filtrate iluows down magnesia. Hariuni 
chloride precipitat(w barium snlpliale. ^lu 'h water is ohtinned in a clossd 

Sonoma County : This alum was described as a new mineral from this 
county by Goldsmith^^\ No locality was given. 

















Hydrous .sulphate of iron, Fe,(SO,)3.9H:0. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Generally granular massive. Color yellowish, 
brownish, greenish or violet. Vitreous luster. 11 = 2 — 2..T ; G = 2.00. 

Kefrartive indices: j = l..">r»(»; <„=:1..").W. 

Soluble in water and has an astringent taste. Hecouies ni.iiinctic on heat- 
ing: barium chloride precipitates barium sulphate. (Jives water in close.d 

Calaveras Count}' : Mentioned as one of the minerals formed at Quail 
Hill by Silliman(5). 

El Dorado County: Occurs in the shales near Georgetown. 

Inyo County : Yellow crystals have been found at Lone Pine. 

Napa County: Large masses of yellowish green, granular co(|uiiuhite 
occur at the old liedington cinnabar mine. The mineral was described 
by Eakle^i^ with analysis by Schaller. 


FeoOs AI2O, SO3 at IOC ab. 100° FeO SiOs . Na:0 MgO 

12.99 7.44 38.04 23.72 13.71 0.13 0.21 1.68 1.09 =99.04% 

Tuolumne County: Silliman'"'* mentions it as one of the minerals at 
"Whiskey Hill. 



Hydrous sulphate of aluminium, Al;(S04)3.18HjO. 
Mouocliuic. Fibrous masses, crusts, powder. Color white. Vitreous to 
silky luster. H = 1.5 — 2; G = 1.6 — 1.8. Alum taste. 

Refractive indices: ex =1.473: « = 1.474: ,, = 1.480. 

Solulilc in water and has an alum taste. Ammonia [)re('ipitates alumina 
hjdro.xido: harium chluride i)reci])itaff's barium snli)hat('. In a closed tul)<' 
srives water. 

Alameda County : Oeeurs as a wliite powder at the Alma mine, Leona 
Heights, Schaller(i>. 

Nevada County: Observed at the Providence mine, Nevada City, 

San Luis Obispo County : Found as a white powder near Paso Robles. 

373. RbMERITE. 

Hydrous sulphate of iron, Fe,.(S04)3.12H»0. 

Triclinio. Tabular crystals and jiranular. Perfect brachypinacoidal 
cleavage. Brittle. Color dark brown. Taste saline, astringent. 11 = 3 — 3.5: 
= 2.174. 

Refractive indices: a:=l">24: aj = 1.571 : y=1.583. 

Easily soluble in water. Becomes magnetic on heating. Barium chlo- 
ride precipitates barium sulphate. 

Formed as a secondar}^ mineral in the alteration of pyrrliotite. 

Trinity County: Small brown crystals forming friable nuisses occur 
in the decomposed material from the pyrrhotite deposit at Island ^loun- 



Hydrous sulphate of iron, 2Feo03.5SO.,.18H,0. 

Mouocliuic. Scaly massive, incrustations. Color sulphur-yellow. Pearly 
luster. H = 2.5; G = 2.10. 
Refractive indices: oc=l-Jl>7: ^ = 1.529; y = 1.573. 
Similar to coquimbite in its reactions. 

Alameda County : Found as yelloM^ needles at the Alma mine, Leona 
Heights, and analysed by Schaller^^^ 

rO H2O Insol. 

= 99.58% 

Lake County : Occurs at Sulphur Bank and analysed by Melville and 

SOi AI2O3 FejOs FeO MnO CaO MgO H-O Insol. 
38.82 0.37 26.79 3.28 tr. 0.25 0.16 29.58 0.75 =100.00% 

Napa County: Found at the old Redington mine, Knoxville, and 
analysed by Melville and Lindgren^^^ 

SO3 AI..O3 FeoOa FeO MnO CaO MgO H^.O 
.•59.97 __ 26.54 0.46 0.21 __ 3.06 30.43 =100.67% 

Riverside Coimtv : Found near Blythe. 
















Hydmus Inisic sulpliato of iioii. tliromiuni, aluiuiuium. nuki-l aud magnesium. 

Orthorhombic;. Talmlar crystals. Color greenish yellow. Cleavage 
perfect basal. Vitreous luster. 

Ilefractivf iiidiet's : a: z=].'A)7 : Q — l.r)2i); y = l.G7«). 

Soluble in wiitci-. liecomes magnetic on heating. May give a clintninini 
Itead wlieu fused with l>orax.' Hariuni chloride i)r.'cipitates biiriuin sulphate. 
(Ti\es water in a elusiMl tube. 

Napa Coiiiil y : (jrc'e-nisli yellow masses oi' this euiiiplex sulphate were 

found in the old Remington mine, Knoxville, and the mineral was 

described as new ])y IMelville and Lindgren^^^ Forms: (001), (110), 

(100). Crystals are basal plates. 


SO3 FeoOi Cr20:! AI2O3 FeO NiO MgO at 100° ab. 100 "" Insol. 
35.91 15.36 7.41 4.84 3.81 0.83 3.22 9.29 17.59 1.74 


Hydrous sulphate of chromium, alumiuium, iron and maguesium. 

Finely fibrous to granular massive. Color pale purple. Silky luster. 

Reactions are similar Ui those for kuoxvillite. 

Napa County : A pale purple sulphate was mixed witii the kuox- 
villite from the Redington mine which was described as a new mineral 

by Melville and Lindgren^^\ 


SO3 Al-Oa CroOa Fe^Oa FeO NiO MnO at 100° ab. 100° Insol. 
35.85 5.14 7.51 0.19 4.58 1.00 tr. 1.85 27.09 14.34 3.46 =100.51% 

Hydrous sulphate of iron, Fe:O3(SO,,),.10H/). 

< »rthorh4)mi)ii'V Fine fibrous aggregates. Color pale yellow to white. 
Truster silky. 1 1 = 2—2.5 ; G = 1 ..^. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.533: rt=t..">."i4: ,, = 1.575. 

Becomes magnetic on heating. Soluble in water. Barium chloride pie- 
cipitates barium sulphal:?. 

Formed by the decomposition of iron sulphides such as pyrrhotite. 

Trinity County: Fibrous aggregate of yellow fibroferrite have 
formed from the sulphate solutions at the pyrrhotite deposit at Island 

378. BOTRYOGEN— Paiacheite. 
Hydrous sulphate of iron and magnesium, Fe203.2Mg0.4S03.15H20. 

Monoclinic. Very small cry.stals. Color hriek-red. liyacinth-red. 
Mtreous luster. 11 = 2—2.5: = 2.04—^2.14. 

Refractive iiulices : oc=l">^-+: ^ = 1.548: y-=1.572. 

IVirtly st>lul»k' in water. Bee-omi's magnetic on healing. I'resence of 
magnesiu distinguishes it from other iron sulphate's. 

■ Napa County: Found in bunches of small brick-red crystals in one 
of the tunnels of the old Redington mine, Knoxville. It was thoi.ight to 





at 100° ab. 100° 




19.53 12.75 


by a new mineral and described and named "palaeheite" by Eakle ^^\ 
Its identity with botryogen was later established, Eakle^'*^ Forms : 
(110), (010), (001), (120), (450), (021), (201), (Til), (T21). 

: 99.51% 

379. ALUNITE. 

Hydrous sulphate of aluminium and potassium, K2O.3Al2O3.4SO3.GH2O. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Small crystals and massive. Color white. 
Vitreous luster. H = 3.5 — 4; G = 2.58 — 2.75. 

Kefractive indices: £ = 1.592; (^ = 1..">72. 

Slowly soluhlo iu sulphuric but insoluble in hydrochloric acid. Infusible 
and decrepitates. Tunis blue when moistened with cobalt nitrate and in- 
tensely lieated. Gives water in closed tube. 

Colusa Coiiuty : Alunite carrying gold has been found at Sulphur 

Mariposa County : Alunite is a constituent of a quartzite rock found 
with a greenstone schist in which stellate pyrophyllite occurs, at the 
Tres Cerritos, southwest of Indian Gulch. Described by Turner^^^^^^. 
with analysis by Valentine. 

SO3 AI0O3 FeoOs CaO MgO KoO Na^O HoO SiOj TiO- 

38.50 38.05 0.23 0.55 tr. 4.48 2.78 11.92 2.64 0.40 

tr. r= 99.55% Sp. G. = 2.78 

Hydrous sulphate of potassium and iron, K20.3Fe203.4S03.6H;0. 

Hexagonal, rhombohedral. Small platy crystals, fibrous, granular. Color 
yellowish brown. Streak j'ellow. A'itreous luster. n = 2..T — 3.5; 
G = 3.15 — 3.26. 

Refractive indices: oc =1.715; ^=1.817: ,- = 1.820. 

Only partially soluble in cold water, othenviso like coquimbite in its 

Kern County: Micaceous flakes of jarosite have come from this 

San Benito County : Flakes of jarosite occur at New Idria. 


Hydrous tellurite of iron, Fe.CTeOs)^ 4H2O. 

Massive. Spherulitic. Pale greenish-yellow color. H = 2 — 2.5. 
Refractive indices: oc =1.702; « = 1.055; ,, = 1.965. 

A very rare mineral only known from one locality outside of Cali- 


Calaveras County : A specimen of telluricle ore from this county, pre- 
sumably from Carson Ilill. contained along its fractures pale greenish- 
yellow spherulites wliich proved to be durdenite from an optical exami- 
nation by Larsen*'^'. 












<i rah a mite 

The hydrocarbon series of chemical compounds include a number of 
substances occurring in nature, of a coal-like, pitch-like or oil-like 
structure, which are almost wholly of organic origin. Many of them 
are separable into a series of different hydrocarbons in varying pro- 
portions, thus showing their chemical composition to be quite indefinite. 
They have no place in a mineral classification, yet their occurrence as 
natural products in the earth, and the great economic importance of 
some of them, have been the reasons for their adoption in some works 
on mineralogy. They l)elong to the province of organic chemistry. 

The two most valuable members of the hydrocarbon series are coal 
and oil. Coat is pretty generally scattered in the State, but its occur- 
rence is in thin seams which are not segregated sufficiently to form good 
workable deposits. The coal is of the lignite variety, and black and 
brown masses of this lignite are occasionally present in the sandstones 
and limestones. Practically all of the coal used in California is 

The lack of coal is more than counterbalanced by the abundance of 
petroleum. California has one of the greatest oil fields in the world. 
The oil sands occur at various depths and are of varying thickness and 
produce oils of greatly diversified character and gravity. The thick 
series of Miocene shales and sandstones represented by the Monterey 
formation are the great repository and source of most of the oil of the 


Simple hydrocarbon, CjH4. 

A dark reddish brown bituminous substance found with cinnabar. Brittle. 
11 = 2. 

Napa County: Observed at the old Phoenix cinnabar mine, Pope 
Valley, and was described by Beeker^^^, with analyses by Melville. 

C H 

89.84 10.17 =100.01% 

89.54 10.36 = 99.90 

89.33 10.11 = 99.46 



A fossil hydrocarbon of earthy texture and brownish yellow color. 
G = 0.90. 

Amador County : Found in an argillaceous lignite in thin seams in 
lone Valley and described by Purnell^^^ Contains about 50 per cent 
water and resembles pyropissite. 


^'olatile hydrocarbon. 

A hydrocarbon occurring in bright yellow scales at some of the cinnabar 

Napa County : Occurred on the cinnabar at the Redington mine, 
Knoxville, Bertrand^^^ 

Santa Clara County : First observed at the New Almaden mine 
impregnating a silicious dolomite and was described by Durand^-^ 


Lake County : Plates and nodules of a dirty green and brown oxygen- 
ated hydrocarbon were found at the Great Western mine and the 
substance was described by von Schrockinger^^^, with analyses by 
Dietrich. Part was soluble in ether and part insoluble, the latter cor- 
responding to ozocerite. Becker^^^ gives an analysis by Melville of 
similar material. 

Sol. Insol. 

C H O C H O Ash 

vou Schrockiugpr__ 71.S4 n.9.-> 18.21 S4.27 11.74 3.99 

Melville ___ 83.60 10.71 3.22 0.47 

A substance supposed to be a fossil resin, found as a white porous 
mass at Santa Ana, San Bernardino County, was described as a new 
mineral by Stillman^^^ Considered by Brown^^) to be a fungous 
growth and not a mineral. 


The presence of oil in the State has been known by seepages and other 
indications for many years and some districts have had producing wells 
for a long time, but the great oil resources of California have only 
been developed within the past decade, and new fields are constantly 
being added to the oil areas. The large productive fields are all located 
in the southern counties, Coalinga, in Fresno County, being the most 
northerlv one. Oil is known to occur, however, in some of the northern 


counties, but so far the areas have not been very productive. Much 
difference exists in the oil. Some of it is heavy, thick and bhick with 
low gravity, while other wells in the same field produce thin, easily 
flowing, light, liigh gravity oils. The ]\Ionterey shales and sandstones 
are the source of a large part of the oil in the State. 

It is manifestly beyond the scope of this book to give a description 
of the numerous oil fields within the borders of California. 

The Coalinga district in Fresno and Kings counties, the Kern River, 
and the iNIcKittrick-Sunset districts in Kern County, the Santa Maria 
and Summerland fields in Santa IBarbara County, the Santa Clara field 
in Ventura County, and the Los Angeles field are the most important 
fields in the State. Oil is known to exist in several counties in the 
northern part of the State, but very little oil has been obtained from 
any of the northern fields. 

Tiie geology of the oil fields has been studied by Arnold, Eldridge, 
Anderson and others of the United States Geological Survey, and their 
results published in bulletins of the Survey. 


The San Pablo and Monterey formations are especially characterized 
by the bituminous matter which accompanies the shales and sandstones; 
consequently layers of bitumen and seepages of viscous tar-like matter 
are common in districts where these shales are exposed. They are 
especially prominent in the southern counties and some asphalt lakes 
have formed. The most noted asphalt deposit in the State is on the 
Rancho de la Brea in Los Angeles County. This deposit served as a 
trap for the capture of many animals and birds now extinct. The 
deposit was for a time worked for the asphalt. 

Gilsonite or uiiifahift is a variety of asjiliall of ;i brilliiiiit hl.-ick coloi'. 
Has been found in Santa Barbai-a County. 

Grahamite is also a pitch-black brilliant-lustered asphalt. Believed 
to be associated with i-iniifibar in the Great Eastern mine, Sonoma 
county, Bradley^"'. 


All of the coal of the State is of the soft lignite variety and only 
occurs in unimportant deposits. Many of the counties can show some 
seams of coal, and specimens are on exhibition in many of the county 
exhibits, as well as in the museum of the State Mining Bureau. 






Every element which enters into the composition of minerals prob- 
ably occurs in California. It is true that several rare elements like 
caesium, gallium, indium and some members of the cerium-yttrium and 
radium groups have never been detected, but minerals occur in which 
these elements are usually found, so their presence nuiy yet be revealed 
when more extensive chemical and spectroscopical analyses of the 
iiiinei-ais and rocks have been made. 

California is ideal in having passed through all those stages of geo- 
logic development which govern the formation of the various species or 
classes of minerals of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary genesis, 
and in possessing the climatic conditions essential to the formation and 
preservation of unusual mineral species. 

Five minerals of commercial importance M^hich are not of world-wide 
distribution are pre-eminent in California, namely coleraanite, cinna- 
bar, magnesite, pink tourmaline and trona. 

Cornudum, ALO3. 

Spinel, MgO.Al.Oj. 

Chrysoberyl, BeALO^. 

Bauxite. ALO3.2H.O. 

Dawsonite, Na3AI(C03)3.2Al(OH)3. 

Orthoclase, KAlSijOs. 

Microcline, KAlSisOs. 

Auorthoclasc, ( K,Na ) AlSijOs. 

Albite, NaAlSi-Os. 


Audcsine, ;H.XaAlSi30s + 

Labradoritc, « GaALSi.Oj. 


Anortliito, CaAl-.Si.Os. 

Spoduniene, LiAKSiOs);. 

Horublendo. Ca.Mg.Fe.Al.SiO,. 

Glauc-ophauf. Na,VUSi03),.(Fe,M8) SiOp,. 

Beryl, BejALSi^Ois. 

Noidiellue. K;XacAKSij03.i. 

Sodalito 3Xa.VlSiO4.NaCl. 

Noselite, Xa ( XaSO^. Al ) AL ( SiO ) 3. 

Lazui-ite. Xa.CXaSo.AD AL(Si04),. 

(Jrossularite, Ca-AloSi.,Oio. 

Pyrope, Mg3Al,Si30,2. 

Almandite, FejAbSijOjo. 

Spessartite. MusAloSisO,;. 


WiTuerito. Ca,Xa.Al,Cl.Si04. 
Gehlenite, Ca3AloSio09. 
Vesuvianite, H4Ca,2(Al.Fe)oSi,o043. 
Topaz. Al(O.F,)AlSiO^. 
Andaliisite. ALSiOj. 
Sillimanite. ALSiO,. 
Cyauite. ALSiO^. 
Zoisite. HCa^ALSiaCs. 
Epidote, IICao(Al,Fe)3Si30,3. 
Allauito. (Ca.Di.LaiCa.Fe,Al,Si04. 
IM.'duiontite. HCa.,( Al.Mu,Fc)3Si30„. 
Axinite, II(Ca,Mn,Fe)3BAI,(SiO,),. 
Preiinit.-. ILC'a,Al,Si,0,,. 
Lawsonito. HiCiuVLSi^Om. 
Tounimlinp. Li.Ff.Mjr.B.AlSiO;. 
Duinoi-tierito. II. .\.l3BSi30:^. 
Muscovite, ( II. K 1 AlSiO^. 
Maripositc, ( H,K) (Al.Cr) SiOi. 
Para-onite. H.XnALSi.O,,. 
Lepidolite, ( K. Li I Al ( OH.F ) Al ( SiOj ) 3. 
I'hlogopite, HJvMgjAl (SiOJa. 
Biotite. ( II.K I , ( Mg.Fe ) , ( AI.Fe ) ,81,0,^. 
Hoscoelite. rUs:(Mg,Fe) (AI,V)4(Si03)3, 
Margarite, HoCa™Al,Si30^. 
Xantbophyllite, Hs(Mg,Ca)HAl,cSi30,,;. 
Chloritoid, H, {, Fe,Mg 1 ALSiO:. 



ALUMINIUM— Continued. 

Ottrt'lito. IL(I<V,Mu)ALSinO.,. 
( "liiiochlon'. II,.M;,',AI,Si,( V. 
I'ouninite, lIaM^',Fe)5ALSi30,s. 
rroL-hlorin>. II.Msr.l-V.Al.SiOo. 
Conindoi.liyllito. lI.Ms.AI.SiO.. 
(iriffitliitf. II. Ca.Mir.Al.Fe.SiO,. 
Chalcwliti'. li.Fo.Mjr.Al.SiO.. 
Joffcrisitc. II.Mir.Fi'.Al.SiO,. 
lii'iilaiiditc. l^(\iAL(Si()3l,.8ILO. 
Phillii)sit('. ( K„,('a)Al,Si,0,:.4H„0. 
LaiiiiK.ntito. II.CaALSi^OnSH.O. 
Stilbito. H^ ( Na„Ca) ALSi.!0,,.'4H,0. 
Chabazite, (Ca.Na,) Al,Si40,,r,IL6. . 
Aiialcit.-. \aAISi,0„.ILO. 
Natrolii.'. Na,Al,Si,()„,.l2II.,( >. 
.Mcsolitf. .\a.C"a.Al,Si03.n,0. 
Thoinsonite ( XaX'a ) ALSi30s.2iH,0 ' 
(rnnophyllito. 7Mii().Al,,(X.SSiO,.r.II,0. 
IMazolitc. .•U'a().Al,()3.-J( SiO,.C<),).2lLO. 
I'yroph.vlliti'. ILALSi^O,,. 
Kaolinito. Al,0n.2Si(Kri,0. 
Ilalloysite, H,ALSi,0,-II=0. 

.Moutinorillonite, Il2Al2Si4(),;.HH.jO. 

Ailoi)liniH-. Al,Si(),..lIL(). 
Ucftoritc. Al,(),.2Sit),.lI,(). 

Cimolitp. 2Ai,o,.r)Si63.r,ii,o. 
Pilolite. C^.Al.SiO,.II,0. 
Ainl)IyKonito. Li ( AlF ) PO4. 
Tuniuois. AI1'(),.A1 (011)3. 
Lazulite. (Fe.M- I AL(OII »,P,(),. 
Varisrito, A1P0,.21I,0. 
Pluml)osnmmito. Pb0.2AL0,.P,(),.ir,(). 
Lirufonite. ('u.AI.As,0,.IL'o. 
Kalinitc. K„SC\.AI,(SOj3.24HoO. 
'rscbcnuisit.'. (XII, »,SO,Al.,( SO,),. 

.\ron(]ozil(". \a,SO,AL ( SO, ) ,.241120. 
I'ick.'iin-iif. .M.i,'S(),.Al(!!!0,),.22n..O. 
Ilalotrichite, FeSO^.AL ( SO4) 3.24HoO. 
Soiiomaite. 3Mf;SO,.AU(SOj3.33H;0. 
Alunogen, A1.(S0J3.1SH„0. 
KuoxvillitP. Fe,Cr,Al.S03.H,0. 
Hediimtoiiitc. re.Cr,AI.S03.H„0. 
Ahuiitc, K,O.;5Al,O,.4SO,.0H,O. 

Native antimony, Sb. 
Stibnite, SU-S,. 
Kermesite, Sb^SoO. 
Xajryai,nte. AiuPb,,Sb3Te,Si,. 
Perthiorite, FeSboS,. 
Janit'sonite. Pb,Sh.,S,,. 
Bbiinumite, (PbjCu^ 1 38^.80. 
Miargyrite, AgSbSo. 
Py ra a'y rite. AgsSb^S,. 
Tetrahcdrite. CiuSb.S;. 


Ge-ocronite, Pb^SboSs. 
Stephanite, Ag^SbS,. 
Polybasite, Ag„SbS«. 
Cervantite, Sb203. 
Stibiconite, SboO^.H^O. 
Stibioferrite, SboO^.FeA.H^G. 
8tibiotantaIite, m ( SbO ) .Xb.Os + 

Bindheimite, Pb3Sbo0,.4H20. 
Partzitp. Sb. Cu, O, ILO. 

Native arsenic, As. 
Realgar, AsS. 
< )rpiim'iit. As^Sj. 
Cobaltite, CoAsS. 
Ai"seuopyrite, FeAsS. 
Xlccolito. NiAs. 
Smaltite, CoAsj. 
Lollingite, FeAsj. 
Dufrenoysite, PboAs^S; 
Proustitc, AgjAsSj. 


I'hiargite, Cu.fAsS,. 
Arsenolite, AS2O3. 
Claudi'titc. AsoOs. 
Mimotite, (PbCl)Pb4(As04)3. 
Krythrite, C03AS2OS.8II2O. 
Auuabci-gite. Xi3A5v.Os.8H2O. 
Scorodite. FeAsO,.2H20. 
Liroconite, Cu,Al,As20,H20. 
Pitticite, Fe,As20r,.Fe,S0,.n20. 

Witlierite. BaC03. 
Benitoite. BaTiSivO, 


Volborthite (Cu,Ca,Ba)3(OH)3V04.6H20. 
Barite, BaSO,. 



Chrysoberyl, BeALOi 


Berj'l, BejAljSi^Cs. 

Native Bismuth. Bi. 
Bisiiiutliinite, Bi^S^. 
Tetradymite. Bi»Te. 


Bisinito. Bi,0,. 
Bisiuutosphaerite, BLCOj 
Bismutite. Bi,CO,.H;0. 

Saj^solilo. I',,(),.:{ILO. 
Uatolitc, HC'aBSiO,-,. 
AxiiiK.'. ir(C'a,Mn,Fe)oB Alo(Si()^),. 
Tom-iiialiiu', l/i.Fc.Mg.B.^iO.. 
Diiiiiortifrite. IlAlsB'SiaC-o. 
Svailrsitt', \aB'(Si03k.H,0. 
Ludwijiitf, ;iM!;O.Bo03.FeOFe„0.,. 
\'oiis('iiit(>. 2 ( Fe,Ms) O.Bo03.FeO.Fe,0; 
Burax. Na,B,O,.l0H,0. 


Colemanite, ra,BuO,,..5H.O. 
Bricoito. .'-)(!aO.GB,,O,.0H„O. 
.Meyt'i-iioffei-ito. ^OaO.HB.Oa.THjO. 
1 iiyoito. L>0a0.8B,0;,.l)H.C). 
n.'xitc. NaOaB,,0,.SH.O. 
1 lydroboracite, CaMgB„0„.6H„0. 
Bakei-ite, 8Ca0.5B,0,.6SiOj.HH,0. 
Ilowlitc. H,-,Ca2B,SiOn. 

Embolite, Ag(Br,Cl). 

Greenockite, CdS. 



Fluorite, CaF,. 
Calcite, CaCO-. 


Dolomite, (CaJVIg)C03. 
Ankerite, aaCOs.MsCOs.FeCOs. 
Aragonito, CaOOj. 
Gay-Lussite. CaCOs.Na,C03.5H50. 
Pirssonite, CaC03.Na,C03.2H20. 
Oligoclasc. 1 

Andesiin\ (HNaAl.Si30s4- 

Lahradiiritc. " /' CaALSLOs. 

Anorthitc, C'aAl.,Si,(\. 
Pyroxene, Ca(Mg,Fe) (SiOs)-. 
A\'ollastonite. CaSiOn- 
IVetolite, HNaCa,(Si03)o. 
Amphiliole, Ca(Mg,Fe),(Si03)4. 
Grossularite, OasAL ( Si04) 3. 
Audradite, Oa3Fe2 ( Si04) 3. 
Uvarovite, CasCr,( 8104)3. 
Monticellito, CaMgSi04. 
Iddingsite, Fe.Mg,Ca,Na, Silicate. 
Wernerlte, Ca4AleSi80;3 + Na^AljSi, 
Gehlenlte, OajALSi.Oo. 


Menvlnite, Cas.MgCSiOi):.. 
Vesuvlanite, HiCaj; ( Al.Fe) cSiioOjj. 
Srnn-rite, 2CaS104.CaC03. 
l>at<)iltc, HCaB'SlO,. 
Zolslte. HCaoAlsSljOij. 
Fjl)idote, HOa, ( Al.Fe ) ,,Si,0,3. 
Allanitc. (Co.Dl.La) Ca,Fe.Al, Silicate 
I'ledmontite, HCa;(Al,Mn,Fe) SisO^. 
Axinite, n(Ca.Mii.Fo)3BAL(Si04).. 
I'robnito. H/XALSi.O,,. 
Ilvaito. ('aFf',(Fe6lI)Si,(X. 
Lawsoiiitr, lI^CaALSi.O,,,. 
Maruaiit.'. lLCaAl,Si,()„. 
Xantlidi.liyliitc. 1I,( My-Ca't KAl.oSisO.o. 
(ii-iHithito, 1 1, ( Mg,Fo,Ca ) 4 ( Al.Fe) ^SirA. 

Houlanditc, H4CaAlaSi03)c.3H„0. 
Bhillipsite, ( K,.C« ) AL ( Si03)4.4H.O. 
r.anmontite, H4CaAl,Si40,4.2II,0. 
St ilhite. II4 ( Na„Ca ) Al,SioO,s.4H,0. 
Cbabazite, ( Ca,Na. ) ALSi404,.GH,0. 
Mosolite, (Ca.Na,)ALSi30,o.2H,0. 
Thomsonite, (Na,, Ca) ALSioOs.2*H,0. 
0,4C1. Gyrolite, H,Ca,Si30„.H,0. 

.Jurupaite, H2(Ca,Mg)„SioOT. 




AiHJi)liyllito. lI^KCiiaSiO, )..4iII,(». 

lOakloit.-. II,Ca,-,Si.,0,,. 

Ok.'iiit.'. lL("!iSi,()„.lI,(). 

Inesite. 2(Mn.('a ) SiO,.!!,!). 

( 'rcstninrcitc, IlJ'aSiO,. 

KiviM-sideil.'. ("{i,Si,()„.ILO. 

rinzolitr. .•{('a().Al,0,-( >^'<>.-^"<>. » .-IL<>. 

'nuuimasito. ('aSi(>,,.("a(V),.("aS(),.ir>II,(). 

rilolitc. Ilydi-oiis ('a.Al.Sili(Mti\ 

'PitMiiir.-. CaTiSiO,. 

Apatite (CaF)Ca4(POj3. 

W i Ikeito, SCa, ( PO, ) ..CnCO, + ;iCa, 

(SiO,SO,)raO. ■ 
AiiaiMil.'. (('a.F('i.;l'<),.41L(). 
Autiinit ■. ('a().-_'rO,P,0,.-"^H.!0. 
\'..l!.(.rrliit<'. (('u.C^i.BaVJ Oil ),V()..l!II,( ). 
Nitroc.ilcit.'. (ra.N<)s),./iH,(). 


('olt'inauitc. ('a,.B„()„..")lL(). 
Piiceiti'. .">( •a().(;B,0,,.!>II,0. 
.Mcycrlioffoiitc. 2< "a().;51i,(),.7IlJ). 
I n.voito. 2Ca( ).;}K,(>,.'i:iII.,0. 
rU'xito. Na( 'aB.-A.-'^H.O. 
Ilydi-ohorat-ite. (•aMtrl?„()„.(JII,(). 
.Uakcrile. 8("aO.')H,(),.(!Si(K.(;lI,,0. 
Ilowlitf. II-.Ca.K^SiO.^. 
I'yrochloiv. Ti.Ca.Ci'.'l'ii. nioliati'. 
Mi.rolitc. ('a,Ta,0,. 
Sclu'clilc. CaWO,. 
CuiU'osclirclitc. ( ( 'ii.( "a ) \\'(),. 
rowi-llitc Ca.MoO,. 
(ilaubofiti-, Xa.J«104.('aS(),. 
Aiiliy.h-it.<. C'aSO,. 
(Jypsuni. <'aS(),.L'TI,(). 

Diamond, C. 
(irapliito, C. 
C'alcitf, ('aC'0,T 
Doloniito. { Ca M- )( "(X. 
Aiik.iit •. ( 'al •( ):;..MirC'( J^.FeCO,. 
.MaKii site. .M};('();,. 
'Sidcril.'. FK"0,. 
Kliodochi-oslte, MiiCO;,. 
Sinith.sonite. ZnCOj. 
Ara-onitc. CaCO,. 
Sti'oiiiianite. SrCOj. 
Witli.'iite. BaCO:;. 
Ccrussite. PbOO:;. 
I'isinut(:.s])hnorito. BijCO,. 
PhosKciiiti". (PI).(Mi,('0,. 
Xorthupitc. NaX'O.MgCOj.XaCl. 
Tychil.'. l\M.-('0,.2Xa,('(),,Na,S0,. 
Malachite. ( "u( "(),.( 'ii((>I 1 1,. 
A/iirile. 2Cu003.Cu(OH).. 
Aiirichalcite. •JCZii.rtD CO ..•1( Zii.r 
(OH 1... 


ll.vdrozincite. ZnrO,.Zii (Oil),. 

I )a\vsonite, Xa.;Al ( ( "( ), ) .:2\ 1 ( ( » II ) ,. 

Thennonatrite, Xa.,CO.,.I L( ). 

(Jay ('a('(V.Xa,f '0...-.ILO. 

Xali-on. Xa,(\):,.l<IIF(). 

Tioiia. Xa,( '(),.! IXa('().,.2ILO. 

I'irssonite, ('a(M).,.Xa,00;,.211,0. 

I lydroma.iinesite. :iMg('(),.M},' (Oil ) ,.:'.H,( ), 

I lydroffiobertite, 2M«O.CO,.3HoO. 

Zaratite. XiC0,.2Xi (OH)n.4H,0. 

Bisimitite. Bi,('0,,lLO. 

SiHirritP. 2Ca'siO,.C'aC()3. 

Plazolite. SCaO.Al/V-M SiO,.CO,.) .2ILO. 

'riiaiiniasite. ('aSi0,.('aCO3.Ca!?;O4.15II.,O. 

\\' i Ikeite. BCa, ( PO , ) ,.('«( 'O, + 3€a, 

Ilanksite. 4Xa,S04.Xa,( "O,. 
Leadliillite. 4 PhO.SO,.2(*0,.H,0. 
I I\'dro(arl)ons. 

n ) 

Aliaiiite, Fe,Ca.Ce,AI, Silicate. 
ri-aiiiiiite, I'll. I', uianale. 


Monazite (Ce,La,Di) PO,. 

Pyruelilore. Ti.("a.("c,Tli. niohale 

Calomel. Hk:.('1j. 
Halite. XaCl. 
Sylvite. KCl. 
Sal Ammouiae, XHiCl. 

Ceraru:yrite, A.ijCl. 
Cliloriiiaj;ii<''<ite, MgCL. 
Atacamite. Cuj CIH3O3. 
Kfflestonite. IIs4CLO. 
Embolite. Ai;(Br,Cl). 
19= -22132 


Phossenite. (PbCllX'Oj. 
Xorthupite. Xa,('03.MffC0,.XaCl. 
Sodalite. ;^XaAlSi04.XaCl. 
Wernerito, Ca4AloSi„03.-, + Xa,Alp,Si„0,,CI. 
Apatite (CaCnCa,(POj,. 
Pyromorpliite. ( PbCl ) Pb. ( P( ), ) ,. 
\-anadinite. ( I'bC M ) Pb, ( VO, ) .. 
.Mimetite. ( I'bCl ) I'b, ( AsO,) ,. 
Sulfohalite, 3Xa,S04.2XaCl. 



Ob ronii ; e, FeC nO., . 
Uvarovite garnet. 
Crocoit >, PbCiO,. 


Kuoxvillilc, Fe,Cr, Sulphate. 
IledinRtonite, Fe.Cr, Sulphate. 

Cobaltile, CoAsS. 
Smaltite, CoAs,. 
Danaite (Fe,Co)AsS. 


^ Asbolite, MnO„Co,H-0. 
* Erythrite, CosASoOj.SHjO. 
Biebprite. CoSO^.THoO. 

Xativc Copper, Cu. 
Chalcolite, Cii^S. 
Stromoyorite (Cu,Ag)„S. 
Covcllite, CuS. 
Bornite, CujFeSa. 
Cubanite, CuFe^Si. 
Chalcopyrito, CuFeSo. 
Bouruouite(Pb,Cuo) Sb^S,;. 
Tetralu'dritc. Cu^SboS;. 
Euaraite, CuoAsSi. 
Atacamite, Cu.ClHA- 
Partzite, Sb.Cu.HjO. 
Cuprito, CujO. 
Melaconite, CuO. 
Creclucrite, Cu,Mu.,03. 
Malachite. CiiCO^.Cu ( OH ) ,. 
Azuiilc, 2CuC03.Cu(OH:),. 


Aurichalcile, 2(Zn,Cu)C03.3(Zu,Cu) 

Chrysocolla, CuSi03.2H„0. 
Torbcruito. Cu0.2U03.P,0.-..Sn,0. 
Cuprodescloizite, ( Pb,Zn,Cii ) sV^Oj. 

(PI).Zm.Cu) (OH I,. 
^■olborthite. ( Cu,Ca,Ba ) 3 ( OH ) sVO^. 

Lirocouite, Al,Cu, Arsenate. 
Cuproscheelite (Ca,Cu) WO^. 
Caledonite (Pb.Cu) S04.(Pb,Cu) (OH),. 
Brochantite, CuSO,.3Cu(OH)2. 
Liuarlte (Pb,Cu) SO,. (PbCu) (OH)^. 
Pisaiiite. ( F<%Cu I SO^.TH.O. 
Boothite, CuS0,.7H,,0. 
Chalcantliili', CuS04.r.II,(). 


Fluorite. CaF,. hopidollte. (K,Li)AI(OH.F) AUSiOj); 

Topaz. Al(0.F,)AlSi04. Apatite. (CaF )CaJ PO,),. 

Chondrodite. fMg(F,OH) ],Mg,(Si04. Amblygonite, Li(AlF)p64. 

Native sold. Au. 
Petzite (Ag,Au)2Te. 
Sylvanite. (Au,Ag)Te; 


Calaverite (Au.Ag)Te;. 
Xagyagite, Au.Pb^.SbaTejS.j. 

Meteoric iron. Fe. 
Awaruite, NijFe. 
Troilite, FeS. 
Pyrrhotite, FenSn. 
Bornite. Cu^FeSj. 
Cubanite, CuFe2S4. 
Chalcopyrite, CuFeS.. 
Marcasite, FeS,.. 
Pyrite, FeS,. 
Ar.senopyrite. FeAsS. 
Liillingite, FeAso. 
Berthierite, FeSb.S,. 
Hematite, Fe^Oj. 


llnienite (Fe,Ti)203. 

Magnetite, Fe^O,. 

Chromite, FeCr„04. 

Turgite, 2Fe,03.H,0. 

Gothite. Fe.Oj.HoO. 

Linionite, 2Fe,03.3H,0. 

Ankerite. CaCOs.MgCOj.FeCO,. 

Siderite. FeCO,. 

Hyperstheue. ( Fe,Mg ) SiO^. 

Augite. Ca(Mg,Pe)(Si03),+ (Mg,Fe) 

Acmite. XaFeCSiOs),. 
Anthophyllite, ( Mg,Fe) SiOj. 




Tloniblriidr, Cii( M^',Fe)3(Al,Fo);SiOs. 
(ilaiu-ophano. NaAl ( SiO, V,. ( FvMix) SiO, 
(;'im'id..lit(>, NaFo (SiO:;\,I"VSiO,. 
Alnmnilitc Fo.AhSijO,;. 
Aiulraditf. CaJ'-i'.SijO,.. 
Oliviap. (Mfi.F'O.SiO^. 
Iddingsite, Fe,Mg,Ca,Na, Silicate. 
lOpidotc. IT0a,(Al.Fe).Si,0,3. 
Allan itc, (Cc.Di.La) Ca.Fo,AlSiO.. 
riedmcntite. HC}V,(Al,Mu,Fe),,Si30n. 
Axinii.'. II(('n.Mii.Fot,BAl,(SiO,)^. 
Ilvaitr. (,'aFe,(Fo()lI) (Si04)=. 
Blotite. ( H,K ) . ( Mg.Fe ) , ( Al.Fo ) ,Si,0|,i. 
Chloritoid. IT,( Fc.Mir) ALSiO;. 
(Hlreliti", H,( F«',MiU ALSioO,.. 
, Penniuite, Hs(Mg,Fe)-,Al,Si,0,s. 
Pn.clilorito. Msr.Fc.Al.Si.lLO. 
( ;riflit Into. H^ ( Mg.Fo.Ca ) , ( AlFe ) ,«i.,0,o 

.-rij ). 

( 'halciMJito. -2 ( Fp.Mk i O. ( Fo.Al t ,0.v5Si 

Jefferisite. 2(Ms.Fe)0.(Al.Fe),03.5SiO,. 

Celadon ito. Fe.Mu,K.SiOo.H,0. 
C h lor< ) I )a 1 , I I,;Fe,S i30,,.2 H ,0 . 
Xeotocite, Hydrous Mn.Fe, silicate. 
X('I)timiti'. Fe.,Mii,.\a,K tilano-silicate. 


Triphylito, LiFePO,. 
Triplite. ;5(Mu.Fe)().P,0,.MuF™. 
LMzulito. (Fe,Mff)AL(6lI).lV).. 
Vivianite. FeaP.Og.SILO. 
I'linim-it.', (Fe.Mu),03.PA-H20. 
An.i pa it .-. ( Ca,Fe » :,P0.,.4H„0. 
Salnionsite. Fo,03.9Mu0.4PoO,.14II,0. 
Stivii-ite. Fe,03.PAv4H,0. 
Sitkl-'i-ite, Fe,03.GMn0.4'p„05.3(Li,H)J). 
Scorodite, FeAs04.2H,0. 
I'iti icite. Fe,,0,.AsJ),.§03.rL0. 
l.iid\vij;ite, HMjjO.BoOj.FeO.Fe.Oj. 
A'ouseuite, 2(Fe3Mg) O.B,03.FeO.Fe,,03. 
("oliimhite. ( Fo.Mn ) X1>,0„. 
Wolframite. (Mu.FelWO... 
.Melaiiterite, FeSC)4.7H„0. 
Pisauite (Fe,Cu) S0«.7H„0. 
llalotricliite. FeS()4.AlJS04)..24II,0. 
Coquimhite, Fco(SOj3.9H,0. 
I lomerite. Fe, ( SO4 ) 3. 121LO. 
( 'opiapite, 2Feo03.5SO,.18"H„0. 
Knoxvillite, Feo03.Cr,03,S04. 
Redingtonite, Fe.Oj.CivC.SO^. 
FihroFon-ite. Fe.,03.2SO,, 1(HL( ). 
Rolryosen, Fe,,0. 
Jarosite, K„0.3FeoOs.4S03.6HjO. 
Diinlenitc. Fe ( T.-O. ),.4ir..(). 

Native lead. Pb. 

Galenite. PbS. 

Altaite. PbTe. 

NagyaKite, Au,. Pb^SbaTeTS^. 

Jainesonite, PbnSboSj. 

Dufreuoysite. PbjAs^SB. 

Bournonite (Pb,Cu:")SboSc. 

Geocronite, PbsSbjSi. 

Massictit. PbO. 

Litbars(>, PhO. 

Minium. PbjOi. 

Cerussite, Pb(X)3. 

IMlosK.'Iiite (PbCn/'O;,. 

Py romorphite ( PbCl ) Pb, ( PO4) 3. 


Plumbogummite. PbO.2ALO3.PoO.vH2O. 
Crocoite, PbCr()4. 
Vanadinite (PbCl)Pb4(V04)3. 
Descloizite. (Pb.Zu ),V,0,. (Ph.Zn) (OH),. 
Mimetite (PbCl)Pb4(As04)3. 
Bindheimite, Pb3Sb.O8.4HoO. 
Wtilfenite, PbMoOi. 
I'lauinite, lead urauate. 
Uraconite, lead uranate + HoO. 
Ansiesite. PbS04. 
Leadhillite, 4PbO.SO3.2COo.HoO. 
Caledonite (PbCu) S04.(PbCu) (0H)o. 
Linarite (Pb,Cn)S04.(PbCn) (OH)^. 


Tourmaline. Lithia-boro-alumina silicate. liithiophilite, LiMnPO,. 

Lepidolite. ( LiK) AHOH.F) AKSiO;.),. Ambl.vgonite, Li(AlF)P04. 

Spodumene. LiAKSiOj),. Sirklorite. FeoO,J>Mu0.4P..O,.3( Li.H^oO. 
Triphylite, LiFePO,. 




Chlormagnesite, MgCl;. 
Periclas?. ^Ig<>. 
Spinel, MgO.ALO.,. 
Brucite. M.iiO.ILO. 

Dolomii?, ((•a,Mg)C03. 
Ankcrito. (Ca.Mg.Fe) CO,. 
.Magnesito. MgCO,. 
.\orIluii)iti'. Xa,CO,..M!,K'0,.N:i('I. 
Tycliitc. 2.M«( "Oj.L'Na.CC ),.Na,S( ^. 
Hydromagnesite, SMgCOsMg (OH ) „.3H„0. 
Hydrosiohertite. 2>rg0.rO,.8ILO. 
Enstatitc. MgSiOj. 
Hypersthene. (FcMglSiOj. 
Pyroxone. Ca(Mg.Fe) (SiO,K. 
Autliuphylliti'. (Mg.Fo)SiO:;. 
Amphiholo, Ca ( Mg.Fe ) , ( SiO, ) ,. 
Glaucophanc. NaAl ( SiO,),.(Fe.Mg) SiO,. 
Pyrop-. MgjALlSiO^).,. 
Alonticellite. CaMgSi04. 
Olivine. ( Mg.Fe ),Si()_,. 
Iddinusite. Fe.Mg.C 'a. Na. Silicate. 
Menviuite. ('a,Mg( SiO,),. 
("hoiidrodite I Mg( F.OII ) 13Ig,(Si04),. 
Pldogoiiite. ILKMg.AK SiOj) ... 
P.iotire. ( I I.K K ( Mg.Fe ) , ( ALFe) , 

Kosfoelite. HJv( Mg.Fe) (Al.V 14! SiO,),2. 
Xaut hopliyllite. H:, ( Mg.Oa ) „Al„iSi,0,... 

Cldoiitoid. H,( F:>.MgK\LSiO,. 
( 'linochloi-e. II,Mg,Al.,Si,0,H. 
Peimiuite, IMM^.FeJ.ALSisOis. 
I 'i-ochlorite. II ,„ ( Fe.:Mg ) ,,Al,,Si,30,«. 
("onindophyllite. II,„(Mg,Fe luAlsSigOis. 
(h-ilKitliite. II.(Mg.Fe.Ca)4(Al,FeK 

Clialcodite. -2 ( Fe.Mg > O. ( Fe. Al ) ,0,. 


.Teflferisite. 2 ( .Mg.Fe ) O. ( Al.Fe I .,0,. 

.hirupaite. ri.,( CV^gl-jSioO,. 
Seri>eiitiue, H4Mg:,Si:.0(,. 
Deweylite. 4:Mg()..'',Si0,.tiIT,0. 
(iariiierite. H,( Xi.Mg) SiO^.oH.O. 
'I'alc. ILMg.Si^O,,. 
Sei)iolite. II,Mg,Si,0,„. 
("eladonite. Fe.^Ig.K. silicate.- 
Lazulite. ( Fe.Mg ) AL ( OH ) ,P.,0.. 
laidwigite. :jMgO.B',0>FeO.Fe,0,. 
Voiiseuite. 2 ( Fe.Mg) O.B.OjFeO.FeoO,. 
I lydroboracite. C'aMgB,( )i,.0ILO. 
Fpsomite. MgSO,.7II,(). 
Bl(jdite. MgSO,.Na,.SO,.4H„0. 
Boiissiugaultite, (NHJ.SO^.MgSO^.GH.O. 
1 'ickei-iugite. MgSO,.AL ( 8( ), ) ,,22II.X). 
Sonomaite. .SMgSO,.Al, ( SOJ 3.33H,b. 
I'.otryogeu. Fe,0,.2M!rO.-l,S03.1oH„0. 

Alabandite. MnS. 
Hausmannite. Mn304. 
Creduerite. Cu3Mn409. 
Braunite, SMn.OsMnSiOj. 
I'yrulusite, MuO,. 
-Mangaiiite. Mu.Oj.H.O. 
Pyrochioite, Mu(OII).,. 
Psildiuclane. MiiO,.Mn,0,,TI,0. 
Rhoduehi-osite, MnCOj. 
Rhodonite. MnSiOi. 
Spessartite. Mn,A!,.Si..O,... 
Tepliroite. Mn.SiU^. 
Piedmontite. IlCa, ( Al.Mn,Fe ) sSi.O,,. 
Axinite. IKCa.Mn.Fe) ,B AU(SiO,)4 
Ottrelite. TL ( Fo.Mn ) Al,Si.,09. 
Inesite. 2(Mn.Ca I SiOj.H.X). 


Oanophyllite. TMuO.ALOs.SSiOo.OILO. 
Bcinentite. 2.MnSi(),.ILO. 
Ntotocite. Hydrous Mu.Fe. silicnite. 
Xeptunite. B'e.Mu.Xa. titano-silicate. 
Triphylit.>. Li(Fe.:\In)P04. 
Lithiophilite, LiMuPO^. 
Triplite. 3 ( Mn.Fe ) O.P.O,.MnF,. 
Purpurite (Fe.Mn),03.R0,.H„0. 
Huivaulite. .".Mu0.2PX),..">H.,0. 
Palaite. .■Mu0.2P,0,.4IL0. 
Stewartite. Hydious Mn iihospliate. 
SaJmonsite. Fe,03.1>MuC).4P,(),,.I4IL0. 
Sickleiite. Fe,0,.()Mn0.4P„0,.3 ( Li.fl ) ,0. 
( 'olumbite. ( Fe,Mn ) Xb,0„. 
Ilnhnerite. MnWO,. 
Wolframite. ( Mu.Fe t W04. 

Native Mercury. Hg. 
.Metaciunabarite, IlgS. 
Cinnabar. HgS. 
Tiemannite. HgSe. 


Coloradoite. HgTe. 
Calomel. Hg.CL. 
Kglestonite. Ilg.Cl.O. 



Molybdi'nite. MoS,. 
Molybditc. M0O3. 


Wulffuite. PbXIoO^. 
I'owellitc. (.'aMoO^. 

Awaniile. Ni,Fe. 
.Millorito. NiS. 
rolydymitc. Ni^S,. 
.Niccolitc. XL\s. 
Mclonite, NioTej. 


Zaiatito. NiC03.2Xi (OII)j.4H30. 
(Jarnuniti'. II,,( Ni.Mj; > SiO,.wHoO. 
Aniialioriiit.'. Xi^As.Os.SHjO. 
Muiouositc, XiSO^.THoO. 


ryrochloro. Ti.ra.Ci'.Tli. niohatc. Stibiotautalite, m(SbO)2.Xb.06 with 

Microlite. C«,Ta...O;. h ( SbO ) .Ta^Oo. 

Columbite (Fe.Mu) Nb,0„- 

Sal Ammoniac. .\11,<'1. 

Soda niter, NaNOj. 

Niter, KNO3. 

Nitrocalcite, Ca(N03)2.nH20. 

Darapskite, NaN03.Na,S04.H„0. 


Nit loglaube rite, (;)NaN03.2Na,S0..3H20. 
Mascagnite, (NH4)oS04. 
Boussinfraultit.v (NII,),S(),MgSO^.(HLO. 
Tschermigite, ( NH,) ,SO,.AL ( SOJ 3- 


Mouazite, (Ce,Di,La)I'04. 
Tni)liylite. Li( Fo.Mn)rO,. 
Lithiophilito. Li.MnPO,. 
Triplite. 3 ( Mm.F." i ( ).r,(),.MuF,. 
Apatite, (("aF)('a,( PO, K. 
I'yromorphite. ( PbCl ) Pb, (POJ 3.^'onite. Li( AlFtPO^. 
La/uliti'. ( Fi-.Mi;)AL(()II)„P.O,. 
Wilkeite. 3Ca,(POJ,.CaC03+3Ca3 

Vivianitc, FesP^CSFLO. 
Purpurite. ( Fe,Mn 1 ,63.P,0,.H,0. 

Tuniuoi.s. A11'04.AU0II),.H/). 
Varisr-ite. A1P0,.2II,0. 
]'lumbo.iiun-..mite. Pl)( ).:2AI,( ),,l',05.H.O. 
Aiiapaitt'. (C'a.Fe)3P04.4H,0. 
Torbornite. Cii0.2r03P,0,.8H,0. 
Aiitunite. ('a().2r(),.P,(),.SlI,0. 
lluroaulite. r,Mn().-_'PJ),..")ILO. 
Palaitp. r,.Mn().2IM),,.4II.O. 
Stewartite, Hydrous Mii-pbosphate. 
Salmonsito. Fe,(VLMii().4P,( ),-,.! 41 LO. 
Streiiiiitp. Fe,0,-iy >.-,.4ILO. 
Sicklorite. Fe.O,.(iMn().4P,03.3(Li.H),0. 

Platinum, Pt. 
Platiniridium, Ptir. 
Iridium, Ir. 
Osmium, Os. 


Iridosmine, IrOs. 
Palladium, Pd. 
Rhodium, Ro. 
Ruthenium, Ru. 




Sylvite, KCl. 

Orthoclaso, KAlSiaO.,. 
Microclinc, KAlSi-A- 
Aiiorthoclaso. (K.Na) AlSiaO;,. 
Muscovite, (H,K)AlSi04. 
.Maripositc. (II.K) (Al,Cr)SiO . 
Lepidoli to, (K.Li ) Al ( OH,F I Al ( SiO, ) ,. 
Phlogopite, HJvMgjAl ( 8104)3. 
Riotite, ( II.K i,(Mg.Fe).,(Al,Fe), 

Kospoeliti'. HJv(Mjr.Fe) (Al,V)a8iO,): 
Phillipsite. (K,,Ca) ALSi40,;.41J;0. 
Apophyllitp. H;KCa,(Si03)s.4JH,0. 
Niter, KNO3. 
Ai)bthitalite, (K,Na)2S04. 
Aroauite, K.SOi. 

Kalinite. K,*SO,. AL ( SO,) 3.24H,0. 
Alunite. K„6.3ALO'3.4S03.6H„0. 
Jarosite, K\o..3Fe„03.4S03.6H,0. 

Tiemanniie, HgSe. 



(Jiiartz, SiO,.. 

( 'iijilci'tlony, i>,\0... 

Tridyiuite, SiO-. 

Cristobalite, SiO,. 

<)p:il. Si(),.;/ILO. 

(Jrthoclasc, KAlSijOs. 

Microcline, KAlSisOg. 

Anoi-tlioclase. ( K.Na ) AlSijOs- 

Albite. NaAlSisOs. 

Olisoclase, " 

Andesine. y;iXaAiSi30s + 

Lnhradorite. [ i,CaAl,Si,.0s. 


Anortliite. CaALSioOs- 

Kiistatite, MgSi'03. 

Ilypfistheui'. (Fe,Mg) SiOj. 

Pyroxene. Ca ( M>,Fe ) SioOo + ( Al.Fe ) 

Acmite. NaFe(Si03);. 
Si>odumene, LiAl ( SiO, ) 2. 
Wollastonite. TaSiOs. 
Pectolite. HNaCa.CSiOj),. 
Rliodonite. MuSiO^. 
Antlmpliyllite. ( Mir.Fe ) SiOn. 
Ampliibole. Ca ( Mg. Fe ) 3 ( SiO. ) 4 + 

(Al.Fe) oSiOo. 
Olaiuophanc. XaAl ( SiO,~l . (Fe.Mg) SiO,. 
Crofidolitp. XaFe(Si03),FeSi03. 
Beryl. Be,ALSi„0„. 
>>>plv?line. K^NacAKSi.jOa^. 
Sodalite. :iXaAlSiO,.NaCl. 
Xoselite. Xa^ ( XaS04.Al ) Al, ( SiO,) 3. 
Lazuri te, Xa, ( XaS. Al ) AL (8104) 3. 
Oarnet. Ca3AL(Si04),, etc. 
Montif-ellite, CaMgSiO^. 
OliWne. (Mg,Fe)2SiO,. 


Tcphroito, Mn^^^SiO.,. 

Iddingsite. I-V..Mg,Ca,Xa.Si(),. 

Willeinite. Zu,Si(),. 

Wernerite. »iCa4AloSicO;; + HXa4AljSi„ 


(iehlenite, CaaALSi.Oo. 

Merwiuite, Ca,Mg(Si04)2. 

Vesuvianite, H^Ca,, ( Al.Fe ) r,!^i,„U43. 

Zircon, ZrSi04. 

Topaz. Al(0,F„iAlSi04. 

Audalusite. Al,SiO,. 

Sillimauite. ALSiO;. 

Cyanite. ALSiO,. 

Spnrrite, 2CaSi04.CaC03. 

Datolite, IICaBSiOr,. 

Zoisite. Iiai,Al,8i30,3. 

Kpidoio. Iira,( Al.F<>>,8i30,3. 

Allanite. ( (\\Di,La ) Oa.Al.Fe. silicato. 

Piedmontite. HCao(Al.Mn.Fe) 381,0,,. 

Axinit,\ ir (( "a. Mn.Fe),BAl,( 8104)4. 

I'rehnite. lLCa,AL(8i04 )> 

Chondrodite, [ Mg ( F.( )H ) J ,Mg„ ( 810*) ,. 

Ilvaitc. ("al-V.d-VOin (SiOJ,. 

( 'alainine. PLZn.jSiO-. 

Lawsonlte H4CaAL.Si;Oio. 

'rournialiiu', ( Xa.Li.K ) . ( Mg.Fe.Ca ) . 

Dnmortierite. IIAls-B" SisO,,,. 
Muscovite. H,KA1,( 8104)3. 
-Mariposite. ILK ( Al.Cr)3(S10^).,. 
Paragouite. H^XaALiSijO,™. 
Lepidolitf. K.Li[Al ( OH,F),]Al(8iO.)3. 
I'hlogopite. H Jv Mg.AJ ( SiO, » 3. 
Biotite. (H.K)„(Mg.Fe),( Al.Fe), 

Koscoelite. HJvlMg.Fe) (Al,V)4(8i03),,, 
.Margarite. H^CaAUSi^Oi,. 




Xanthophyllitc, II, ( Mjr.Ca ) ,4Al,„Si50„. 
Chloritoid. II,(Fc.Mj;) AI,Si(K. 
Uttrelite. IL ( Fe.Mn ) ALSi.CV 
riinochohv. IIsMjr,ALSi,0,»- 
renninito. IIs(Ms:.Fo ijALSi^O,.. 
Prochlorito. II„,iFe,M?:)2iAlnSi,,(),H,. 
Corundophyllito. Hoo( Fo,M}r> „AIsSi„045. 
Griffithite. II,(Mg,Fe,Ca)4(Al,Fe) = 

( 'ha loud i to. 2(Fe.M.2:)0.(Fe.Al),03. 

.TofTcrisito. 2( Fc.M.uO ( ». ( I-V.An,0,. 


Heulandite, H^CaAl, ( SiO,) «.3H„0. 
rhillipsite. ( K^.Ca) Al,Si,0,,.4pi,0. 
I.aumontite. Il4CaAKSi40,,.2IL'0. 
StiII)ite. ( Na,.Ca ) Al,Si,Ar.OH,b. 
Chabazite. ( Ca,Na., ) Al,Si,O,;.0n,,O. 
Auak-ite. XaAl ( SiOJ ^.II.O. 
Xatrnlitc. Xa;ALSi,,0,„.2IL0. 
Mesolite, ( Na,,Ca) Al,,SiAo.3IL( >. 
ThomsonitP. (Na,,Ca) AL(SiOJ;.2iU,0. 
Gyrolite, HX'a.Si^Oo.tLO. 
Jurupaite, H, (Ca.M?) „Si.OT. 
Apophyllitp. II;KCa,(Si03)s.4iH,0. 
Eakloite, Il^Ca^^Si/J,,,. 
Okenite, HoCaSi;Oe.H;0. 
Inesito. 2(Mn.ra) SiO,.II,0. 
Ganophyllitp. 7MuO.Al,(J,.8SiOo.GH,0. 
Crestmoreite, H2CaSi04. 

Kiversideite. Oa;Si;0„.II;0. 
Plazolite. 3('a( ).A1,(K.2 ( SiO^-CO.) .2H„0. 
■Serpentine. II,"M},',Si;Oo. 
Deweylite, 4M.:r( ).:iSiO;.6n,0. 
Garnierite. IL(Ni,Mg) SiO,.HlLO. 
Tale. II,M!J,Si,0„. 
Sepiolite. II^lMsoSiaOjo. 
Celadonite. Fe.Ms.K, silicate -|-H;0. 
Pyr<t|)liyllite. II,,Al;Si,0„. 
Allophane. Al,yiO,.r)ILO. 
Kaolinite, Al;63.2SiO..HoO. 
Ilalloysite. li,Al,Si,,(VII,(). 
.Montmoiillouite, IL.AUSi,(J,2-"II;0. 
Kectorite, AL03.2SiO,.lLO. 
Cimolite, 2ALO,.t)SiO,.6H,0. 
Thaumasite, CaSiO,.CaC03.raS04.15n,0. 
Chrysoeolla. CiiSiO,.2I-LO. 
Chloropal, H„Fe„Si,(),,.2II,0. 
Bementit<\ 2MnSiO,.ILO. 
Xeotocite, Hydrous Mn.Fe. silicate. 
I'ilolite, Ilydi'ous Ca,Al, Silicate. 
t<earlesite, NaB(SiO,),.n,0. 
Titanitc, CaTiSiO.,. 
Benitoite, Ba,TiSi,,0„. 
Xrptnnito. FK,]\In,K,Xa. titano-silicate. 
Wi Ikcite, 3Ca3 ( PO^ ) „.O.iC0, + SCa. 

( 810^.804 )..CaO. 
Bakerite, 8Ca0.5B,0,.GSiO,.6H.O. 
Ilowlite. IT,Ca.B,Si04. 


Native silver, Ag. 
Argentite, Ag.S. 
Stromes'erite (Ag,Cu)2S. 
Hessite, AgnTe. 
Pctzite (Au,Ag)jTe. 
Sylvanite (Au,Ag)Te,. 
Calaverite (Au,Ag)Te;. 
Xagyagite, Au,Pb,4Sb3Te;S,7. 

Miargyrite. AgSbS.. 
Pyrargyrite, AgjSbSs. 
Proustite, AgjAsSj. 
Stephanite, Ag^SbS^. 
Polybasite, Ag^SbSe. 
Cerargyrite, AgCl. 
Embolite, Ag(Cl,Br), 

Halite. XaCl. 

Northupite, NajCOjMgCOs.NaCl. 
Tychite, 2Mg.C03.2NajC03.Na,S04. 
Dawsoni te. XajAl ( CO, ) 3.2AI ( OH ) g. 
Thermonatrite, NajCOj-HjO. 
Gay-Lussite. CaCOs.Xa^cbg.SH.O. 
Natron. Xa.COj.lOH.O. 
Trona. Xa,C03.HNaC03.2H,0. 
Pirssonite, CaCO..Na,C03.2H,0. 
Anortboclase, (K.Xa) AlSijOs. 



)(XaAlSi,r)s + 

Andes! ne. 
Acmite, XaFe(SiO,),. 
Pectolite, HXaCa^(Si03),. 
Glancophane. XaAl(Si03);.(Fe,Mg» SiO, 
Crocidolite, XaFe(Si03),FeSi03. 
Xepheline, K2XaeAlsSi9034. 



Smialite. 3NaAlSiO,.NaCl. 
Xosclitc. .\a,(XaSO,.Ar)Al,(Si04),. 
Laziiritc. \iu( \aS:;.Al ) (Si04i3. 
AVern»'rit»', »iCa4AluSieO:.-, + HXa4Al.,Si„0.4 

Pjn-ajiouite. H.\aAl;,Si.O,o. 
Stilbit»>. II, ( Na,Ca ) ALSi„0,s.41L0. 
("liahazitc. (Ca.Xa,) ALSi.O.o.CH.O. 
Aiialcitc. XaAlSi,()„.lLO. 
Xatrolit.". Xa,ALSi,0,„.2H,0. 
Mosolite. ( Ca.Xa,) ALSi,0,„.2H,0. 
Thunisonite. ( Xa,( 'a • Al.Si,0,,.2AIL(). 
Soarlpsito. XaB ( SiO;/l „.H,0. 

Soda niter, NaNOj. 
Darai.skite. NaXC.Xa.SO^.H.O. 
Xitroglauberite, 6NaNb3.2Na„SO,.3HA 
Horax. Xa.B.O^.lOILO. 
ricxitc. Xa('aB-,0„.SIl,(). 
'riiiniarrlite. Na-jSO,. 
Aphthitalite. (K.Xa),,S04. 
(Jlaiihcrite. Xa.SO^.CaSO,. 
Sulfohalite. 3Xa,S0..2XaCl. 
Hanksite. 4XaS(),.Xao(;'0,. 
Mirahilite. Na„SO,.10II„O. 
BirKlire. MgSO,.Na,S04.4H„0. 
M.Mirlozitc. Xa.,S(),.Al,(S()J,.24,ILO. 

Stroutianite, SrCOj. 


Celestite, SrSO,. 


Xativi" Siilpluir, S. 
liealsiar. AsS. 
Orpiinent. As.S-;. 
Stihniti'. .S1),S;;. 
Uisimnhinito. KLS,. 
MolylxU'uite. MoS.j. 
Ars:entit{\ A&jS. 
(ialpuito. PbS. 
('hak'oc'ite, ('ii„S. 
Stronieyeiito. ( ("u,A.ii)._.S. 
SchaIorit<^ ZiiS. 
Alabandite. MnS. 
Aletaeinnabarite. HgS. 
Cinnabar. IIuS. 
(ireent)i-kite, (\1S. 
Covellite. CuS. 
Mill.'Hto. XiS. 
Troilite. FeS. 
Pyrrhotite, FenSn+i. 
Polydymite. Xi4S.-,. 
Buinitc, CusFeSn. 
Cubanite. CuFe,.^,. 
( 'Iialcopy rite. ( 'uFeSo. 
Maieasito. FcS;. 
Pyrite. FcS,. 
Keruu'sitc. Sb.S.O. 
Voltzite. Zn-.S^O. 
Cobaltite. CoAsS. 
Arseuopyrite, FeAsS. 
Xajryasito, Air.Pb.^Sb.To^S,,. 
B'.M-thi.M-itP. I'VSb.S,. 
•Jameson iti'. Ph.SboS-,. 
Bonrnonitc. ( r'b.Cii.)3Sb2S,.,. 
Mia rgy rite, AgSbS,. 

Pyrargyritc. Ag^Sb.S:. 

Tetrabedrite. ( 'ii,,Sl),,S;. 

(reocronite. I'lir.SboSs. 

Stephanite. Ag.Sb.S,. 

I ), PboAs.S-. 

Proustite. AgoAsS-. 

Ena rgi tc ( 'n., AsS^. 

Tychite. 2MgCO.v2Xa,( •(|..Xa,S04. 

Xoselite, Xa, ( XaS04.Al ) Al, ( SiO, ) ,. 

Lazurite. Xa^lXaS^.A!) (SiO,).,. 

Thaumasite. CaSiO,.CaCO:,.CaS04-ir>H,0. 

W i 1 kei te. :;( 'a, ( PO4 ) ,.( 'aCO, + .''.Ca, 

Pirticile. F(",(>,.As,0,.S();.ILO. 
I )arapskite. XaXCK.Xa,S04.IL(). 
Xitroglauberite. ( JXa XO,.2Xa,S04..3H,0. 
-Mascauniti'. (Xri4l,S()4. 
'I'henanlilc. Xa.ySO^. 
Ai)lithitaliti>. ( K.Xa t.SOj. 
Arcanite. K..S()4. 
Glaulwrite. Xa,S()4.CaS( ),. 
Barite. BaSO,. 
Celostite. SrSO,. 
Anglesite. P1>S04. 
Ai.hydrile. CaS04. 
Sulfohalite. 3Xa,S(),.2XaCl. 
Hanksite. 4Xa,SO,.Xa,CO:,,. 
Liadbillitc. 4PbO.S(),.2CO,.H,0. 
Caledonite. ( SO.,(Pb.Cu) (OH),. 
BroHiantite. CuS04..'?Cn(0H),,. 
r.inarite. ( Ph.Cu 1 SO4. ( Pb.Cn) (OH),. 
Mirabilite. Xa,SO4.10H,O. 
(Jypsum. CaS04.2H,0. 
Kpsomite. .AlgSOj.TH.O. 



SULPHUR— Continued. 

(ioslarito, lZu!Sui ) 71I.O. 
Morcuositf. NiSO,.7ILO. 
.M.'lniil.-ntc. 1m-S()..TH,(). 
risMiiii.'. (Im'.("u)S(),.TI1,(). 
HicluTitc. ('oS(),.TII,(). 
Koothitc. t'uS(),.7IIJ). 
CliakMnthit.'. ('iiS(),..")H,( ). 
ISirKlitc. MsS0,.Na,S(),.4H,0. 
Boiissin^'aultitc. ( Xir. ),s6j.MgSO^. 

(51 1, 0. 
Kaliiiito. K,S(),.Al,{SO,),,.24II,(). 
Tsclicrmiuitc. ( .\IIJ,S(),.AI,(S0,1 ;. 

M.'Iiiln/.it^-. .\;l,S(),..\l,( SO. I, .1:411,0. 

I'lcki'iiii-it.'. .M.uS()...VL( S«»,I,.L'1'I1J). 
Ilalotrichitc. FcSO^. Al, ( S( ) J .,.L'4II,( ). 

Sonoiiiait.'. rtMuSo^.-Mj SO, » .:'.:;n,< >. 

('<K|'. Ft'.,(SO,i:,.lHi.,0. 
AIiiiioj,M'n. AL(SO,):.1SH,(). 
n.lmerito. Vo., ( SO^ I ,.1 lil \,( K 
('oi»iai)it.'. •JF(',0:..'.SO:,.1SH,0. 
Kiio.willitt'. ll.vdroii.s Fe.Al.Cr. siilpliali-. 
rie(linH:tonite, Hydrous FcAl.Cr. sulpliaic 
Fil.rofon-iti'. F.',0,( SO..),.l(HlJ >. 
I5otiyn-(Mi. F.',0:..2M:r0.4SO,.ir>II,0. 
.Muni I.'. K,0.;!AI,0;.4SO...(HI.,0. 
Janisiir. K-O.-^Fi-.O .4S(),.f;iI.O. 

Nativo iclliiriuiii, Te. 
Tctradymite. Bi.,Te. 
Ilossilo. A?,'r(>. 
IVtzito (A?;.An).,Te. 
Altaite. TbTe. 
Coloradoite. H.tjTe. 


^Iclouilo. NioTe.T 
Sylvaiiite (Au,Ag)Te.. 
ralaveritc (An.As)T.v. 
Najryastito, Au:.l'bj4Sb.:T(';S|;. 
DurdcDito, Fe (Te05),.4ILO. 

Monazito. (CV.La.Di.Th)P04. 


Pyrofliloro. Ti.Ca.Ct\'rii. niuhate. 

Xativi' tin. Su. 


( 'as.siteriti'. Si)( ).. 


Ilmciiitf. ( Fi'.Ti ).X).. 
Until.". TiO,. 
Hrookite, TiO,. 
Anatas<". TiO,. 

Titanite, CaTiSiO,. 

T'.enitoitc. P.aTiSi,0,;. 

Xeptunite, ( Xa.K)„( Fe.Mu ) TiSuO,, 

Pyrocliloie. Ti.Ca.CV.Tli. niobat.'. 

Iliibncrii.'. MnWO^. 
Wolframite. (Mn.FelWO, 


Schpoliti'. ('«W(),. 

< iiiirosclu'olit*'. ( Ca.Cn I WO, 


'lOrbrinitc. (•u0.2I'03.P,0,,.8H.,0. Uraninite, Uranate of lead. 

Amnniic. ('.•iO.i:ro,.P30,-*^n/). Uraconite. TVanate of lead, H,0. 



KoswK'lito, IIsK(Mg.Fe) (Al.V)^. 

Pucherite, BiVOi. 


Vanadinite (PbCl)Pb,(V04)3. 

VolI)orthit(', Pn.B'a.Ca, vanndato. 
Desfloizite, l'l),Zn,('u, vanadate. 

Native ziuc, Zn. 
Sphalerite, ZnS. 
VoltKite, Zn.S^O. 
Siiiitlisoiiitc, ZnC'Os. 
Anrichalcil e, 2 ( Zn,Cu ) CO3.3 ( Zn,Cn ) 


IJydroziucite, Basic zinc carbonate. 

Willoniite. ZiuSiO^. 

Calamine, H^ZnoSiOB. 

Desoloizite. ( Pb.Zu ) . ( VO4 ) .. ( Pb.Zn ) 

(Joslarito. ZnSO,.7ir..O. 

Zircon. ZrSi04. 















Lapis Lazuli. 
















All of the minerals mentioned in the foregoing pages are listed by 
counties in order to show their distribution. The particular locality 
or description of any mineral can easily be seen by reference to the 
mineral. There are many scattered localities and several which are 
noted for the great variety of associated inincrals. The desert counties 
lead in number of species because tliey luive minerals not only typical 
of mountainous regions, sucli as vein iiiiiicrals, contact metamorphic 
minerals and secondary luiueinls in the oxidation zones of veins, but 
in addition, minerals typical of the dvy ])Iains and former imirshes and 
lakes, such as the borates, sulphates, carbonates, nitrates and chlorides. 
Inyo and San Bernardino counties therefore lead, and the Cerro Gordo 
district and Death Valley in the former, and the Searles Lake and 
Calico district in the latter, aie tlie most fa)uous single localities. 

San Diego County ranks as the gem county of the State. The great 
series of lithia-bearing pegumtites which intersect the diorites at Pala 
and Mesa Grande contain the beautiful pink tourmaline and pink kun- 
zite with many associated minerals. 

The limestone quarries at Crestmore, Riverside County, have yielded 
many interesting lime minerals as products of contact metamorphism, 
and several of them ai-e new minei-al species. 

The minerals occurring in the gold regions of the Sierras are in 
general the common sulphides and rock-forming minerals. Carson Hill 
in Calaveras County and the mines near Jamestown and Tuttletown in 
Tuolumne County were noted for tlie rarer telluride minerals associated 
with the gold. 

Soine of the cinnabar mines have also ])een noted for rare and 
interesting niineral associations. Several new species came from the 
old Redington mine, afterwards named the Boston mine, at Knoxville, 
Napa County. The Sulphur Bank mine, on Clear Lake, Lake County, 
and the New Alnmden mine, Santa (/lara County, have produced several 
rare minerals. 

Other localities are known for their mineral associations, but it is only 
of those districts which have been studied by men who have known the 
minerals, that we have fairly complete lists. 

Alameda County. — .Votiuolitc. albite. alunofcen, aualeito. beinontitP. hootliitf, (•a](?ito. 
chalcanthite, chalccdouy. rhalcopyrite. chromite, cinnabar, coal, copiapite. cop- 
l(pr, cuprite, dolomito. enstatitc. cpsomite. halite, halotrichitc, hematite, hydro- 
niasnesite, iuesite. kamniereiito, linionite, matrnesite. maanetite. manganite, 
raelanterite, natrolite, petroleum, pisanite, psilomelane, pyrite, pyrolusite, pyro- 
phyllite, quartz, rhodochrosite, rhodonite, serpentine, talc, vivianite, wollastonitc, 
zaratite, zircon. 

Alpine County. — ^Argentite, arseuolite, barite, biotite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, 
enargite. epidote. famatinite, galena, garnet, gold, gyjJsuni, hematite, jaspei-. kal- 
inite. marcasite. polyliasite. pyrargyrite. pyrite. realgar, rose quartz, silver, 
^sphalerite, stephanite, stromeyerite, tetrahedrite, tourmaline, wood opal. 


Ammlor Colt iiti/.— -Amethyst, areenopyrite. asbestos, liiuiitc, calcite, chalcaniliite. 
clialoodony. chalfopyrite. cliromitc. c-lirysocolla. c-hiy. roal. copper, cuprite, dia- 
mond, epsoniite. galena, sold, ilmenite. ionite, limonite, loUinjrite, magnetite, 
malachite, melanterite, niendozite. psilonielane. pyrite. pyrolusito. rectorite, 
rli(>(l:ichrosite. rock crystal, losi' (juartz, rutilc. serpentine, talc, tellurium, 
', rrmolite. wood opal. 

lUiili ('oiiiitii. — Asbestos, azurite. barite. californite. chalcopyrite. ehromite. clnyso- 
beryl, diamond, epidote. salena, Kiii"aet. '^oM, gy]jsum. hematite, hornblende, 
ilmenite. lead, limonite, magnetite, marble, monazite, olivine, platinum minerals, 
jtrochlorite. ])silomelane, pyrolusite. ])yrophyllite. rhodochrosite. rhodonite, rutile, 
smoky (juartz. talc, topaz. vesu\ianite, wood opal, zircon. 

('aid i( Ids Count!/. — Actinolite, albite, altaite, ankerite. arasouite, arsenopyrite, 
azurile. barite. boothite. bornite. brochanrite. calcite. calaverite. chalcanthite, 
clialcedonj'. clialcDcite. chalcopyrite. cliloritoid. ehromite. chrysocolla. chrysotile, 
cinnabar, clay, copper, coquimljite. covellite, cuprite, dolomite, durdenite, epi- 
dote, galena, garnet, gold, graphite, hematite, ln'ssite, hyalite, ilmenite, jameson- 
ite. jasi>er, kalinite, kotschuln-ite. limonite. lithomarge, magnesite, magnetite, 
malachite, manganite, margarite, mariposite, melanconite, melouite, millerite, 
opal, orthoclase, petzite. i)latinum minerals, psilomclane, pyrite, pyromorphite. 
pyrolusite, i^vrrhotite, quartz, ri'ctorite, siderite, silver, sphalerite, stibnite, 
sylvauite, talc, tellurium, tetradymite. tetrahedrite. tourmaline, uraconite. ura- 
ninite. valenciauite. vivjanite, wood oi>al. zircon. 

Culiixd CdKiiti/. — Alunite. aragonite. chalcocite. chalcoijyrite, ehalcotrichite, coal, 
ehromite, cinnabar, copper, cuprite, electrum. epidote. gyi)sum. halite, hema- 
tite, lignite, limonite. manganite. melanconite, metacinnaliarite, jiyrite. pryo- 
lusite. sulphur, quartz. 

Contra Costa County.- — Actinolite, albite. aualcite. anthophyllite. apatite, chalcopy- 
rite, cinnabar, clay, coal, crossite, diopside, cnstatite, epidote. fluorite, glau- 
cophane. gyjisum, hyalite, lawsonite. manganite, opal, petroleum. i)rochlorite, 
psilomelane, pyrolusite, serpentine, talc, titanite. tremolite, zircon. 

Dil Xoite Count!/. — Agate, arsonopyrite, awaruite. bornite. chalcedony, chalcocite, 
chalcoi)yrite. ehromite. cinnabar, copper, cuprite, diamond, enstatite, garnet, 
gold, grai)hlte, hematite, ilmenite, jasper, kiimmerorite. magnetite, malachite, 
melanconite. molybdite, monazite. olivine, penninite, platinum minerals, pyrrho- 
tite. tetrahedrite, tremolite, troilite. ^vollastonite. zircon. 

El Dorado Count!/. — Actinolite, adularia. agalmatolite, anatase, antimony, arsenopy- 
rite, asbestos, axinite. azurite. barite. beryl, bismuth-gold, bornite. brookite, 
calaverite. calcite. chalcedony, chalcocite. chalcopyrite. chloropal. ehromite. 
cinnabar, clay, copper, coquimbiic. covellite. cubanite. cuprite, diamond, diopside. 
dolomite, enargite, ejiidote. galena, garnet, gold, grossularite. hematite, hessite, 
hornblende, ilmenite, limonite, ludwigite. magnetite, mariposite, meteorite, molyb- 
denite, monazite, nontronite, orthoclase, petzite. platinum, pyrite, pyrolusite, 
pyromorphite. pyrophyllite. pyrrhotite. quartz, roscoelite, serpentine, siderite, 
sphalerite, talc, tin, titanite, tourmaline, variscite, vesuvianite, wulfenite, zircon. 

Fresno Count!/. — Andahisite. aiiatiie. arsenopyrite, asbestos, barite. beryl, bindheimite, 
bismuthiuite. bismutite. bornite, calcite, californite, chiastolite. chalcoityrite, 
ehromite. chrysocolla. chrysoprase, chrysotile. cinnabar, coal, columbite. copper, 
cuprite, diamond, diatomaceous earth, enstatite. epidote, galena, garnet, glauco- 
phane, gold, graphite, gypsum, hornblende, ilmenite, kalinite, magnesite, mag- 
netite, molybdenite, moss opal, ortlioclase. petroleum, psilomelane, pyrrhotite. 
rhodonite, rutile, scheelite, sphalerite, stilbite. talc, tantalite. topaz. 

Glenn Count!/. — Calcite, ehromite, cinnabar, copper, cuprite, halite, psilomelane, 
(piartz. rhodonite, talc, volboi-thite. 

Humboldt Count!/. — Actinolite. agate,' albite. apatite, bementite. carnelian. chal- 
cedony, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, ehromite, cinnabar, coal, copper, covellite, cup- 
rite, epidote, garnet, glaucophane. gold, graphite, hematite, hornblende, ilmen- 
ite, jasper, jet, magnetite, malachite, monazite, neotocite, olivine, petroleum, 
platinum minerals, prase, psilomelane. pyrolusite. pyrrhotite. rhodonite, rutile, 
tiphalerite, spinel, vivianite. zirt^n. 


/wpcrial Coiiiifii. — A^ato, nrsi'iioi).vrite. hliiditc, caleite, oeriissite, r-halcopyrite, cyan- 
ite. diaiuoiul. duiiiorticrite, (dci-trum, cpsxiniitt', jraleua. jrarnientc, graphite, 
gypsum, halite, iliiu-uite, ma.uuetite. mirabilite. iKsilomehiin-. siderite, sulphur, 
tetrahedrite. thenardite. 

Iiii/o County. — Analeite. audradite. anglesite. anhydrite, argentite. ashesto-s, ataca- 
inite, aurifhakite. axinite. azurite, barite. bindheimite. bismuthinite. bismutite, 
i)oracite. borax, liornite. botryogeu. Iiournonite. brochantite. calamine, ealcite. 
caledonite. celcstite. cerargyrite. eerussite. cervantite. chalcocite, chalcodite, chal- 
cop.vrile. (■hrys()c(dla. i-inuabar. f(deniaiiite. copper. c()(iuiuil)ite. covellite. crucoite, 
cuprite, darapskite. datolite. dawsouite. diatomaceous earth, dolomite, dufrenoy- 
site. embolite. epidote. fluorite. galena, garnet, gay-lussite, geocronite, giithite, gold, 
urr-phite. gypsum, halite, halloysite. hanksite, hematite, howlite. hydrohoracite. 
hydroma^nesite. hydrozincite. inyoitr, jamesonite, jas|K'r, kalinite. leadliillite, 
lenzinite. lepidolite. limonite. linarite. lirocouite. magnetite, malachite, malaco- 
lite. marble, melacouite, mendozit(\ metacinuabarite, meyerhofferite, mimetite, 
molybdenite, montmorillonite, mountain cork, muscovite, natrolite, natron, niter, 
niiroglaulierite. orthoclasi-, jietzite. i>hlogoi)ite. phosgenite, pickeringite. plat- 
inum, i)lumbogummite, priceite, psilomelaue, pyromorphite, pyrophyllite, pyrrho- 
tite, rock crystal, sal ammoniac, scheelite, .«corodite, sei)iolite. sen)eutine, siderite, 
silimanite. silver, smithsonite, .soda niter, .sjihalerite. .'^tibnite. strnmeyerite. stron- 
tianite, sulphur, sylvite. talc, tetrahedrite, thenardite, thermonatrite, titanite, 
tourmaline, tremolite, trona, turgite, ulexite. vesuvianite. willemite. wolframite. 



Kriii ('mint I/. — Act inolitc. alhiie. auglesite. antimony, argentite. arsenop.yrite, 
Msjilialt. aznrite. l)arite, bon^.x. cerarg.vrite. cerussite, cervantite, chalcedony, 
chalcocite. chalcopyrite, chiastolite, chloropal, chromite, chrysotile, cinnabar. 
cla.v, coccinlte, colemanite, cuprite, ciiproscheelite, enstatite, epidote, galena, 
garnet, gilsonite, gypsite. hr.lite, halloysite, hematite, hessitf. ilmenite. jarosite, 
kennesite. lead, lepidomelane, magnesite, magiu^tite, malachite, mangauite. 
iiiai-ble. maripositt'. massicot, metefjrite, minium, molybdenite, mountain cork, 
mountain leather, opal, orthoclase. petroleum, platinum minerals, proustit.'. 
pyrargyrite, pyrolusite, quartz, scheelite, s^piolite, silver, smithsonite. sphaler- 
ite, stibiconite. stibnite. suli)hur, talc, tourmaline, tremolite. ulexite, vanadinite. 
vesuvianite, wolframite, wulfenite. 

KiiiijH Connti/. — Chromite, cinnabar, gypsite, magnesite. malachite, mercury. 

Lnkt Count!/. — Barite. borax, caleite. chalcocite, chalcopyrite. chromite, cimolite, 
cinnabar, clay. c()i)iapite. copjier. crocidolite. epsomite. glaucophane. gyi)sum, 
hornblende, kalinite. linionite. malachite, melauterite. mercury, metacinuabarite. 
neotocite, opal, orpiment. posepnyte. psiloraelane. pyrolusite. pyrrhotite, realgar, 
sassolite, serpentine. stii)nite. sulphur, tiemannite. tschermigite. violan. wollas- 
tonite, zoisite. 

LiisKin Count !i. — Annabergite. azurite. bernardinite. bornite. chalcocite, chalcopyrite, 
copper, cuprite, epidote, garnet, gypsum, halloysite, hematite, jefferisite, 
malachite, mesolite. muscovite. smaltite. sulphur, tourmaline, wood opal. 

I, ox A nt/t l( .s Coinitji. — Anhydrite, annabergite, argentite. asbolite. asi)halt. barite. 
bismutite. bornite. caleite. chalcedon.v. chalcocite. (■halcoi)yrite. chromite. chryso- 
colla, clay, colemanite, copper, corundum, cyanite, diatomaceous earth, diopside, 
ei)idote, erythrite, fluorite, galena, garnet, graphite, griffithite, gypsum, how- 
lite, iddingsite. ilmenite. kalinite. labradorite. lapis lazuli, lazulitf. leucopyrite, 
magnesite, magnetite, malachite, olivine, orthoclase. petroleum. i)yrolusite, sal 
ammoniac, siderite. silver, smaltite. sodalite. sphalerite, stibnite. talc, tetra- 
hedrite, tremolite, ulexite, vesuvianite. vivianite. 

Madera County. — Actinolite, arsenopyrite, asbestos, azurite, bismuthinite, chalcocite, 
chalcopyrite. chromite, covellite, electrum, galena, garnet, hematite, ilmenite, 
lazurite, magnetite, molybdenite, orthoclase, pyrolusite, pyrrhotite. rhodochrosite, 
rhodonite. sphal(>rite. talc, tourmaline, vivianite. wolframite, zaratite. 

Mat ill County. — Actinolite, agate, albite. asbestos, chalcedony, chalcopyrite, chro- 
mite. cinnabar, epidote, garnet, glaucophane. hematite, hornblende, jasper, 
kiuradite. lawsonite, manganite. margarite, psilomelane, pyrolusite, pyrophyllite, 
pyrrhotite, quartz, talc, titanite, wolframite, zircon. 


Muriixisii Coll III II. — Alunito, andalusite, aiikorite, argentite, nrseuopyrito, asbestos, 
azurite, harite, biotito, bronzite. calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chloropal, 
( lirysDcolla, (•innnhar. cobaltitc. coiipcr. cdvcllitt^, danaite, cpsomitt', orythrit", 
i'l»i(l(it<\ jjali'iia. sai'iK't, «(>1<1, .uobl anialuaiij, s'"'thit(\ iryiisuin, lioniblciidi'. ilnuni- 
itc. labradoritc. limouito, iiuiRuetitc. inalachitc, inariposiU'. iiudautprilr, molyb- 
denite, orthoclase, pitticite, platinum, proustite, psilomelane, pyrargyrite, pyrite, 
pyiohisitc, ])yr()nniri>liit('. pyrrliot id'. |>yii>i)liylli1,(', rliodocluosito, rock crystal, 
scoroditi'. serpentine. s(>iii(>iit(>. sidcrih'. sillinianiti'. splialcrite, stiiniite, snlplnir, 
tale, lelraliedritc. tournialiiii'. witbi'ritr. wulf raniite. 

l\fcnd(H-'nio County. — Barite, bementitc. ebaleopyrito, chromito, copper, garnet, 
glaucopliane. bematite, inesite. jasprr. jefferisite. masnesitc. nialacliite. man- 
ganite, neotocite, olivine, platinum minerals, psilomelane, pyrite, pyrolusite, 
tetrahedrito. nvarovite, zircon. 

Merced Vouniy. — Barite, calcite, cinnabar, copper, diatoniacoous earth, psilomelane, 
soda niter, stibnite. 

Mmliic (iiiiiitii. A'/.urite. ealcit^'. cbry.sornlla, cinnabar, cbty. ca])[n'r, cuprite, diato- 
niaci'oiis carlb. lieniatitc. labra<Ii>rite, nianuesitc. iiia;rnc(it<', natrolite, niter, 
<ili\ine, orlboclase, slilliile, luurmalinc, \-esu\ianite. 

Moiii) ro»/////.- -Vnilaiusiie, anglesite, anh\-drit.'. ankerile, argentite, ai'senopyrice, 
aurichalcite. azurite, barite, bismite, bisnuitiiinite, Idsniutite, bornite, calcite, 
colestite. cerargyrite. cerussite, cbali-edony. cbal^'opyrite. chrysocolla. cinnabar, 
clay, cobaltite, copi>er, cuprite, diatomaceous earth, embolite, epidote, fluorite, 
galena, geocronite, gold, greenockite, gypsum, halloysite, hematite, hornblende, 
kalinite, lazulite, magnetite, malachite, melaconite, melanterite, molylxlenite, 
molybdite, orthoclase, partzite, proustite. pyrargyrite, pyi'olusite, pyrrhotite, 
quartz, rutile, siderite, silver, sphalerite, stephanite, stetefeldtite, stibnite, tetra- 
hedrite, tourmaline, travertine, tridymite. 

Monti icy County. — Actinolite. arsenite. arsenopyrite. barite. bitumen, calcite, chal- 
cedony, chromite, cinnabar, coal, copper, crocidolite, diatomaceous earth, galena, 
garnet, glancophane. graphite, gypsum, iddingsite, magnesite. magnetite, mala- 
chite, metacinnabarite, molybdenite, orthoclase, pisanite, psilomelane, pyrope, 
quartz, serpentine, stibnite, zaratite. 

Xdliii County. — Asbestos, azuriie. barite. botryogen, calcite, calomel, clialcedony. 
chalcocite, chrysotile, cinnabar, copiapiti-, coi)per, c(K|uimbite, covellite, credner- 
ite. cuprite, diatomaceous earth, epsomite, erytlirite, glancophane, gypsum, hema- 
tite, hydrogiobertite, jamesouite, jasi>er, kalinite, knoxvillite, limonite, litho- 
marge, magnesite, magnetite, niarcasite, melanterit(>, mendozite. mercury, meta- 
cinnabarite. millerite, niirabilite, molybdenite, morenosile, napalite. psilomelane. 
pyrolusite, redingtonite. rock crystal, serj)entini', smalt iti\ stibnite, sulphur, 
talc, tremolite, wornerite, wollastouite, wood opal. 

ycvadn County. — Agate, albite, altaite, alunogeu, andaUisile, auorlhito, auortho- 
clase, argentite, ai-senopyrite, asbestos, axinite, barite, biotite, bismuth, calcite, 
chabazite, chalcanthite, chalcedony, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chromite, chryso- 
colla. cinnabar, clay, cobaltite, copper, cuprite, danaite, diallage, diamond, dolo- 
mite, enstatite, epidote, galena, garnet, gold, gold amalgam, gypsum, hematite, 
he.ssite, hornblende, ilmenite, Jasper, kiimmererite, labradorite, limonite, mag- 
nesite, magnetite, marcasite, mariposite, melaconite, microcline, mol.v'bdenite, 
molybdite. olivint', orthioclaso. picmlite, platinum, ])silonielane, pyrargyrite. 
pyrite, pyrolusite, pyrrhotite, rhodochrome, rock crystal, scheelite, sericite, ser- 
pentine, smaltite, sphalerite, stephanite, stibnite, talc, tetradymite, tetrahedrite, 
tourmaline, uralite. u\arovite. werneritc. wollastonite, wood opal, zircon. 

Oninyc County. — Arcanite, anJiydrite. liarite, calcite. cinnabar, diatomaceous earth, 
drdomite. fuchsite, galena, garnet, gypsum, hematite, ilmenite. magnetite, mer- 
cury, metacinnabarite, petroleum, quartz, sphalerite, tiemannite, tourmaline. 

J'lacrr County. — Andradite, anthophyllite, apatite, aragonite, arsenopyrite. asbestos, 
augite. azurite. Imrite. calcite, eassiterite, cerargyrite. chalcedony, chalcocite, 
chalcopyrite, eliromite, chloropal. clay, clinochlore, coal, cobaltite, copper, 
cni)rite. elect rum, ei)id(ile. galena, garnet, gold, hematite, ilmenite, kalinite, 
Uiiinnicreril*'. kotschuiicitc. limonite, magnesite, magnetite, malachite, manganite, 


marlilp, iniirii)()sit(', inassicol', inilloritf, niolybdouitc, nioniizitp, i)latimiin min- 
erals, psiloini'laui'. pyrito, pyrolusitt'. pyrrliotito, rhodochrosito. rhodochromo, 
rhodonito, rock crystal, rutilo, serpentiuo, silvpv. sphalerite, stibnito, talc, tetra- 
hedrite, toiinnaliin', treiiiolito. wood opal, zircon. 

I'hiniun Count!/. — Actiuolite, alhito, aualcite. audeslue, apatite, apopliyllite, arseno- 
pyrite, asbestos, azurite, bornite, braunite, brochautite. bronzite, calcite, cas- 
siterite. chabazil'-. chalcocite. chalcoi)yrite, chroniite, cho-socolla. copper, corun- 
dum, covellite. croci lolite, cuprite, diallase. dolomite, edenite, eiiarKite, ensta- 
tite, pp'idc'te, jraleua, garnet, gold, liausmannite, liematite. lieulandite. born- 
blende, hypersthene, ilmeuite, jasper, labradorite. laumontito. Icucoxene. limou- 
ite. magnetite, malachite, manganite. millerite. molybdenite, nionazite. natrolite, 
oligoclasp, olixine. ])liil]ipsite, platinum minerals. i)relinite, psilomelane, pyro- 
lusite, ityroiiliyllile. pyrrliD.ite, quai'tz, rhodonite, serieile. seri)entine. sideritc, 
silver, sphalerite, stilliite, stroiitianiti', tetrahedrite, thomsonite, titanite. tour- 
maline, tremolite, wood opal, wulfeuite, zircon, zoisite. 

Riverside Coiintj/. — Actiuolite, allauite. andalusite, anglosite. authopliyilite, ai)atite, 
aiK)phyllite, aragonite, arsenopyrite, asbestos, augite. axinite, azurite, bauxite, 
beryl, hiotite, bisnuithinite. borax, bornite, brucite, calcite, cassiterite, cerus- 
site, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chondrodite, chrysocolla. clay, clinochlore, eole- 
mauite, copiapite. copper, coruudophyllite, crestmoreite, crocoite, cuprite, dato- 
lite, diopside. dolomite, dumortierite. epidote, essonite. galenite. garnet, gehlen- 
ite, goethite, graphite, greniockite, gyjisum, halite, hematite, hyalitp, hydro- 
magni'sitc. jtirupaite. kunzite, laumoutite. lepidoHte. limonite. magnesite, mag- 
netite, malachite, manganite, .merwinite, monticellite, muscovite, niter, okenite, 
olivine, orthoelase. periclase, plazolite, prehnite, prochlorite, psUomelanp, p.yritp, 
pyrolusite, i)yromorphitp, riversideite, rhodonite, saussurite. serpentine, sphal- 
erite, spinel, si)urrite, stil)nite. stromeyerite, talc, tetrahedrite, thauniasite, titan- 
ite, tremolite, tournialiue. vonsenite, vesuvianite, wernerite, wilkeite, wollastonlte, 
wulfenite, xauthophyllite. 

t^aeramcuto County. — Chroniite, galena, hornblende, linionite, magnetite, rock crystal, 
splialerite, talc, vesuvianite, zircon. 

.SV/H liciiito (foiniti/. — Aemite. actinolite, aegirite, albite, aragonite. azurite, barite, 
benitoite, calcite, chalcedony, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chromite, chrysoeolla, 
cinnabar, coal, crossite, dolomite, epidote, ep.somite, fluorite. garnet, glauco- 
l)hane. gypsum, hematite, hydromagnesite. jarosite. kiimniererite. magnesite, 
magnetite, malacliite, mercury, metacinnabarite. natrolite. neptunite, penninite, 
psilomelaue, rhodoclironie, rock crystal, serpentine, stibiconite, stibnite, talc, 
tourmaline, uvarovite, valentinite, zaratite. zircon. 

San Bernardino County. — Albite, anglesite, anhydrite, authopliyilite, apatite, aph- 
thitalite, aragonite, argentite. arsenolite, asbeferrite, a.sbestos, asbolite. augite, 
autunite. azurite, bakerite. i)arite. bernardinite. beryl. l)isniuthinite. bisnuitite, 
borax, bornite, brochautite, calamine, calcite, cassiterite. celestite, cerargyrite, 
cerussite. chalcedony, chalcocite, chalcoiiyrite, rhlorinagnesite. chrysoeolla, cinna- 
bar, clay, colemanite, cookeite, corundum, cummingtonite, cuprite, cupro- 
descloizite, darai)skitp, dolomite, embolite, enstatite, epidote. fluorite. galena, gay- 
lussite. glaul;erite. graphite, gypsite. halite, halloysite. hank.^^ite, heliotrope, 
hematite, howlite, hiibuerite, hyalite, hydroboracite. ilmeuite, kalinite. lapis 
lazuli, laumontitf, lepidolite, litharge, magnesite. magnetite, malachite, marble, 
massicot, mendozite, meteorite, niiargyrite. mimetite, niirabilite. uu)ntmorillonite, 
moss agate, muscovite, myrickite, niter, nitroealcite, nitroglauberite, northupite, 
nosean, olivine, opal, orthoelase. i)iedmontite. pirssonite. i)riceite. jjroustite, 
psilomelaue, i)yrolu.«ite, cjuartz, realgar, rhodochrosite, sal anuuouiac. sassolite. 
scheelito, searlesite. sillimauile. silver, sinithsonite. soda niter, si)halerite, si)inel, 
stibnite, stromeyerite, strontianite, sulphohalite, sulphur, talc, tetrahedrite, 
thenardite, therinonatrite, torbernite, tourmaline, tremolite. triplite. trona. tur- 
quois, tychite, ulexite, valentinite, vanadinite. voltzite. wolframite, wulfenite, 

San Diego County. — Agalmatolite, albite. nlniandite, ambl.vgonite, anhydrite, anor- 
thite, apatit(>, ar.--euopyrite, asbestos, axinite, barite. beryl, biotite. bismite. 
bismuth, bismutite, bisniutospiiaerite, calcite, cassiterite. chalcocite, chalcopyrite, 
columbite, corundum, cyanite, diatomaceous earth, dumortierite. epidote, essonite. 


crytliritc. Muoiitc. ;;ali'iiii. jtaniet. j;i-ai»liitf. jii.viisitf. halloysiic. ln'iilaiidiii-. hema- 
tite. Iiifl<lcnite. hornlilende. hyalite, hyperstheuo. huioaulite, kunzite, hiiiiuontite. 
hizulite. lci)i<lolit('. lithiojjhilite. inahichite. inariposite. microcline. niicrolite, 
iinjlyhdeuite. nioiitniorillDiiite, imisi-ovite. uiccolite. olivine, orthoclase. palaite, 
l)ie<lmontite. pi>ly(l\inite. prehuite. psilonielano, piicherite. purpurite. i)yrochlore, 
))yrophyllite, pyrrhotite. rock crystal, rock soap, rose ciuartz. rntile, salinousite, 
scheelite. scorodite, sicklorite, siliimanite. sinaltite. sphalerite*, sjjinel. spodumene, 
sti'wartite. stil)i()tantalite. stilinife. stilliite, streny:ite. talc, litanite. toiiriualiiip. 
topaz. trii)liylite. vesuvianite. wollastonite. zircon. 

San FniiKisco ('(iiiiiti/. — Actinolite. apatite, apophyllito, ara^onite. barite. hrucite, 
calcite. cinnabar, ilatolitc, diallaur. diopside. enstatite. .ijlanco])hane. .u:ypsnm, 
^lyrolite. liydrodoloniile. liy(lr()niai;iirsite. liypersthene. ilnienite, Jasi)er. kinradito, 
lij::nile, niaj?nesite. niasnetite. mercury, olixiui'. (i|)m1. pectolite. pyrohisite. ser- 
lientine. titanite. 

Sun ■/(/(Hiiiiii ('(tiiiitji. — IJcmentite, diaioniaceous earth, trypsuin. hematite, inosite, 
nianiianite. psilomelane. i)yrolnsite. rhodochrosite. 

Sail Luis OhisjKt Coitiitii. — Alloiihanc. alnuoucn. as|ilialt. bitumen, calcite. chalcoi).v- 
4'ite. chroniite. cinnaliai-. copper. (•ni)anite. diatoniaccous earth, dolomite, ensta- 
tite. epidote, ^laucophane. iryjisnin. halite, iiematite. hydrorr.a^inesite. ilmenite. 
lawsonite. limonite. majrnesite. niairnetite. malachite, manganite. marble, nieta- 
cinnabarite. mirabilite. onyx, platinum sands, prehnite. ])yrolusite. i>yrophyllite. 
quartz, spinel, stibnite. thenardite. tourmaline, wulf.'uite. zircon. 

San Mateo County. — Agate, barite, calcite, calomel, celadonite, chalcedony, chromite, diallaue. diatouiaceous earth, e^b'stoiiite. jasjn'r. mau:nerit<'. mar^arite. 
mercury. <di\ine. pyroiusite. zircon. 

Santa Barbara County. — Agate, allanite, analcite, asphalt, augite. barite, calcite, 
chalcedony, chalcodite. chalc.)pyrite. chromite. cinnabar, dolomite, eakleite, Huor- 
ite. gaiTiet. gilsonite. .uypsum. hornblende, ilmenite. labradorite. magnesite, mag- 
netite, petroleum. i)latinum minerals, prehnite. rock .'wap. sal ammoniac, stib- 
nite. stilbite. serpentine, vivianite, wollastonite. zircon. 

Santa Chini Comity. — Actinolite. apojihyllite. aragotite, augite, baiite. l)ornite. cal- 
cite. carauthine. catai)horite. ciiromite. chr.vsocolla, cinnabar, clinozoisite. 
crocidolite. deweylite. diallage. dolomit.\ epidote, epsomite, ganoi)hyllite, garnet, 
glaucophane. gyi)sum. gyrolite. hausmannite. lawsonite. limonite. iotrite. magne- 
.site. magnetite, manganite. margarite. mercury, metacinnabarite. oligoclase. 
nmphacite. paragonitc. paragasit(>. petroleum, picrolite. i)ilinite. psilomelane. 
pyrite. pyrochroite. iiyrolusiie. rhodochrosite. rhodonite, rntile. serjientine. 
siderite. sniaragdite. soretite. sidialeiite. stiliiconite. stibioferrite, stil)nite. talc, 
teiihroite. tiemannire. titanite. tremolite. zoisite. 

Snnt'i f'niz Count y. — B'itumeu, calcite. coal, graphite, gypsum, ilmenite. magnetite*, 
melanterite. olivine. i)eti*oleuni, platinum sands, talc, tremolite, vesuvianite. 

Shnxtii Coiiniy. — Andesine. anhydrite, asbestos, barite. bornite. calcite. chabazite, 
chalcanthite. chalcocite. chalcojiyrite. chromite. cinnabar, copi>er, covellite, cup- 
rite, deweylite, diatomaceous earth, epidote, galena, garnet, gold, greenockite. 
gypsum, halite, hedenbergite, hematite, hi^site. ilmenite, ilvaite, kiimmererite. 
limonite. magnesite. melanconite. melauterite. mesolite. molybdenite, molylxlite. 
natrolite. orthoclase. i)latinum minerals. i)roustite. psihunelane. pyrargyrite, 
1).\ rite, iiyrobisite. pyrrhotite. siderite. silver. si)halerite. siiinel. stephanite. 
talc, tellurium, terrahe Irite. tremolite. iridymite. witherite. zaratite. zinc, zircon, 

Si( rrti County. — Arsenopyrite. asbestos, chalcocite. chalcopyrite. chromite. chr.vsotile. 
covellite. galena, gold, hessite. magnetite, mariposite. natrolite. platinum min- 
erals, pyroiusite, pyrrhotite. (piartz. serpentine, si)halerite. stibnite. stromeyer- 
ite, talc, wood opal. 

Sinkiyou County. — Asbestos, azurite. Imrite, calaverite, californitc. cassiterite. chal- 
cocite, chalcoi)yrite, chromite. chrysocolla. chr.vsotile. cinnabar, clinochlore. 
copper, covellite. deweylite. diamond, epidote. galena, garnet, gold, graphite, 
gypsum, hematite, hypersthenc. ilmenite. limonite, .iasjier. marl)li'. molybdenite. 


oliviue, opal, oitivlito, petzite, platiuum, pluliuiridium, psilomelaue, pj'rite, 
pyi'olusito, pyrrliotitc, rhodonite, schoclitf, sphalorite, spinel, talc, tin. tounna- 
line, uvarovite, vosuviauito, wolframito, wollastouito, zaratito, zircon. 

Solano Count;/. — Aragouite, calcito, cinnabar, chromllc, clay, halite, inetacinuabar- 
ite. onyx marble, sulphnr. 

.s'onomfl County. — Actiuolite, ahnandite, aragronite. aznrite, bonssinfraultite, bronzite, 
calcite, chalcopyrite. diromite, chrysotile, cinnabar, clay, coal, diatoniacewas 
earth, epidote, ei)soinile. sarnet, jieyserite, ^^laiicopliane, jirahaniite, frraphite. 
grossularite, gypsum, liematite, ilvaite. jasper, kalinite, limonite, magnesite, man- 
ganite, marcasite, margarite, mascagnite, melanterite, mercury, metacinnabarite, 
natrolite, psilomelaue. jjyrite. pyrolnsite. realgar, seriM>ntiue, siderite, smaragdite, 
sonomaite, stibnite, stratopeite, sulphur, talc, wood opal, zircon, zoisite. 

Stanislaus Countij. — Actiuolite, asbestos, l)cmentite, cinuabar, clay, enstatite, epi- 
dote, glaucophane, gypsum, hematite, inesite. limonite, magnesite, psilomelane, 
pyrolnsite, quartz, rhodochrosite. 

Sutter County. — Clay, coal. 

Tehama County. — Arseuopyrite, chalcopyrite. chrumite. copper, cristobalite. diato- 
maceous earth, galena, garnet, graphite, magnetite, i>ectolite, platinum minerals, 
psilomelane, pyrolnsite, siderite, sulphur, talc, wollastonite. 

Trinity County. — Andradite, arseuopyrite, asbestos, aznrite, baritc, bieberite, born- 
ite, calcite, cassitei'ite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chix)mite, cinnabar, claudetite, 
cuprite, diamond, enstatite. epidote. fil)roferrite, galena, garnet, glaucophane, 
uold, goslarite. gypsum, hematite, hessite. hornblende, ilmenite, jasper, magnet- 
ite, malachite, mercury, meteorite. niolyb<lenite, olivine, orpiment, platinum 
miuerals. pyrite, pyrrliotite. realgar, riimerite. serpentine, sphalerite, stibnite, 
sulphur, sylvanite, talc, titanite. tourmaline, wollastonite, zircon. 

Tiilaie County. — Agate, alexandrolite, allanite. anuabergite, arseuopyrite, asbestos, 
asbolite, calcite, californite, chalcopyrite, chromite, chrysopal, chrysoprase, coi> 
l)er, cuprite, diatomaceous earth, epidote, galena, garnet, graphite, gypsum, 
ilmeuite, jefferisite. lininnite, magnesite, magnetite, mnlacolite, minium, molyb- 
denite, nepheline, oital. orthoclase. perthite. p.vromorphitc, quartz, rhodonite, 
rock cr.vstal, rose (luartz. satelite, scheelite, soda niter, sphalerite, stibnite, 
stilbite, sulphur, talc, tourmaline, tremolite, wollastonite, wood opal. 

Tuolumne County. — Albiti". altaite, aukerite. aragouite, ai"seuopyrite, asbestos, 
aznrite, Ixn-thieritc, beryl, calcite, chalcanthite, chalcociti', clialcopyrite, chromite, 
cinnabar, coloradoite. cixiuimlute, cristobalite. c\iprite, cyanite, diallage, dolo- 
mite, (lumortierit(>. enstatite. epidote. erytlirile. galena, uarni't. gold, grai)hite, 
gypsnm, hematite, hessite, ilmeuite, jasper, kalinite, magnetite, malachite, man- 
ganite, marble, mariposite, molybdenite, molybdite, orthoclase, petzite, psilo- 
melane, pyrite, pyrolusite, pyrrhotite, quartz, rhodonite, scheelite, serpentine, 
sphalerite, sylvanite, talc, tellurium, tetradymite, tetrahedrite. tin. tourmaline, 
tremolite, tridymite, wollastonite, wood opal. 

Wntura County. — Boussingaultite, colemanite, galena, gypsum, halloysite, hydro- 
boracite, lenzinite, rac.solite, millerite, molybdenite, muscovite, petroleum, i>lat- 
inuni sands, priceite, sulphur. 

Yolo County. — Asbestos, cinuabar, limonite, metacinnabarite. 

Yuba County. — Bauxite, calcite. chalcopyrite, chromite, enstatite, epidote, gold, 
hematite, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, molybdenite, olivine, pilolite, platinum 
sands, rutile. serpentine, .sylvanite, talc, tremolite. vivianite, zircon. 




Algek, F. 

1. Crystallized Gold from California; Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 1850, H, 266. 
Amer. Journ. Sci. 1850, 10, 101. 

Ali.en, E. T. 

1. Analysis of salt from Saltou ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bnll. 220. 

Andeusox, O. 

]. Advcnturine LabradoritP from California; Am. Mineral. I'.UT, ,^ i>l. 

Anderson, R. 

1. Preliminary report on the geology and oil resources of the Canlna-Panoche 
region; U. S. Geol. Snrv. Bull. 4:51. p. 58. 

Arents, a. 

1. Partzite — a new mineral ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1867, .{3, 362. 

Arnold, R. 

1. Geology and oil resources of the Summerland district; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 


2. The Miner ranch oil field, Contra Costa County ; ibid.. Bull. 340. 

Ak.\(,'i.I) and Anderson, li. 

1. Preliminary report on the Santa Maria oil district; ibid.. Bull. 317. 

2. (leology and oil resources of the Santa Maria oil district ; ibid.. Bull. 322. 
;}. Goology and oil resources of the Coalinga district; ibid.. Bull. 308. 

Au.N(ji,o and Johnson, H. R. 

1. Sodium sulphate in Soda Lake, Carissa Plains; ibid.. Bull. 380, p. 369. 

2. I'reliminary report on the McKittrick-Sunset oil region ; ibid.. Bull. 406. 

Aezruni, a. 

1. L'eber einen Colemanit Krystall ; Zeits. fiir Krystallographie 1884, 10, 272. 

Ayers, E. F. 

1. Mineralogical Notes ; Amer. Journ. Sci. 1889, 37, 235. 

2. Notes on the Crj-stallization of Trona ; ibid., 38, 65. 

Bailey, G. E. 

1. The Saline Deposits of California: Cal. Stato Min. Bureau, Bull. 24. 


3. Kunzite, a new Gem; Science 1903, 18, 303. 


1. Kunzite and its unique Properties ; Amer. Journ. Sci. 1904, 18, 25. 


1. Ueber sog. anomale Aetzfiguren an monoklinen Krystallen, inbesondere am 

Colemanit ; Zeits. fiir Kryst. 1899, 30, 97. 

2. l'eber die Winkelverhjlltnisse des Beuitoit ; Centralhlatt fiir Min. Geol. mid 

Pal. 1909, .^)92. 

Becker, G. F. 

1. The Geology of the Quicksilver Deposits of the Pacific Slope; U. S. Geo!. Sui-v. 
Mon. Xlir. 1888. 



Bkbtkand, E. 

1. Ziimober vou ("Hlifoniieu ; Zeits. fiir Kiyst. 1878; 2, 199; Bull. Soc. Fr. Miii. 
1881, -). 87. 

Blakk, J. M. 

1. On the Crystallization of Natural Hydraled Terpin from California ; Amer. 

Jour. Sci. 18G7, (2), J,3, 202. 

2. Roscoelite, a Vanadium Mica; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1875, 6, 150; Amer. Jour. 

Sci. 1876, (3), 12, 31. 

Blake, W. P. 

1. Report on a Geological Reconnoissance in California ; Pac. \\. \\. Kept. 1853, 5. 

2. Quick.silvor Mine of Alamadon, California ; .Vnu'r. Jour. Sci. 18.54, (2) ./7, 438. 

3. Observations on the E.xteut of the Gold UeRiou of California and Oregon ; 

Amer. Jour. Sci. 1855, (2), 20, 72. 

4. Memoir on the Geolojry of the Coast of California ; U. S. Coast Surv. Rept. 1855. 

5. Notes on the Occurrence of Telluret of Silver in California ; Proc. Cal. Acad. 

Sci. 1857, 1, 107; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1857. (2), 23, 270. 
0. Report on the Minerals of the Mechanics Fair Exposition of California; Min. 
and Sci. Press, 1804, 10, 264. 

7. New Mineral Oil Region in Tulare Valley ; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1865, 3, 193. 

8. Note on the occurrence of Sphene in the Granites of the Sierra Nevada; ihUL, 


9. Annotated Catalog of Principal Mineral Species hitherto recognized in Cali- 

fornia ; Report State Board of Agric. 1866. 

10. Mineral Notes No. 2; I'roc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1866. 3, 297. 

11. Crystallized Gold in California ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1866, (2), ///, 120. 

12. Note on Parlzite; ihkl. 1867. (2), -'/'/. 119. 

13. Note on the Geographical Distribution and Geology of the Precious Metals and 

Valuable Minerals of the Pacific Slope; Cal. Senate and Assembly Jour. 
1866, 3, 314. 

14. Note sur les gisemeuts de ciuabre de la Californie et du Nevada ; Bull. Soc. 

Fr. Min. 1878, 1, 81. 

15. Rare Minerals recently found in the State ; 2d Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. 

16. Ulexite in California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1881, (3), 22, 323. 

Blasd.\le, W. C. 

1. (Contributions to the Mineralogy of California; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 
1901, 2, 327. 


1. Notes on Haaksite ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1889, (3), 38, 164. 

BoDEWiG, C. and vom Rath, G. 

1. Colemanit aus Californien ; /eit.s. fiir Kryst. 1884, W, 179. 

Bradley, \V. M. 

1. On the Analysis of the Mineral Neptunite from San Benito County; Zeits. fiir 
Kryst. 1909, 'i6, 516. 

Brai)Ij;y, AV. W. 

1. IMines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Colusa, Fresno, Glenn, Kings, 

Lake. Madera, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, and Yolo. Cal. State Min. 
Bur. 14th Rept., State Mineralogist, 1913-1914. 

2. Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Monterey, San Benito, San 

Luis Obisixi, Santa Barliara. and Ventura ; Ihid. 15th Ropt. State Mineralo- 
gist, 1915-1916. 

3. (.Jnicksilvcr Resources of California. Bull. 78, Cal. State Min. P.'ur. 1918. 

3(58 STATE MINING BUREAU., W. W., Huguenin, E., Logan, ('. A., Tuckeu, W. D. and Waring, C. A. 

1. IVfiiugaut-so nn«l Ohi-oniinm in Pnliroriiia. C.-il. St:ito iMin. P.iir. Bull. 70. 101S. 

Breitiiaupt, a. 

1. Gediegen Gold aus Australien und Californien ; Berg und hiitten, Zeituag 1853, 
12, 613. 

Bitowx, G. C. 

1. Minos and Minora! Rosources of tlio Coniitics of Kcni, Shasta. Siski.vou and 
Trinity: Cal. Slato Min. Bur. lltli U>']>i. Stato Mineralogist, 1013-11)14. 

Brown, G. S. 

1. Bernardinite: Is it a Mineral or Fungus V Amer. Jour. Sci. 1S91, (3), .'i2, 46. 

Brush, G. J. 

1. Ouvarovite; Amor. Jour. Sci. 1866, (2), 42, 268. 


1. Der Mineralreichthum Californiens und der angrenzenden Staateu und Terri- 

torien; Berg, und hiitten, Zeitung 1S69, 28, 3, 21, 51, S3, 94, 103. 

2. Die Goldlagerstatten Californiens ; Neues Jahrb. fur Min. 1870, 21, 129. 

3. Borax in don wostlichon Staaton von Nordamerioa : ihid., 1S74, 716. 

Calkins, F. C. 

1. .Molybdonilo noar IJiiinniia, San Diogo County. (Jaiifornia; V. S. (Jool. Sur\. 

Bull. (;40. 
'J.. An (iccurroncc of nickel ore \\\ San I >ii'g(> Couuly. ('aliforuia; lhi<l. Bull. (UO. 

Ca-Upbell, M. R. 

1 . Iloconnaissance of the Borax Deposits of Death Valley and Mojave Desert ; 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 200. 

2. Borax Deposits of Eastern California ; ihid.. Bull. 213. 

3. Coal of San Benito County; ibid.. Bull. 4.S1. 


1. On Urao; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1889, (3), 3S, 59; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 60. 

2. Natural Soda, Its Occurrence and ITtilization ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 60. 

Clarke, F. W. 

1. Analysis of Halloysite ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 9. 

2. A New Occurrence of Gyrolite ; ihid.. Bull. 64; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1889, (3), 38, 


3. Note on Garnet from California; Amor. Jour. Sci. 1895, (3), 50, 76. 

Clarke, F. W., and Steiger, G. 

1. On Californite; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 262., H. C. 

1. Mines and Mineral Resources of the County of San Bernardino; Cal. Stato 
Min. Bur. 1.1th Ropt. State Mineralogist. 1915-1916. 

Crawford, J. J. 

1. Twelfth Annual Rept. Cal. State Mineralogist; 1892-94. 

2. Thirteenth Annual Rept. Cal. State ISIineralogist ; 1894-96. 

Dana, E. S. 

1. The Crystallization of Gold; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1886, (3), 32, 132; Zeits. fiir 

Kryst. 1886, 12, 278. 

2. System of Mineralogy; 1892. 


Dana, E. S. and Pe.npield, S. L.. 

1. Mineralogioal Notes; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1885, (3). SO, 136; 5th Ann. Rept. Cal. 
State Min. 1885, 65. 

Dana, J. D. 

1. Gold in California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1849, (2), 7, 125. 

2. Notes on Upper California; ihid.. 247 

3. System of Mineralogy ; 1868. 

Davis, R. O. E. 

1. Analysis of Kunzlte ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1904, (4), 18, 29. 

Day, D. T. and Richards, R. H. 

1. Investigation of the black sands from placer mines ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 285. 

Deville, H. St. C. and Debray, II. 

1. Du Platine et des Motaux qui Taccompaguent ; Ann. des Chem. et de Phys. 
1859, 56, 385. 

Dilleb, J. S. 

1. Gold in Calcite; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1S90, (3), 39, 160. 

2. Notes on the Geology of Northern California; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 33. 

3. Educational Series of Rocks ; Hid.. Bull. 150. 

4. Iron and Copper Ores of the Redding Quadrangle; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 213. 
.". (loology of tho Taylorsvillc Region, California; ihid. 

fi. Auriferous Gravels in the Woaverville Quadrangle, California ; ihid. Bull. 

DuBois, P. C, Anderson. F. M.. Tibbitts. J. II.. and Tweedy. G. A. 
1. The Copper Resources of Califoniia. Cal. State Min. B'ur. Bull. 23. lHOl'. 


1. Notes on Crystals of Quartz Containing Cinnabar; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1868- 

72, /,, 211. 

2. Description of a new mineral from the New Almaden mine ; ihid.. 218. 

3. Notes on the Crystallization of Metacinnabarite; ihid.. 219. 

Eakle. a. S. 

1. Mineralogical Notes; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1901, 2, 315. 

2. Colemanite ; ihid., 1902, 3, 31. 

3. Palacheite; ihid., 1903, 3, 231. 

4. On the Identity of Palacheite and Botryogen ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1903, (4), 16, 


5. Phosphorescent Sphalerite ; Min. and Sci. Press 1904, 88, 64. ' 

6. Notes on Lawsonitc, Columbite. Bei-yl, Barite and Calcite ; Bull. Dept. Geol. 

Univ. Cal. 1907. .'). 81. 

7. Notes on Some California Minerals ; ihid., 1908, 5, 225. 

8. Neocolemanile, a Variety of Colemanite and Howlite ; from Lang, Los Angeles 

Co., ihid., 1911, 6, 179. 

9. Xanthophyllite in Crystalline Limestone ; Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 1916, 6, 332. 

10. Minerals Associated with the Crystalline Limestone at Crestmore. Riverside 

County, California. Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1917, 10. .327. 

11. Vonsenite, a Preliminarj' Note on a New Mineral; Am. Mineral, ]920, .'>, 141. 

12. Jurupaitc. a New Mineral, ihid., 1821, 6, 107. 

13. Occurrence of Massive Troilite ; ibid., 1922, 7. 

14. Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Alpine and Mono. Cal. State 

Min. Bur. loth Rept., State Mineralogist. 1915-1916. 


Eaklk, a. S. and Rogers, A. F. 

1. Wilkeite, a New Mineral of the Apatite Group, and Okenite, Its Alteration 
Product ; from Southern California ; Amer. Joum. Sci. 1914, 37, 262. 

Eakle, a. S. and Shabwood, W. J. 

1. Ivuminescent Zincblende ; Eng. and Miu. Journ. 1904, 67, 1000. 

Eckel, E. C. 

1. Salt deposits of California and Utah ; U. S. Geol. Snrv. Bull. 213. 

Edman, J. A. 

1. Gold-bearing Black Sands of California ; Min. and Sci. Press, llKM. 

2. The Auriferous Black Sands of California ; Cal. State Min. Bur. Bull. 45. 

Eldridge, G. H. 

1. Petroleum Fields of California; U. S. Geol. Surv. Full. 2in. 

Eldridge, G. H. and Arnold, R. 

1. The Santa Clara Valley, Puenta Hills and T.os Angeles Oil District ; U. S. 
Geol. Surv. Bull. 309. 

Emory, W. H. 

J. Notes on a Military Kecounaissauce from Fort Leavenworth in Missouri ff> 
San Diego, California; U. S. Senate Ex. Doc. 1S4S ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1848, 
(2), 6, 389. 

Erman, a. 

1. Geologische Verhilltnisse von Californieu ; Arch, fiir, wiss. Kunde von Russ. 

1850, 7, 713. 

2. Geographische Verbreitung des Goldes ; ibid, 725. 

Abstracts Neues Jahrb. fiir ]Min. 1850, 359, 494. 

Evans, J. T. 

1. Colemanite ; Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1884, 1, 57. 

2. Chemical Properties and Relations of Colemanite ; ibid., 1885, 2, 37. 

Fairbanks, H. W. 

1. Geology of the Mother Lode ; 10th Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. 1890. 

2. Geology and Mineralogy of Shasta County ; 11th Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. 

.3. On Analcite Diabase From San Luis Obispo County; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. 

Cal. 1895, 1, 273. 
4.^ The Geology of Point Sal ; ibid., 1896, 2, 1. 
5* The Tin Deposits of Temescal, Southern California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1897, (4), 

J,, 39. 

Ferguson, H. G. 

1. Gold Lodes of the Weaverville Quadrangle, California ; T^. S. Geol. Snrv. Bull. 

Foote, H. W. and Langley, R. W. 

1. On an Indirect Method of Determining Niobium and Tantalum. Amer. Jour. 
Sci. 1910, 30, H9S. 

Foote, W. M. 

1. Preliminary Note on a New Alkali Mineral; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1895, (S), 50, 480. 



Ford, W, E. 

1. On the Chemical Composition of Dumortierite ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 15X)2, (4), 

i-J, 426; Zeils. fiir Kryst. 1!)03, 37, 417. 

2. Neptunite Crystals from San Benito County ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1900, 27, 235. 

3. Notes on the Analysis of Stibiotantalite. Amer. Jour. t<ci. 1J>11, 32, 2M. 


1. The Quicksilver Krsourc.s of California. Cal. State Miii. Hiir. Bull. 27, 1903. 

FoKSTNER, W., IIoi'Ki.NS, T. C, Makamoke. C aud EuuY, L. II. 

1. The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Cal. State Min. I'.ur. 
Bull. 38, 1900. 


1. Ulexite from Lang, California ; Am. Mineral, 1918, 3, 35. 

2. Thaumasite and Spurrite from Crestmore, California: ihid. 1920, 5, SO. 

3. riazolite, a New Mineral ; ibid. 1920, 5, 183. 

4. Sulphohalite from Searles Lake; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1920, 49, 76. 

5. Aphthitalite (Glaserite) from Searles Lake; ihid. '/D, 367. 

Foster, E. LeN. 

1. Production of Carbonate of Soda from the Alkaline Waters of Owens Lake, 
Proc. Colo. Sci. Soc. 1890, 3, 245. 

Gale, H. S. 

1. The Lila C Borax Mine at Ryan, Cal. ; U. S. Min. Res. 1911, 861. 

2. The Origin of Colemanite Deposits ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, 85, 1913. 

3. Borate Depo.'^its in Ventura County, Cal. ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 540, 1913. 

4. Prospecting for Potash in Death Valley, California; ibid, Bull. 540. 

5. Salt, Borax and Potash in Saline Valley, Inyo County, California; ihid, Bull. 


6. Sodium Sulphate in the Carrizo IMain. San Luis Obispo County, Califoniia : 

ibid. Bull. 540. 

7. Late developments of magnesite deposits in California and Nevada; ibid, Bull. 


Gai.e, H. S., and Hicks, W. B'. 

1. Octahedral Crystals of Sulphohalite. Amer. Jour. Sci. 1914, 88, 273. 

Genth, F. a. 

1. On a Probably New Element with Iridosmine and Platinum from California; 

Proc. Phila. Acad. Sci. 18.52, //, 209; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1853, (2), 15, 246. 

2. Contributions to Mineralogy ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1859, (2), 28, '246. 

3. Observations on Certain Doubtful Minerals ; Proc. Phila. Acad. Sci. 1867, 19, 86. 

4. Contributions to Mineralogy, No. 7; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1868, (2), //.5, 305. 

5. On some American Vanadium Minerals ; ibid, 1876, (3) , 12, 32. 

6. Roscoelite ; Chem. News 1876, S'l, 78. 

7. Contributions to Mineralogy, No. 29 ; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 1887, 2^, 23. 

8. Contributions to Mineralogy, No. 54; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1892, (3), 44, 381. 

Giles, W. B. 

1. Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and Howlite from California; Mineral 
Magazine 1903, 13, 353. 

Goldsmith, E. 

1. Trautwineite — a new mineral ; Proc. Phila. Acad. Sci. 1873, 25, 9. 

2. The Composition of Trautwineite ; ibid. 348. 

3. Analysis of Chromite from Monterey County ; ihid, 365. 

4. Stibioferrite, a new mineral from Santa Clara County ; ihid, 366. 

5. On Sonomaite ; ibid, 28, 263. 

6. On Boussingaultite and other minerals from Sonoma County ; ibid, 264. 



1. Geology of several California counties ; 8th Ann. Rept. Cal. State. Min. 1888. 

Geaton, L. C. 

]. Copper deposits of Shasta County; U. S. Gool. Surv. Bull. 430. 

Gkaton, L. C, aud McLaughlin, D. H. 

1. Ore Deposition and Enrichment at Engels, California; Econ. Geol. 1917, l.i, J. 

Graton, L. C, and Schaller. W. T. 

1. Purpurite, a new mineral; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1905, (4), 20, 14G. 

GtriLu, F. N. 

1. Minoralogische Notizen. Zeits. fiir Ki-yst. 1911, //9, 321. 

Guild. F. N., and Wartman, F. S. 

1. Wulfeuite from Lavic, California. Am. Mineral, 1921, 6, KiT. 

Gutzkow, F. 

1. Analysis of Hydromagnesite from Livermore ; 6th Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. 


Hamilton, Fletcher. 

1. HoiK)rt XIV, State Mineralogist, 1913-1914. Includes Mines aud Mineral Re- 

sources of the Counties of Amador. Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, Fi'esno, 
Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Kern, Kings, Lake, Madera, Marin, Mariposa, 
Mendocino, Merced, Napa, San Diego, San Joaquin, Shasta, Siskiyou, So- 
lano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Trinity and Tuolumne. 

2. Report XV, State Mineralogist, 1915-1916. Includes Mines and Mineral Re- 

sources of the Counties of Alpine, Butte, El Dorado, Inyo, Lassen, I^os An- 
geles, Modoc, Mono, Monterey, Orange, Placer, Riverside, Sacramento, San 
Benito, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Sutter. Tehama, 
Tulare, Ventura and Yuba. 

3. Report XVI. 

4. Report XVII. State Mineralogist ; Mining in California During 1920. 

Hanks, H. G. 

1. Notes on Cuproscheelite ; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1873, 5, 133. 

2. Notes on Roscoelite ; Min. and Sci. Press 1881, ^2, 428. 

3. 1st Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1880-81. 

4. 2d Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1882. 

5. 3d Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1883. 

6. 4th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1884. 

7. 5th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1885. 

S. 6th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist; Part I, 1886. 
9. Occurrence of Hanksite in California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1889, (3), 37, 63. 
10. On a new variety of Gay Lussite from San Bernardino County ; Min. and Sci. 
Press 1892, G-'u 222. 

Harder, E. C. 

1. Manganese Deposits of the United States ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 427, 1910. 

2. Iron and Manganese, and also Gypsum of California; ibid. Bull. 430. 

Hausmann, a., Kruttschnitt, J., Jr., Thome, W. E., and E'dman, J. A. 
1. The Copper Resources of California ; California State Min. Bur. Bull. 50, 1908. 


Hess. F. L. 

1. The working magnesite deposits of California ; Eug. Mag. 1906, 31, 691. 

2. The magnesite deposits of California; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 355, 1908. 

3. A Reconnaissance of the Gypsum Deposits of California ; ibid, Bull. 413. 

4. Tungsten-bearing vein near Raymond; Molybdenite at Corona; ibid. Bull. 340. 

5. Gypsum deposits near Cave Springs ; ibid. Bull. 430. 

0. Tungsten Minerals and Deposits, l'. S. (ieol. Surv. Bull. 652. 
7. (.Jypsum Deposits in California: ibid. Bull. 697. 

niDDF.N. W. E. 

1. Uu Ilanksite, a new anhydrous sulfato-carbouate of sodium from San Ber- 

nardino County; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1885, (3), 80, 133; Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 
1885, S, 328 ; 5th Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. 1885, 62. 

HiDDKN, W. E., and Mackintosh. J. B. 

1. Sulphohalite, a new sodium sulpliato-chloride ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1888, (3), 36, 

463 ; Zeits. fiir Kryst. 1889, 15, 294. 

2. Mineralogical Notes; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1891, (3), Jfl, 438. 


1. Mineralogical Notes: Melonite (?), Coloradoite, Petzite and Hessite; Amer. 
Jour. Sci. 1899, (4), 8, 295. 

HiLLiBRAND, W. F., TURNER, H. W., and Clarke, F. W. 
1. On Roscoelite; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1899, (4), 7, 451. 


1. Colemanit, ein krystallisirtes Kalkborat aus Californien ; Zeits. fiir Kryst. 1884, 
10, 25. 

Hlawatsch, C. 
1. Die Krystallform des Benitoits ; Centralblatt fiir Min. Geol. Pal. 1909, 293. 


1. California Gold; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1849, (2), 8, 449. 

Holway. R. S. 

1. Eclogites in California; Jour, of Geol. 1904, 12, 351. 


1. Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Inyo, San Bernardino, Santa 
Barbara and Ventura; Cal. State Min. Bur. 15th Ropt. State Mineralogist, 

Hunt, T. S. 

1. On the recent formation of Quartz and on Silification in California ; Amer. 
Jour. Sci. 1880, (3), 19, 371. 

Hutchinson, A. 

1. On the identity of Neocolemanite with Colemanite ; Min. Mag., 1912, 16, 239. 

Irelan, W. 

1. 6th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist; Part II, 1886. 

2. 7th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1887. 

3. 8th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1888. 

4. 9th ^Vnnual Report of the State Mineralogist; 1889. 

5. loth Annual Report of the State Mineralogist: lSiH>. 

6. 11th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist ; 1891-92. 


Jackson, A. W. 

1. On Colemanite, a new Borate of Lime; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1884, (3), 28, 447. 

2. On the Morphology of Colemanite; Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1885, 2, 3. 

3. Mineralogical Contributions ; ibid, 1886, 4, 358. 

Jamieson, G. S. 

1. On the Natural Iron-nickel Alloy, Awaruite ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1905, (4), 19, 

Kemp, J. F. 

1. Geological Relations and Distribution of Platinum and Associated Metals ; U. S. 
Geol. Surv. Bull. 193, 1902. 

Knopf, A. 

1. Notes on the Foothill Copper-belt of the Sierra Nevada ; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. 

Cal. 1906, //, 411. 

2. Mineral Resources of the Inyo and White Mountains, California ; U. S. Geol. 

Sun-. Bull. 540. 

3. Tungsten Deposits of Northwestern Inyo County. California : ibid. Bull. 640. 
4i. Strontiauite Deiwsits near Baretow, California ; ibid. Bull. 660. 

5. An Andalusite INIass in the pre-Carabrian of Inyo Range, California ; Jour. 
Wash. Acad. Sci. 1917, 7, 549. 

Knopf, A., and Thelen, P. 
1. Sketch of the Geology of Mineral King, California; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. 
Cal. 1905, .'i, 227. 


1. Analysis of Mountain soap ; Proc. Phila. Acad. Sci. 1878, 30, 405. 

Kboustchoff, K. de. 

1. Note sur une hypgrite a structure porphyrique de I'Amgrique ; Bull. Soc. Fr. 
Min. 1885, 8, 11. 

KUNZ, G. F. 

1. Mineralogical Notes on Brookite, Octahedrite, Quartz and Ruby ; Amer. Jour. 

Sci. 1892, (3), 45, 329. 

2. Octahedrite (Anatase) from Placerville, El Dorado County; Mineral Mag. 1901, 

9, 394. 

3. On a new lilac-colored transparent Spodumene ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1903, (4), 

16, 264. 

4. Califomite (Vesuvianite) ; ibid. 397. 

5. Bismuth and Bismuth-ocher from Pala ; ibid. 398. 

6. Precious Stones of the United States ; U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 188^1906. 

7. Gems of California ; Bull. 37 Cal. State Min. Bur. 


1. Tellurite of Gold and Silver ; Min. and Sci. Press 1865, 10, 306. 

Larsen. E. S. 

1. Proof that Priceite is a Distinct Mineral Species ; Am. Mineral. 1917, 2, 1. 

2. Masicot and Litharge, the Two Modifications of Lead Monoxide ; ibid, 2, IS. 

3. Durdenite from California ; ibid, 2, 45. 

4. Hydrogiobertite — Evidence that it is a Mixture : Amer. Jour. Sci. 1917, JfS. 3. 

5. Eakleite. A New Mineral from California: ibid, 1917, JfS, 401. 

6. The Microscopic Determination of the Nonapaque Minerals ; U. S. Geol. Surv, 

Bull. 679. 


Larsk.v, E. S.. aud Fosuag, W. V. 

1. Menvinito. a New Cakium-MairiK'sinni Orthosilicato from Orestmore, Califor- 
nia. Am. Mineral. 1!>21. 6', 143. 

IxARSF.x, E. S. and Hicks, W. B. 

1. Searlesito. a Now Minfral. Aiikm-. .lour. Sti. I'.tl4. J(S', -i'Al. 

I..ABSK.N, E. S.. and Shannon, E. V. 

1. Houssinjiaultito from Soulh Mountain, near Santa I'auhi, California. Am. 
Mineral. 1920, 5, 127. 

Lawson, a. C. 

1. Geology of Carmelo Bay; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1893, 1, 1. 

2. Sketch of the Geology of the San Francisco Peninsula; 15th Ann. Rept. U. S. 

Geol. Surv. 1893, 405. 

3. Plumasite; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1903, 3, 219. 

4. Orbicular Gabbro at Dehesa ; San Diego County ; ibid. 1904, 3, 383. 

LeConte, J., and Rising, W. B. 

1. The Phenomena of Metalliferous Vein formation now in progress at Sulphur 
Bank, California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1882, (3), 2.'i, 23. 

lilNDGBEN, W. 

1. The Silver mines of Calico, California; Trans. Araer. Inst. Min. Eng. 1887, 

15, 717. 

2. Contributions to the Mineralogy of the Pacific Coast ; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 

1888, (2), 1, 1. 

3. Gold Deposit at Pine Hill; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1892, (3), U, 92. 

4. Gold-Silver veins of the Ophir District; 14th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 

1892-93, Part 2, 249. 

5. Auriferous Veins of Meadow Lake; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1893, (3). Jf6, 201. 

6. The Gold Quartz veins of Nevada City and Grass Valley ; 17th Ann. Rept. 

U. S. Geol. Surv. 1895-96, Part 2, 13. 

7. The Tertiary Gravels of the Sierra Nevada of California ; U. S. Geol. Surv. 

1911, Prof. Paper 73. 

Logan, C. A. 

1. Mines aud Mineral Resourofs of the Counties of San Bonito and San Luis 
Obispo; Cal. State MLn. Bur. loth Rept. State Mineralogist, 1915-191G. 


1. Benitoite, a new mineral Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1907, 5, 149. 

2. Benitoite, its paragenesis and mode of occurrence; ibid. 1909, 5, 331. 

LowEix, F. L. 

1. Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendo- 
cino. Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus; Cal. State Min. Bur. 
14th Rept. State Mineralogist, 1913-1914. 

Lyman, C. S. 

1. Mines of Cinnabar in Upper California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1848, (2), 6, 270. 

2. Obser\'ations in California; ibid, 1849, (2), 7, 291, 305, 309. 

3. Platinum and Diamonds in California ; ibid, 8, 294. 

4. Notes on the California Gold Fields ; ibid. 415. 

5. Gold of California ; ibid. 9, 126. 


MacDonald, D. F. 

1. The Weaven'ille-Trinitj' Center Gold (iravels, Trinitj- County. California ; 

U. S. Geol. Sun-. Bull. 430. 

2. Notes on the Gold Lodes of the Carrville District, Trinity County, California ; 

ibid, Bull. 530. 

McLaughlin, K. P. 

1. Mines and Mineral Resources of the County of Madera ; Cal. State Min. Bur. 

14th Rept. State Mineralogist, 1913-1914. 

2. Mines and Mineral Resources of the County of Mono ; ibid, 15th Rept. State 

Mineralogist, 1915-1916. 


1. A Discovery of Celestite. Min. and Sci. rre.«s. 1916, 113, 952. 

Mathewson, J. D. 

1. Vorkommen von Tellurgold und Tellursilber in Californien ; Berg and hiitten 
Zeitung 1865, 2-',, 374. 

Melville, W. H. 

1. Metacinnabarite from New Almaden ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1890, (3), J^O, 291; 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 78, 1889-90. 

2. Mlneralogical Notes ; ibid, Bull. 90. 

Melville, W. H., and Lindgben. W. 

1. Contributions to the Mineralogy of the Pacific Coast; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 
61, 1890. 

Merrill, F. J. H. 

1. Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Imperial and San Diego ; 

Cal. State Min. Bur. 14th Rept. State Mineralogist, 1913-1914. 

2. Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Los Angeles, Orange, River- 

side and San Bernardino, ibid. l.")th Rept. State Mineralogist, 1915-lW-O. 

Merrill, G. P. 

1. On a new meteorite from San Emigdio Range, San Bernardino County, Cali- 
fornia. Amer. Journ. Sci., ISSS, 35, 490. 

Moore, G. E. 

1. On the occurrence in nature of amorphous Mercuric sulphide ; Amer. Jour. 
Sci. 1872, (3), S, 36. 

Moore, G. E., and Zepiiabovich, V. 

1. Kallait pseudomorph nach Apatit aus Californien; Zeits. fiir Kryst. 1884, 10, 


1. Colemanit von Californien; Zeits. fiir Kryst. 1888, i'/, 230. 


1. Contribution to the Classification of the Amphiboles : On some Glaucophane 
schists, syenites, etc. ; Bull. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1906, 4, 359. 

Obcutt, C. R. 

1. Minerals of the Colorado Desert ; 10th Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. 1890. 

Owens, D. D. 

1. Notice of a new mineral from California; Proc. Phila. Acad. Sci. 1852, 6, 108. 


Pack. U. W. 

1. Ornamental Marl)li^ noar Rai-stow, California: U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 540. 

Palache, C. 

1. Soda Rhyolite north of Berkeley; Bull. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1893. 1, Gl. 

2. Lherzolite-Serpentine and associated rocks of the Potrero, San Francisco ; ibid, 

1894, i, 161. 

3. liock from the vicinity of Berkeley containing a new Amphibole ; ibid. 1894, 

1, ISl. 

4. Note on the crystal form of Benitoite ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1909, 27, 398. 

Pembkbton, H. 

1. Chromite ; Chem. News, 1891, 63, 241. 

Penfield, S. L. 

1. Crystallized Tiemannite and Metaciunabarite ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1885, (3), 29. 


2. Notes on the CiTstallography of Metaciunabarite; ibid, 1S92, (3), Z/^, 381. 

Pk.nfikld, S. L., and Jamikson, G. S. 

1. Tychite, a new mineral from Borax Lake; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1905, (4), 20, 217. 

PUAI.K.N, W. C. 

1. Cclestite DeiKisits in ('alifornia nnd .Vrizona ; I'. S. (Jcdl. Surv. P.ull. -Vto. 

Phii.i.iI'.s. J. A. 

L Notes on the eheuiioal geology of tlio Gold Fields of California; Proc. Koy 
Soc. London 1868, 16, 294; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1869, (2), //7, 134. 

Pratt. J. H. 

1. On Northupite, Pirssonite — a new mineral — Gay Lussite and Hanksite, from 
Borax Lake, San Bernardino Coiuity ; Amor. Jour. Sci. 1896, (4), 2, 123. 

Pbescott, B. 

1. Ilvaite, from Shasta County, California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1908, 26, 14. 

Pbestox, E. B. 

1. Geology of Tehama County; 10th Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. 1890. 

Price. T. 

1. Analysis- of Colemanite from Death Valley; 3d Ann. Rept. Cal. State. Min. 

Prutzman, p. W. 

L P.-troleura in Southern California: Cal. State Min. Bur. 1913, Bull. 69. 


1. On lonite, a new mineral; Min. and Sci. Press 1877, S//, 184; Amer. Jour. 
Sci. 1878, (3), i6, 153. 

Ransome, F. L. 

1. The Eruptive Rocks of Point Bouita ; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1893, 1, 71. 

2. On Lawsonite, a New Rock-forming Mineral ; ibid, 1895, 1, 301. 

Raymond, R. W. 

1. IMines and Mining in the States and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains ; 
5th Ann. Rept. U. S. Com. Min. Statistics, 1873. 


Reid, J. A. 

1. Igneous Rocks near Pajaro, California ; Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1902, 3, 173. 

2. The Ore Deposits of Copperopolis, California ; Econ. Geol. 1907, 2, 3S0. 

3. The East Country of the Mother Lode ; Min. Sci. Press, 1907, 9//, 279. 

4. Some Ore Deposits in the Inyo Ranfje, California ; ibid, 1907, 95, 80. 

RlCKAKl), T. A. 

1. Certain Dissimilar Occurrences of Cold-beai-iug Quartz ; Proc. Colo. Sci. Soc. 
1891, 1892, 1893, J,, 328. 

Rogers, A. F. 

1. Miueralogical Notes ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1901, 12, 42. 

2. Note on the Crystalform of Benitoite ; Science, 1908, G16. 

3. Minerals from the Pegmatite Veins of Rincon, San Diego County ; Sch. Mines 

Quart. 1910, 31, 208. 

4. Eglestonite from San Mateo County ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1911, 32, 48. 

5. Notes on rare minerals from California; School of. Mines Quart. 1912, 33, 373. 

6. The So-Called Graphic Intergrowths of Bornite and Chalcocito. Eoon. G<>ol. 

1916, 11, 512. 

7. The Occurrence of Cristobalite in California. Amer. Jour. Sci. 1918, -'/.J, 222. 

8. An American Occurrence of Periclase and its Bearing on the Origin and His- 

tory of Oalcite-Brucite Rocks. Amer. Joiir. St'i. 1918, -'/6', 581. 

9. An Interesting Occurrence of Manganese Minerals near San Jose, California ; 

Anwr. Jour. Sci. 1919, .)8. 443. 
10. Colcmanite Pseudomorphous after Inyoite, Death Valley. .Vni. MiniM'al. 1919, 
-J, 135. 


1. Les Gisemenls de Mercure de Californie; Ann. des Mines 1878, (7), I'l, 384. 

Root. E. W. 

1. On Enargite from the Morning Star Mine, Alpine County ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 
1868, (2), J,6, 201. 

RoscoE, H. E. 

1. On two new Vanadium Minerals ; Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1876, 25, 109. 


1. Minerals from Leona Heights ; Alameda Covinty ; Bull. Geol. Univ. Cal. 1903, 

3, 191. 

2. Spodumene from San Diego County ; ibid, 263. 

3. Notes on some California Minerals; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1904, (4), 17, 191. 

4. The Tourmaline Locality of Southern California ; Science 1904, 19, 266. 

5. Dumortierite ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1905, (4), 19, 211; Zeits. fiir Kryst. 1905, 

.',1, 19. 

6. Mineralogical Notes; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 202, 1905. 

7. Analyses of tourmaline and associated minerals from San Diego County; 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 419. 

8. Calcite Crystals with new forms; ibid. Bull. 420; Zeits. fiir Kryst. 1908, 

4-'h 324. 

9. Bismuth Ochers from San Diego County; Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1911, 33, 


10. Krystallographische Notizen ueber Albit, Phenakit und Neptunit, Zeits. fiir 

Kryst. 1911, -)8, 550. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 490. 

11. .Vxinite from California ; ibid, ^X. 148; U. S. (Jeol. Surv. Bull. 4!X">. 

12. Cuprodescloizite from California; Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 1911, 1, 149. 

13. Immense bloedite crj'stals; Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 1913, 3, 75. 


ScuAi.LEB, W. T. — Coutirmed. 

14. New manganese phosphates from the Gem Tourmaline Field of Southern Cali- 

fornia ; Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 1012, 2, 143. 

15. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tui-malingruppe, Zeits fiir Kryst. 1912, 51, 321. 
It;. luyoite and Mcyt'rhofferito, Two N<nv Calcium Borates. U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Bull. (UO. 

17. The Probable Identity of Mariposite and Alurgite. U. S. Geo. Surv. Bull. 610. 

18. Cassiterite from San Diego County. T'. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. G20. 

SCHALLEB, W. T., and Hillkbrand, W. F. 

1. Crystallosraphical and Chemical Notes on Lawsonite; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1904, 
(4), i?, 195. 


1. On a Meteoric Iron lately found in El Dorado County; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1S72, 

(3), 5, 348. 

2. Tincalconite (Borax) ; Bull. Soc. Fr. Min. 1878, 1, 144. 

3. On the Ivanpah Meteoric Iron; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1880, (3), 19, 381. 

4. Meteoric Iron from Trinity County; ibid, 1885, (3), 29, 469. 


1. Notes on the New Almaden Quicksilver mines; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1864, (2), 

3S, 190. 

2. On the Deep Placers of the South and Middle Yuba, Nevada County, etc. ; ibid, 

1865, (2), -',0. 1. 

3. Note on the California Diamond; ihid. 1867. (2), ^Z/, 119. 

4. Notes on the Grass Valley District; ibid, 2.36. 

5. Notice of a peculiar mode of Occurrence of Gold and Silver in the Foothills of 

the Sierra Nevada, especially at Whiskey Hill and Quail Hill; Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. 1867, 3, 349. 

6. Note on three new localities of Tellurium minerals in California; and on some 

Mineralogical Features of the Mother Lode ; ibid, 378. 

7. On the probable existence of Microscopical Diamonds with Zircon and Topaz 

in the sands of the Hydraulic Washings in California; Trans. Amer. Inst. 
Min. Eng. 1872, 1, 371; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1873, (3), 5, 384. 
S. Mineralogical Notes on Utah, California, and Nevada and a description of 
Priceite, a new Borate of Lime; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1873,' (3), 6, 126. 

Smith. J. L. 

1. Curious association of Garnet, Idocrase and Datolite ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1874, 
(3), S, 434. 

Smith, J. P. 

1. The Paragenesis of the Minerals in the Glaucophane Rocks of California; Proc. 
Amer. Philos. Soc. 1907, -'/.T, 184. 


1. I'cber das Vorkommen des natiirlichen Goldamalgams in Californien ; Zeits. 
der geolog. Gesellsch, 1854, 6, 243. 

Sterrett, D. B. 

1. Tourmaline from San Diego County; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1904, (4), 17, 459. 

2. Gems and Precious Stones; Min. Res. U. S. Geol. Survey 1906-1912. 

Stetei-eldt, C. a. 

1. Vorkommen von Tellurgold und Tellursilber in Californien ; Berg und hutten. 
Zeitung 1865. 2-i, 374. 


Stillman, J. M. 

1. A new mineral Ko«iu from San Bernardino County; Amer. Jonr. Sci. 1879, 
(8), 18, 57 and 1880, (3), 20, 93. 

Storms, W. H. 

1. Geology of Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties ; 11th Ann. Rept. Cal. 

State Min. 1891-92. 

2. New Scheelito Discovery. Min. and Sci. Press. 1910. JIS. 7<i8. 

3. Diamonds in California; ibid, 1917, //'/, 273. 

Teschemacher, J. E. 

1. Platinum of California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1850, (2), 10, 121. 

Tucker, W. B. 

1. Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Amador, Calaveras and Tuo- 

lumne ; Cal. State Min. Bur. 14th Rept. State Mineralogist. 1913-1914. 

2. .Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of El Dorado, Lassen, Modoc, 

Tehama and Tulare; ihiJ, 15th Rept. State Mineralogist, 1915-1910. 

Turner, II. W. 

1. The Rocks of the Sierra Nevada; 14th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Part 2, 


2. Notes on the Gold ores of California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1894, (3), //7, 467. 

3. Further notes on the Gold ores of California; ibid, 1895, (3). J,9, 374, 478. 

4. Further Contributions to the Geology of the Sierra Nevada ; 17th Ann. Rept. 

U. S. Geol. Surv. 1895, Part 1, 529. 

5. Notes on the Rocks and Minerals of California; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1898, (4), 

.7, 421. 

6. Occurrences of Diamonds in California ; Amer. Geol. 1899, 23, 182. 

7. Some Rock-forming Biotites and Amphiboles; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1899, (4), 7, 294. 

8. Notes on Unusual Minerals from the Pacific States; ibid, 1902, (4), IS, 343. 

Turner, H. W., and Melville, W. H. 

1. Geology of Mount Diablo Range; Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 1891, 2, 388. 

Tri!M;it. II. W., and Rogers, A. F. 

1. A (Teologic and' Microscopic Situdy of a Magnetic Copper Sulphide Deposit in 
Plumas ('ounty, California, and its Modilication by Ascending Secondary 
Enrichment. JEcon. Geol. 1914, 9, 3.59. 


1. A Bibliography relating to the Geology, Paleontology and Mineral Resources 
of California ; Bull. 30, Cal. State Min. Bur. 

VOM Ratu, G. 

1. Ueber Glauberit und Hanksit von San Bernardino County; Sitz. d. Niederrh. 
Gesell. fiir Nalur und Ileilkuude, Bonn 1887, 233. 


1. Posepnyt ; Verb. d. k. k. geol. Reichanst. 1877, 128. 

Waring, C. A. 

1. .Mines and ilineral Resources of the Counties of Butte, Inyo, Monterey, Placer, 
Sacramento, Sutter and Yuha : Cal. State Min. Bur. 1.5th Ropt. State 
Miiieralogist, 1915-191G. 

Waring, G. A. 
1. (^luirtz from San Diego County, California ; Amer. .lour. Sci. 1!K)5, (4), 20, 125. 


Watts, W. L. 

1. Report on Kern County; 11th Ann. Ropt. Cal. State Min. 1891-92. 

2. Oil and Gas Yielding Formations of California ; Bull. 19, Cal. State Min. 


Weeks, F. B. 

1. Tlif Minaret Iron Deposit, Madera County; Cal. State Min. Bur. 14th R"pt. 
State Mineralogist, 11)13-11)14, p. 555. 

Wei.i.s, R. C. 

1. New Occurrence of Ilydrogiohertite. Amer. Jour. Sci. 1910, 30, 189. 

Whitfield, J. E. 

1. Analyses of some Natural Borates and Borosilicates ; Amer. Jour. Sci. 1887, 

(3), SJ,. 281. 

2. Analysis of the San Bernardino Meteorite ; Bull. 60 U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Whiting, H. A. 

1. Report on Mono County; Sth Ann. Rept. Cal. State Min. Bur. 1888. 

Whitney, J. D. 

1. Geological Survey of California; Vol. 1, Geology. 


1. Mineral Resources of the United States; U. S. Geol. Surv. 1880-84. 


isiss— u 


Adiroite ID- 


Actinolite ltj4 

Adularia l'"»0 

Ak<;irite 159 

Airaimatolite 197. 220 

AiiatP 87 

A.iratiz('(i wood S7 

Al.Al!AM)ITE 41 

Alabaster 209 

Al.IMTK 151 

Alcxandrolite 197 

Am.amtk 1S7 


Aiinandite 172 

Al.TAITE 6(i 

Alum 277 

Alumtk 282 

Alunogkn 2S0 

Amazon stone 150 

AMI!I Y(.()MTE 234 

Amethyst , 84 

Amnionium alum : '. 278 

Ampiiibolk 163 

Amphibole Kroup 163 

Analcite 208 

Anapaite 288 

ANATASE r 118 

a>dai,usite 182 

Andksixe 152 

Andradite 172 

Anci.esite 265 

Amiyiirite 265 

Anhydrous carbonates 120 

Anhydrous oxides 97 

Anliytlrous silicates 149 

Anhydrous sulphates 200 

Ankerite 131 




Antiiophyllite 168 

Antiu'orito 214 

Antimonates 244 

Antinionito 28 

Antimony 11 

Antimony ocher 9."t 

Apatite 238 

Aphtiutalite 261 

Apopiiylmte 211 

A(iuamarine 169 

Akaoonite 186 

Aragotite 284 

Arcakite 2(>1 

Arcentite 32 

Arsenates 242 

Arsenic 12 

Arsenical pyrites 60 

Arsenides 60 

Arsenoi.ite 93 

Arsenopyrite 60 

Asbeferrite 164 

Asbestos 163, 214 

Asbolite 128 

Asphalt 285 

Atacamite 79 

Augite 158 



Alti-mtk 238 

Aventurine 84 





Hakite --__ 262 

Haixite 121 


Hi;mtoite 229 

H(>rnardinite 284 


P.EKYr, 169 

Rll-.liKRITE 275 


KlOTITE 200 


RlSMlTII 12 

Bismuth gold 17 


Bismuth ocher 94 

BiS.ML'TITE 148 

Bismutospiiaerite 139 

Bitumen 2Sr> 

Black cop])er 99 

Black jack 39 

Black lead 9 

Klack silver 72 

Blende 39 

Blouite 270 

Bloodstone 87 

Blue copper 47 

Blue hornblende 167 

Blue malachite 142 

Blupstone 276 

Blue vitriol 276 


Boracic acid 122 

Borates 24fi 

Borax 247 


Bort 7 




Brainite 115 

Brittle micas 202 

Brilfle silver 72 


Bromides 80 

B'ronzite __, 150 

Brookite 114 

Brown hematite 119 

Brlcite 121 

Bytownite 152 

Caoholong 90 

Cairnjrorm stone 84 

Calamine 190 

Calaverasite 68 

Calaverite 68 

Calcite 126 

Calc spar 126 

Calc tufa 126 

Caledonite 267 

California iris 159 

Californite ^ 179 




Cai.omkl 75 

Capillary pyrites 4S 

f'arhonado 7 

Carhonat.'s 126 

Carinthiiip 164 

Cariu'lian 87 

Cassitkrite 112 

f'ataphorite 16S 

Celadonite 220 

Celestite 264 


Ceri'ssite 1B8 

Cervantite !>•") 

Chabazite 208 


Chalcedony 87 

Citalcocite 36 


Chalcopyrite ~)2 

Chalcotrichite 97 

Chalk ___-■ 126 

Chiastolite 182 i 

Chili saltpeter 245 

Chlorides 75 

Chlorites 20?, 



ClH.OROPAI, 226 


Chromates 240 

Chromic iron lOS 

Chromite 108 



Chrysolite 176 

Chrysopal 90 

Chrvsoi)i-ase 87 

Chrysotile 214 


Cinnabar 48 

Cinnamon stone .__ 172 

Citrine quartz .__ 84 


Clay 221 

Clinociilore 203 

Clinozoisite 185 

Coal 285 

Cobalt bloom 242 

Cobalt slance 68 


Cobalt vitriol 275 





Cookeite 1 199 

copiapite 280 

Copper 19 

(^)l)l^eras 274 

Coi)i)er slance 36 

Coi)])er pyrites 52 


Corundophyllite 205 

corun'ditm 100 

Cotton balls 251 

covellite 47 

Crednerite 115 

Crestmoreite 213 

(^ristoralite 89 

Crocidoltte 168 

Crocoite 240 

Crossite 167 


Cummingtonite 1(>4 

CrpRprE 97 

Cni)ro(lesclolzite 241 


(^uprotungstite 257 

Cyanite 183 

Danaite 61 

Darapskite 246 

Dark ruby silver 70 

Uatolite 184 

Dawsonite 144 

Descloizite 241 

Deweylite 216 

Diallage 157 

Diamond 7 

Diatomaceous earth 90 

Diopside 157 

Disthene 183 

Doglooth spar 126 

Dolomite 130 

Dry bone 136 


Di'mortierite 195 

durdenite 282 

Eakleite 211 

Edenite 164 

Eglestonite 79 

Electrum 17 

Eleolite 170 

Embolite SO 

Emerald 169 

Emeralite 194 

Enargite 74 

E'nstatite 156 

Epidote 185 

Epsomite 272 

Eijsom salts 272 

Erythrite 242 

Ebsonite 171 

Erubescite 51 

False topaz 84 

L'amatinite 74 

Feather ore 69 

Feldspars 149 


Fibrolite , 188 

Flint 87 

Flos ferri 186 

Fluorides SI 


I'luor si)ar 81 

Freil)ergite 71 

Fuchsite 197 

Fuller's earth 222 

(xalena 3". 

Calenite 38 

Ganopiiyllite 218 

(4arnet 171 


(iAY Lussite 145 

Ckiilenite 178 

(tEocronite 72 

(ievsei'lte 90 

(Jilsonite 285 

Cl.AlBERITE 262 

Clauber salt 268 



Page j 

(Ji.AicoPliANE H)7 ; 

(JOTllITE 119, 

GoLi. i:v 

<Jold araaljram 17 

(Jold stone 84 


(Jniliainite 2Si> I 

(irapliif tellurium 07 ■ 

(iKATlIITE _!> 

(Jray copper 71 j 

(in-fii copper 140 

('I!EEiN()('KITE 47 

(iHIIKITItlTE 2<ri ' 

(Jiussularite 17"J 

(Jypsite 2<K) ' 

(iYPSl'M "JCdl 


IIamte 75 

Haloids 7;") 

HaI.I OYSITIC '2'2'2 


ir. NKsiTE 2(>t; 

IIaismannite 1 14 

Iltavy spar 2<i2 

I£odenber2:ite 1"|S 

Ifrli()tr()i>e n7 


IFkssite i'A 

IlKir.ANDITE 200 

Iliddfiiite 1.7.1 

Ilonihlende 104 j 

Ilonisilver 7S | 

IIowluk 252 



Ilvaciiith 172! 

Hyalite 90 1 


IFydrocarhons 2.S ' 

ll.\drodolomite 140 


IIyi)Roma( 140 I 

Hydrous carbonates 140 

Hydrous oxides 117 

Hydrous .silicates 100 

Hydrous sulphates 2<iS 

Hyprozincite 144 

Hyperstiiene 157 

Ice .S2 

let land spar 120 

I;)i)iN(;siTE 177 

IdcK-rase 171t 

Ilmentte 108 

Ti.vAiTE ino 

Iudi((ilite 1!»2 

Inesitk 212 

Infusorial earth 00 


I.xlides ^0 

loMTE 2S4 

IiunUM 24 

H<ii)OSMINE 25 

Ii'.o.N 25 

Iron alum 270 

Iron mica 200 

Iron pyrites 58 

Jamesomte 00 

.Tarosite 2.'n2 

Jasper N7 

Jcfferisite 200 



Kai.imte 227 

Kiiiniiii-rerite 204 

Kaolin 221 

Kaoi.i.mte 221 

Kekmesite 50 

Kinrailite 87 

I\\(t\VII,I.ITE 2.81 

Kotscluibeite 20« 

Kunzite 150 

Lai;rai)()rite 152 

Lains lazuli 171 

Lai MONTiTE 207 

Lawso.nite 101 

Lazi'i.ite 235 

La/.irite 171 

Leah 21 

I.iAnirii.UTE 20 < 

Lenzinite 222 

Lepidoi.ite 100 

Lki'Idomelane 2CM* 

Lcucoiiyrite 03 

Lcucoxene 22S 

Lij;ht ruby silver 74 

Lisnite : 285 

Lime feldspar 152 

Lime-soda feldspar 152 

Limestone 120 

I.imosite 110 

Li.narite 208 


Litharge , 99 

Litliia mica 109 

Tjtiiiophilite 232 

Lirliomarse 221 

Ijorlestone 105 

Loi.i.r.NtiiTE 03 

Lotrite 180 


,Macle 182 

AIaonesite -- 131 

'Magnesium alum 278,270 

Majrnesium-iron mica 200 

]SIairnesium limestone 130 

Ma^rnesium mica 200 

^Ia,;;netic iron 105 

Mau'netic pyrites 49 

:Ma(:.\etite ^ 105 

MALAflllTE 140 

^falacolite 157 

^ifAVCiAMTE 117 

MauL'anocalcite 120 

Marl>le 126 

MaR( ASITE 58 

Maucakite 202 

]\[arii'(!Site 197 

Marmolite 214 

Martite 101 

Mascagnite 260 

Massicot 99 

Meerschaum 220 

Melaconite ■ 99 

Melanterite 274 ^" 

Met.omte 07 

Menaccanite 103 

Mendozite 278 

Merci'ry 21 

Merwinite 179 

Mesoi.ite 200 

Metacixxabarite 41 



Metals 13 

Metaxlte 214 

Meteoric iron 2." 

Meyerhofferite 2.10 


Micas l!^tt> 





Mineral oil 284 

Minium 115 


Mispickel (JO 

Molyblates 2o7 

^loiABDENITE 30 

Molybdic ocher 94 

MoLYliDITE 94 




Mooustoiie 151 


Moss agate 87 

Moss opal 90 

Mountain coi'k 164 

Mountain leather 164 

Mountain soap 221 

MrscoviTE 196 

Myrlckite 87 

Xagyagite 6S 

Xapalite 283 

Xati\e elements 7 

Xatrolite 209 

Xatron 145 

Xeocolemanite 248 

Xkotocite 227 

Xei'iiei.ite 170 

Xeptunite 230 

xucoi.ite 62 

Xic'kel bloom 243 

Xiobates 253 

XlTER 245 

Xitrates 245 

Xitrocalcite 246 

Xitroglauberite 246 

Xon-nietals , 7 

Xontronite 226 


Xosean 170 

Xoselite 170 

Octahedrite 113 

Oil 284 

Okenite 212 

Oi.ic.oclase 151 

Olivine 176 

Oniuhacite 157 

Onyx 87 

Ouvx marble 126 

Opal 90 

Orpiment 27 

Ortliite 187 

Oktiioclase 150 

Okmiitm 25 

Otaylite 223 

Ottrki.ite 203 

Oxide of hydrogen 82 

Oxides 82 

Oxides of metals 97 


Oxides of semi-metals 93 

Oxides of silicon 82 

Oxisulphides 59 

I'alacheite 281 

I'alaite • 239 


I'audermite 250 

Paragonite 198 

I'argasite 164 

I'artzite 96 

Peacock ore 51 

Pectolite 161 

Penni.mte 204 

Periclase 98 

Peridot 176 

Petroleum 284 

Petzite 65 

Piiantoni crystals 84 

I'niLLiPsiTE 206 

PllLOt.OPITE 200 


Phosphates 231 


Picotite 104 

PifTolite 214 



Pinite 197 


i PlSANITE 274 

PiUh 2S5 

Pitchblende 258 

PlTTlCITE 244 

Phgioclase . 150 


Pj.atinum 23 

Pi AZCLiTE 214 

Pkonaste 104 

Plumbago 9 




Pcrc;dlopbite 214 


T'o'ash alum 277 

Polash feldspar 150 

Potash mica 196 

Potrsh-soda feldspar 151 


Pn.s- 87 

Prase opal 90 

Pr.EHXITE 189 

Pkiceite 250 

Prochlobite ; 204 

Proustite --1 74 

P.silomei.ane 123 


i'l rpirite 236 

pvr\rgy-rite 70 

Pmuie '38 

T'YR(CiiLnRE 253 


P-i KOI. (SITE 11''' 


Pyrop? 172 


I'\ROXENE 117 

l'.\roxene group -- 156 



Quicksilver 21 




Kkai/;ab 27 

Kectorite 224 

Itfd antimony f)!) 

Kid arsenic 27 

Keiungtonite 2.S1 

Ked copper 07 

Iffd lead U.") 

Red ocher 100 

U'drutliite 8(5 

Kainolite 214 

ICllODltM 2."> 

IMindoohrome 204 


KllODOMTE l<i2 


Uo( k crystal S4 

liork salt ~'^ 

Rock soap 221 

UOMERITE '_ 280 

Ito.SCOEI.ITK 201 

Rose i|uartz S4 

Riibellite lt>2 

Ruby 1(10 

Riibv silver : 70, 74 

Ruby spinel 104 

Ruthenium -_ 2r( 

RrTir.E z-L 113 

S.igrenite 11Z1_1'. S4 

i^AL Ammoniac 77 

Salimiac 77 

Sai.monsite 230 

Saltpeter 24-" 

Saiiidine ITiO 

Sapphire 1<M» 

Snrd S7 

^ardonix S7 

Sassomte 122 

Sutoiite 2r.n 

Satin spar 2(»i> 

Sanssurite l.^r> 

Scapolite 17S 



Seari.esite 22S 

Selenides 03 

Selenite 200 

Semi-metals 11 

Sepiolite 220 

Sericite 197 

Serpentine 214 

Sicklerite 240 


Silica S3 

Silicates 140 

Silicified wood S7 

Silicious sinter 90 


Silver IS 

Silver glance 32 

Siserkite 25 

Smai.tite t!3 

Smaraidite 104 

Smithsonite 130 

Smoky qnartz S3 

Soapstone 217 

Soda feldspar 151 

Soda-lime feldspars 151,152 


Soda mica 19S 

Soda Niter 245 

sonomaite 270 


Soretite 1('4 

S|)athic ore 134 

Specularite VX) 

Spessartite 172 

Sphalerite 30 

Sphone 22S 

Spinel 101 

SponiMKNE 150 


Stalactite 126 

Stalasmite 126 

Steatite 217 

Stei'uaxite 72 

Stetefeldtite 00 

Stewartite 239 

Stibiconite 95 

Stibioferrite 95 

Stihiotantalite 254 

Sti unite ^ 28 

Stilmite . 207 

Stil])Pomelane 205 

Stratopeite _: 227 

Stufngitk 239 

Stkomeyertte ___^ii_ 38 

Stkontianite 137 

Sri.FoiiAi.iTE ___L ___:.:- 1.- 266 

S'ulpliantimnnites ___i:.ii: 69 

Sii!i)liarsenites i__l___:._i: 73 

Sulphates ii-_-__:.l_ : 200 

Suli)liides 27 

Su'pliides of metals 32 

''"uiiiliiiles of semi-metals 27 

Snlphosalts 69, 74 

SlLPIlUR 10 

Sylvaxite 67 

Sylvite 77 

Talc 217 

Tantalates 253 

Tantalite 254 

Tar _■ 285 

Tollurnte 282 

Ji'lluriles 64 

Tflhrium 13 

'l-i'iuiantite 71 

Tenorite 00 

'•'epiiroite 177 

Tetraoymite 64 

Tetratiedrite 71 


Tiienaroite 260 


Thetis' hairstone 84 



Tin 22 

Tincal 247 

Tincalconite 247 

Tin stone 112 

Titaniferovis iron 103 

TlTVNlTF 228 

Titaiio-silicates 228 

Topaz 182 

Topazolitp 172 


Tot RMALTNE 102 

Trautwinite 172 

Travertine 126 

Tn'molitP 163 

TpiDYMITE ^^--- 89 

Tripiiylite ^l'ii-__J'_-_"j__"232' 




Trii'Lite 233 

Triiwlite 90 

Tkoilite 48 

Trona 145 

tsciiermigite 278 

Tuugstates 255 


TuRQUOis 237 

Tychite 140 

Uiatahite 285 

Tlexite 251 

Fkaconite 259 

Uralite 104 

Ui-anates 258 

ITraninite 258 

T'ranocher 259 

Iliao 145 

TJvarovite 172 

Valencianite 150 

Valentinite 93 

Vanadates 240 

Vanadinite 241 

Vanadium mica 201 

Variscite 237 

Vesuvianite 179 

Violan 158 




\'oltzite 59 


Wad 123 

Water 82 

Wernerite 138 

White arsenic 93 

White pyrites 58 

White vitriol 273 



Wolframite 255 

wollastonite 160 

Wood opal 90 

Wulfenite 257 

Xantiiophyllite 202 

xoxoti.ite 211 

Yellow ochre 119 

Zaratite 147 

Zeolites 206 

Zinc 22 

Zincblende 39 

Zircon 180 


22132 3-23 2500 



JUN 3 ^980 


mB 06*97 


HAS - 5 1997 
Physical Sciences Librartf 


Book Slip-Series 458 

94582 11124 

calif. Dept.of nat.res^ qS 







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